All Articles in November, 2019

Branchio Oculo Facial Syndrome

Published on: 29th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8508295972

A 3-month-old girl presented to the surgical consultation room with bilateral cleft lip incomplete. A girl weighing 4205 g, was born at term after an uneventful pregnancy with a birth weight of 2500 g. There was no family history. On examination, a congenital, linear, erythematous cutaneous anomaly on the left side of her neck was highlighted with ocular anomalies (strabismus and the eyes are widely spaced) and a broad nose with a flattened tip. The examination of the other systems was unremarkable. In front of the association of these different anomalies BOFS was suspected but molecular diagnosis has not been made. The child benefited surgery to correct cleft lip with tennisson procedure with a good postoperative result.
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Patients’ satisfaction and associated factors towards nursing care in Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

Published on: 29th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875583474

Introduction: A patient satisfaction is considered as one of the desire outcomes of health care and it is directly related with utilization of health services. However, its level is falls at the fundamental level in developing countries including Ethiopia. Objective: To assess the level of patients’ satisfaction and its associated factors at Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia Methods and Materials: An institutional based cross-sectional study design was employed from May 1 to June 1 2019. A total of 374 patients were selected by using systematic sampling technique and interviewer administer structured questionnaire was used to collect data. After data collection, the data were checked for its completeness and entered into Epi data version 3.1. The data were presented in frequency distribution tables and graphs. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were applied to identify factors at a p < 0.05. Result: Among total study participants, 220 (58.8%) patients were satisfied with nursing care service. Patients who had particular nurse for nursing care were more likely satisfied than those who didn’t have particular nurse for nursing care (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.212 - 3.334). Patients who had other diseases in addition to current health problem were more likely satisfied (AOR = 0.45 & 95% CI: 0.196 - 1.031) compared with patients who had not. Conclusion: In this finding, the level of patients’ satisfaction towards nursing care was low. Having specific or particular nurse and presence of comorbid disease were factors associated with patients’ satisfaction towards nursing care. Health institutions should assign particular nurses for patients to improve their satisfaction and quality of care. In addition, nurses should give great attention to their patients who have co-morbid illnesses.
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Innovative results in the treatment of inespecific anusitis-proctitis with the use of bergamot gel (Benebeo gel)®

Published on: 27th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9267244218

Inflammation is a complex biological reaction induced by the alteration of tissue homeostasis, which occurs in response to the presence of a biological, chemical or physical agent in the body [1]. The acute inflammatory response is composed of an elaborate cascade of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, and balance between these mediators often determines the outcome after injury [2]. Generally during acute inflammation, cellular and molecular events and interactions reduce the risk of eventual injuries or infections. However, acute inflammation can become chronic, contributing to a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases [3]. Major micro circulatory events that occur during the inflammatory process include changes in vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment and accumulation, and inflammatory mediator’s release [4]. 
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Perceived causes and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections among spinal cord injured patients

Published on: 27th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272371774

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is among the most common nosocomial infections especially in acute care settings. Its economic and unanticipated health implications make it burdensome for the healthcare providers and patients. The paper examined the perceived causes and mode of preventing urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord injury. Qualitative research approach was utilized; the study site was a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Eight (8) in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with healthcare providers managing patients with spinal cord injured in the hospital. The major risk factors causing urinary tract infection identified include financial problems, organization of care, human error, hospital environment and patient-related factors. To prevent urinary tract infections among patients in the hospital, a number of suggestions were made by the participants such as training of caregivers and educating patients and relations. The authors concluded that the incidence of CAUTI could be reduced in the hospital if the opinions of stakeholders are fairly considered.
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Gaucher’s disease and liver involvement: A review and our experience

Published on: 27th November, 2019

Background: This article reviews current knowledge of Gaucher’s disease (GD) and liver involvement and reports our experience: how many patients with chronic liver disease of unknown origin could be affected by Gaucher’s disease. Patients and methods: Over 24 months, we tested 75 sine causa chronic liver disease patients (30 women and 45 men, mean age 55 years, range 15 to 77). Results: None of the 75 patients was affected by Gaucher’s disease. Conclusion: We believe that the chronic liver disease patient is unlikely to be affected by Gaucher’s disease. Probably this disease is to be found in cases of coexistence of hepatic disease and other symptoms of Gaucher’s disease (bone, neurological, bone marrow involvement).
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Biodegradation of gold and platinum implants in rats studied by electron microscopy

Published on: 27th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8452128684

Graphical abstract Biodegradation of implanted gold in human tissue. TEM images reveal markedly biodegradation of implanted gold and re-crystallization of dissolved gold as nanoparticle of different size, shape and crystallinity. Highly crystalline icosahedral Au nanoparticle and the corresponding power spectrum are shown on top. Background: Despite the importance of biodegradation for the durability of metal prosthesis and the widely use of gold implants, there exist a lack of knowledge regarding the stability of pure gold in tissue. Methods: We studied biodegradation of grids of pure gold, nickel, and copper as well as middle ear prosthesis of gold, platinum or titanium. Metals were implanted into rat skin and humans. Dissolution and re-crystallization process of the metals was analysed using SEM, TEM, power spectra as well as elemental analysis by EDX and EELS/ESI. Results: Biodegradation of gold was detected, presumably by solving and re-precipitation of gold around implants. Gold cluster, nanoparticles, and mesostructures were detected, formed by dissolution and re-crystallization process. This process results into a migration of gold into the farer off tissue. Cellular filaments as biomolecular templates facilitate the formation of mesostructures. Loss of function of middle ear prosthesis by biodegradation is caused by chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Indeed, similar processes were detected with platinum, but in a very lower level. Conclusion: Noble metal implants undergo biodegradation in oxidative environment in tissue. The dissolution – recrystallization process can be explained by enzyme catalysed redox processes comprising reactive oxygen species and reduction agents as ascorbic acid present in cells and body tissue. Enymes like myeloperoxidase inside lysosomes of inflammatory cells produce hypochloride ions and H2O2 which can dissolve the gold. General significance: The crucial role of the specific chemical environments of gold implants in tissue for their chemical stability and durability of function has been demonstrated. Due to widely use and importance of gold implants, this finding is of general interes.
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Modeling of A.I based Inhalation for Advanced Life Support System Development

Published on: 27th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8452139651

Present piece of idea exhibits to divert attention towards automated high precision Life Support System (LSS) instead of manual one using medical intelligence devices while treating and diagnosis to the patient, where Ventilator, inhaler and respiratory control is most important factor during operation, surgeries and in other likewise medical emergency situations to maintain proper saturation in patient lungs to sustain their lives. This work gives idea, how we can design A.I based Inhaler System for the same. 
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Recent approach to incorporate tellurium in metal carbonyl cluster utilizing extrusion reaction

Published on: 26th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9269425535

The incorporation of tellurium into metal carbonyl using tellurium transfer/ extrusion reaction is presented in this work. The results bring one of the new ways to incorporate tellurium by transferring it from one molecule to another molecule, in comparison to the work so far where either insertion or extrusion reactions were shown. The reactions of PhC2TeC2Ph with the metal carbonyl cluster produced thermodynamically stable metal carbonyl tellurium clusters.
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Readjustment of antithrombotic therapy in stroke-patients owing to transesophageal echocardiography findings

Published on: 26th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440612661

Objectives: Cardioembolic etiology is a frequent source of ischemic stroke. Echocardiogram is the mainstay of cardioembolic source detection with regard to plan secondary stroke management, however it remains unclear how often clinically actionable findings are provided hereby. In addition, it is uncertain whether echocardiography should be performed transthoracic or transesophageal (TEE). In a monocenter study, we evaluated the frequency of pathological findings from TEE evaluation in patients with ischemic stroke with suspected cardioembolic and cryptogenic source and determined whether there was an associated adjustment in the prescribed administration of antithrombotic therapy. Materials and Methods: Over a 21-month period (2012-2013), we enrolled 143 patients in a prospective monocenter study (mean age ± standard deviation, 70 ± 12 years; females, 44.1%) who were admitted to the Department of Neurology at the University of Lübeck due to ischemic stroke and who underwent TEE due to supposed cardiac embolism. We assessed the presence of atrial fibrillation; days from admission to TEE; and TEE findings, including atrial septal aneurysm, thrombogenic aortic arch, valve failure, presence of left atrial thrombus, and patent foramen ovale. Demografic information and medical history were drawn from patient records and the hospital information system. Results: On average, TEE was performed 4 days after admission to the hospital. Left atrial thrombus was detected in 3 patients (2.1%), patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 27 (18.9%), atrial septum aneurysm in 17 (11.9%), and thrombogenic aortic arch in 29 (20.3%). Findings from TEE were commonly associated with therapeutic adjustment; antiplatelet therapy increased from 30.1% to 80.4%, oral anticoagulation therapy increased from 2.8% to 27.3%. Conclusion: Findings from TEE for the evaluation of ischemic stroke lead to frequent adjustment of prior antithrombotic therapy, antiplatelet as well as anticoagulation.
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Long-Term Impact of Coronary Artery Disease in Lung Transplantation

Published on: 26th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440605468

Background: Adoption of the Lung Allocation Score (LAS) has led to increased listing of older patients and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for lung transplantation (LTX). Older patients and those with IPF have higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), a relative contraindication for LTX. The impact of the LAS on CAD prevalence and cardiovascular morbidity in LTX recipients is unknown. Methods: Retrospective review of single institution database from January 2000 to December 2010. Patients with and without CAD were compared by age, gender, LAS, single vs double LTX, and transplant indication. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, and statistical significance determined by log-rank method. Survival analysis was performed on all patients and by 3:1 propensity matching. Differences in CAD, gender, and indication were determined by Chi-squared test. Differences in LAS and age were calculated with a two-tailed t - test. Results: In the pre-LAS era, 6.2% (9/145) recipients had CAD vs. 9.2% (17/184) in the post-LAS era (p = 0.411). Among all patients, recipients with CAD had a worse long term survival as estimated by Kaplan-Meier method (p = 0.001), although there was no statistically significant difference after propensity matching ((p = 0.14). Although more recipients in the post-LAS era had a diagnosis of IPF [15/145 vs. 71/184 patients, (p < 0.001)], there was no difference in the prevalence of CAD in the IPF cohort compared to others. There were no differences in cardiovascular deaths among recipients with CAD, with IPF, or in the post-LAS era. Patients with a pre-transplant diagnosis of CAD had an descreased risk of new onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) (p = 0.007; HR:0.133; CI:0.030-0.583). Conclusion: Adoption of the LAS was not associated with a significant change in proportion of recipients with CAD who underwent LTX at our institution, despite an increase in recipients with IPF. Recipients with CAD had a higher risk of developing new postoperative AF and worse survival than patients without CAD. Differences in survival, however, could not be attributed directly to CAD based on propensity matched analysis
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Lateral Pedicle and Connective Tissue Graft – A combined approach for management of isolated gingival recession

Published on: 25th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9267261417

Gingival recession is defined as apical migration of the gingival epithelium leading to the exposure of root surface. There are many surgical procedures for treating gingival recessions and the main goal is to cover the exposed tooth surface by soft tissue augmentation. The surgical techniques performed for root coverage has their own advantages and limitations. The surgical technique used for managing the gingival recession is the major factor that determines the outcome and the long term result of the procedure. The most common surgical technique in treating the isolated gingival recession is the lateral pedicle graft and the surgical technique with highest percentage of root coverage is the connective tissue graft. This case report deals with the management of an isolated gingival recession with lateral pedicle and connective tissue graft. The outcome of the procedure was excellent having complete root coverage.
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Resolved complete atrioventricular block and left ventricular severe dysfunction in patient with Wegener’s granulomatis after cyclophosphamide and corticosteroid treatment

Published on: 25th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440616545

Wegener’s granulomatosis is a systemic granulomatous focus on small to medium sized vessels. It typically affects sinuses, lungs and kidneys due to necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis. Less commonly, cardiac involvement is reported up to 8%-44% of cases [1-3]. It often rises to supraventricular arrhythmia, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericarditis, myocarditis, and valvulitis [4,5]. Cardiac conducting tissue involvement is rare and associated with increased mortality. It was only reported in fourteen previous cases, some of them were reversible to medical treatment [6]. 
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Correlation between the presence of maternal gestational or pre-gestational pathologies and hearing impairment in the puerperal period

Published on: 22nd November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8444358678

Objective: To evaluate whether the occurrence of maternal pathologies, mainly Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertensive Syndromes in the gestational or pre-gestational period may be related to hearing impairment in postpartum women. Methods: Observational, prospective study including 361 puerperal women who had their deliveries at a reference University Hospital for pregnant women with clinical history of risk. Auditory evaluation was performed by Distortion Product Otoaccoustic Emissions (DPOAE) within 14 days after delivery. Measures of central tendency and absolute and relative frequencies were used to describe the sample and the chi-square test and binary logistic regression to assess the correlation among variables. Significance higher than 95% was observed and the study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Results: A total of 361 postpartum women were studied and 7.5% had hearing impairment. The frequency of gestational hypertension was 13.9%, that of gestational diabetes was 8.6% and that of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus was 5.8%. The presence of hearing impairment was significantly correlated with the occurrence of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (OR: 4.5 - CI: 1.51-1.47), and maternal age greater than 29 years (OR: 3.72 - 1, 58-8.76); A correlation was also found between maternal age and the presence of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.84 - CI: 1.45-10.15). Conclusion: In the population of postpartum women evaluated, having Diabetes Mellitus prior to pregnancy and belonging to the age group older than 29 years increases the chance of having hearing loss.
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Effect of intradialytic physical activity on the quality of life, biological parameters and sleep in hemodialysis patients

Published on: 22nd November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8405209940

Many side effects, in addition to those of the pathology itself, have occurred with hemodialysis treatment but existing literature have shown that physical activity is beneficial to hemodialysis patients. Nevertheless, our parameters have not been studied enough with a resistance training program. In our study we have observed the effect of a 12-week intradialytic resistance training program (T0 vs T12) on the quality of life using the KDQOL-SF questionnaire, blood samples biological parameters and sleep using the Epworth scale and the International restless legs syndrome study group scale. The resistance training program consists of 3 sessions per week and involved lower extremities thanks to elastic band and soft ball. After the training program, the quality of life score trend to the increase at T12 compared to T0. Among the biological parameters, the only trend decrease observed was in the C-reactive protein and a trend increase was observed in urea at T12. Dialysis efficiency presented no changes and no significant results were observed for sleep. Some trends were observed as a result of our program. The type of exercise seems to have different effects on measured parameters. Nevertheless, exercise was beneficial to chronic hemodialysis patients and seemed to improve their health.
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First trimester growth delay: An early marker of triploidy

Published on: 21st November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8444362890

Triploidy is one the most common chromosomal abnormality in humans, complicating about 1% of all human pregnancies. Most affected conceptions undergo spontaneous abortion in the first trimester, making the prevalence of second trimester triploidy low. Viable triploidy is associated with high rates of maternal morbidity, including hypertensive disorders, hemorrhage, and persistent trophoblasic disease, as well as fetal and neonatal severe adverse outcomes. Given these complications, early identification of triploidy in ongoing pregnancies may inform patient counseling and management.
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Cranio-Facial Fibrous Dysplasia: A case report of a conservative treatment in a monostotic form associated with an orthodontic management and a bone graft of the non-lytic bone area for dental implant rehabilitation

Published on: 21st November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8405070202

Fibrous dysplasia is an osteolytic lesion in which bone is replaced by an instable fibrous osseous tissue. The aim of this case report is to highlight dental rehabilitation (bone grafts to allow dental implant) on patients suffering of this condition. A 39-year-old female with a hard-traumatic event in childhood desired a dental implant rehabilitation on her teeth 19 and 30 after an orthodontic alignment. A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was performed showing a massive radiopaque lesion of the anterior mandible. The bone grafts and dental implants were successfully managed. A non-invasive treatment with regular follow up was chosen for this case. No evolution was noticed twenty-four month later at the follow up CBCT.
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Hot cholecystectomy

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8405164638

Acute cholecystitis is a common general surgery disease which may require hospital admission. Delayed or early cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment. Availability of theatre slots may postpone cholecystectomy for weeks. I am writing this letter to explain the importance of early cholecystectomy programme and the necessity of support such programme by hospital managers. I will rationalize the concept of such program and its clinical and economic benefits. There are many strong evidences that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) is a better option than delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC) for management of acute cholecystitis. For example, a meta-analysis study showed ELC as safe and effective as DLC and it is associated with lower hospital costs, fewer work delay lost and greater patient satisfaction [1]. Furthermore, US Medicare database that include 29818 elderly patients with acute cholecystitis found a higher risk for mortality over the following two years in patients who were discharged without surgery compared with patients who underwent cholecystectomy in the initial hospitalization [2]. The risk of hospital re-admission after first attack of acute cholecystitis has been studied in a population –based analysis of the clinical course of 10304 patients with acute cholecystitis who discharged without cholecystectomy. Such analysis showed that the probability of a gall stone –related A&E visit or admission within 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 1 year was 14%, 19% and 29% respectively [3]. This will increase the gall stone disease burden and decrease patients’ satisfaction. Per NICE guidelines we should offer ELC (to be carried out within 1 week of diagnosis) to patients with acute cholecystitis. Patients who had pancreatitis secondary to gallbladder stones should have laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the index admission [4]. NICE full health economy report showed that ELC burden is 2728.27 in compare to 3686.21 for DLC [5]. Furthermore, 2018/2019 NHS tariff for emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy is between 6885 to 3872 pounds, while it is 3731 to 2080 pounds only for an elective case. To sum up, ELC is as safe as DLC with potential lower mortality risk in elderly patients. In addition to eliminate the risk of re–admission after first attack of cholecystitis and decrease health care burden of gall bladder stones disease.
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Acute Appendicitis: Hispanics and the Hamburger Sign

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8405001290

Objective: To describe the presenting clinical findings of patients with acute appendicitis and compare them with those described in the medical literature. To corroborate a common medical myth among Hispanic physicians regarding the presentation of acute appendicitis. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter chart review of patients diagnosed post-operatively with appendicitis after presenting to five different Emergency Departments in Southern Puerto Rico (PR). Results: A total of 1,540 patients with pathologically confirmed cases of appendicitis were enrolled in our study. Of the study population, 45% were female, and 55% were male, and 43% were over 21 years old. Reported symptoms in our study showed that 98% of the patients had abdominal pain, 47% had nausea, and only 17.6% presented with anorexia. Conclusion: It was our main objective to compare the presenting signs and symptoms of patients with acute appendicitis in our Hispanic population in southern PR with those found in primary medical textbooks and literature. We gathered information regarding signs and symptoms, as well as laboratory and radiographic data of patients with positive pathologic exams for appendicitis. Of the 1,540 patients with confirmed appendicitis, only 17.6% presented with anorexia. Our findings demonstrate that the rate of anorexia in the studied population is significantly lower when compared to current literature. The absence of anorexia, once considered a hallmark of appendicitis, must not lead the physician to rule out this diagnosis in the Hispanic population.
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Diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a rare cause for a very common association

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8404983788

The authors present the case of a 45-year-old female patient with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). She had unsatisfactory glycemic control, and showed some intellectual limitations. Her urine exam was unremarkable, and her renal ultrasound revealed single right kidney with aspects suggesting ureteropelvic junction syndrome. Her mother had also suffered from diabetes and CKD G5D presenting in the sixth to seventh decade. An hereditary cause for CKD was considered, which led the authors to investigate an autosomal dominant cause for CKD with a tubulointerstitial phenotype, taking into account the personal and family history for diabetes and also the renal imaging; a large deletion in the HNF-1β gene was identified through Multiplex Ligand Probe Assay (MLPA) analysis, explaining the phenotype. Genetic causes of CKD should be considered in the presence of positive family history for CKD, and the coexistence of diabetes with bland urine sediment should raise the possibility of a syndromic cause of the phenotype, namely involving HNF-1β gene mutations or deletions. 
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Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia with erythropoietin: A case report

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9269420484

In this article, we describe the case of a fifty-year-old patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) with constitutional symptoms, jaundice, unquantified fever and progressive dyspnea. The patient had history of smoking and Hepatitis A and following a physical exam she was found in a regular condition, icteric but with no other further signs. Her laboratory tests revealed hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 8.5 g/dL, an increase of total and indirect bilirubin, an elevated ferritin, a decreased transferrin and haptoglobin and a positive result for direct Coomb’s test. Considering this, an immune profile was ordered finding a negative result of ANAs and ENAs and a decrease of complement C3 and C4. The patient was diagnosed with AIHA and as an initial step a corticosteroid treatment was administrated however the patient showed no clinical nor chemical improvement. At her third day of hospitalization, she was unstable hemodynamically requiring transfer to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to optimize management. After 24 hours on ICU, due to persistence of deterioration of the patient, it was decided to manage with erythropoietin (EPO). In the following days, the patient showed a rise in her hemoglobin and an overall improvement made possible the transfer to hospitalization service. The AIHA is an uncommon disease and is not the first option that comes to mind with these symptoms, currently there are not controlled studies to the treatment due to its complexity and the heterogeneity of the results. We strongly support the use of EPO in refractory cases of this pathology.
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Foley catheter balloon tamponade as a method of controlling iatrogenic pulmonary artery bleeding in redo thoracic surgery

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9269426092

Background: Pulmonary artery bleeding secondary to iatrogenic injury is a troublesome intraoperative complication. The likelihood of encountering this complication is significantly higher in redo surgery for a number of reasons, including distortion of anatomical structures, adhesions and loss of tissue planes. Significant blood loss, although rare, remains a concern, and can occasionally be life-threatening. When significant bleeding from the pulmonary artery occurs, it can be a challenging situation to manage. Case Report: A 65 year old female was undergoing redo thoracic surgery in the setting of a completion lobectomy for biopsy-proven primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Iatrogenic injury to the pulmonary artery resulted in significant bleeding that could not be managed by gaining proximal control due to dense adhesions. The novel decision to utilize a Foley catheter for balloon tamponade was taken, in order to provide sufficient haemostasis for definitive surgical repair of the defect to be undertaken Conclusion: The increased technical difficulties of redo thoracic surgery are well recognised. We describe the first case of Foley catheter balloon tamponade being utilized in the context of iatrogenic pulmonary artery bleeding during thoracic surgery.
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Only low intensity of aerobic exercise improves respiratory compliance in pulmonary hypertensive rats

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440622691

Objective: To investigate in an animal model of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) by monocrotaline whether a lower exercise intensity, which has lower potential to provoke dyspnea symptoms, could prevent the increase the right ventricle pressure and the decrease in respiratory compliance. Setting: A research laboratory. ANIMALS: twenty-one Wistar rats were randomized to the groups: Control (CO; saline solution); PH-sedentary; PH-low and PH-moderate intensity of exercise training (ET). Interventions: They received a single saline or monocrotaline subcutaneous injection (50 mg/kg). The exercise program was performed during 3-weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Rats were evaluated by their morphometric and hemodynamic changes and by the respiratory mechanic responses induced by the exercise protocols. Results: Both protocols of ET significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the increase in the right ventricular systolic pressure. However, the lower intensity was more effective to prevent the impairment in the respiratory and quasi-static compliance. Conclusion: Collectively, our results showed for the first time the benefits of ET to the respiratory system mechanics. We also demonstrated that intensity is crucial in PH, probably due to the difficulty to match VO2 capacity and O2 demand during exercise. The improvement in quasi-static compliance not only might improve the ability to breathe, and capture oxygen, but also welfare.
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The Renin-Angiotensin System: Alamandine is reduced in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440576482

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive disease without treatment that leads to death. Therefore, to control its progression to pulmonary hypertension is still a challenge. Moreover, there is no study that has investigated the Renin-Angiotensin System in patients with IPF. Objective: Verify the plasma concentrations of Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II (AngII), Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang- (1-7)] and Alamandine in patients with IPF. Methods: Ten IPF patients, with or without PH, were included, and ten controls matched by sex and age. Quantitative plasma peptide concentrations (PPC) were expressed as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile range. The Student Newman-Keuls t test was used for parametric data, Mann-Whitney for nonparametric data and, to compare proportions, the Fisher exact test was performed. The associations between clinical variables and the PPC were evaluated by Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The Alamandine plasma concentration was significantly (365%) lower in the IPF group and positively associated (r = 0.876) with pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). In addition, only in control group, the forced expiratory volume (FEV1%) was positively associated (p = 0.758) with Ang-(1-7). Conclusion: This study showed, for the first time, that there is a decrease in Alamandine participation in patients with IPF. The ACE-AngII-AT1 axis may be more active in this disease. In addition, our results suggest that Alamandine might be compensating the increase in PAP, as well as the Ang-(1-7) is improving the forced expiratory volume.
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Patellar fractures in children

Published on: 19th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9269418298

We describe a rare case of patellar fracture in a seven year old girl. The case was reviewed for various aspects such as clinical diagnosis, imaging tests and most suitable treatment.
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Hemoptysis after subclavian vein puncture for pacemaker implantation: A case report

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330425842

Background: Subclavian venous access for pacemaker lead insertion is a common procedure and is normally considered safe in the hands of an expert. However, subclavian venepuncture is not without complications, starting from mild subcutaneous hematoma to pneumothorax. We here present a case of hemoptysis occurring after difficult subclavian vein puncture, which subsequently improved on conservative management only. Case Summary: A 65-year-old gentleman, post aortic valve replacement had persistent high-grade AV block and was taken up for a dual chamber pacemaker implantation. Immediately following venous access, he had a bout of hemoptysis, which recovered on its own. Post procedure chest x-ray was suggestive of alveolar hemorrhage which cleared gradually in next three-four days. Discussion: Post subclavian venepuncture hemoptysis is known; but it is a rare complication, arising either because of lung parenchyma injury or arterial injury. This is mostly benign and improves on conservative management only; however rarely it may be massive and life threatening where transcatheter arterial embolization may be required.
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Left ventricular ejection fraction and contrast induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization: Results of retrospective chart review

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330168042

Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is an important cause of increasing the hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. By increasing intra-renal vasoconstriction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can increase the risk of CI-AKI. We sought to investigate whether LVEF can impact the incidence of CI-AKI after cardiac catheterization and whether it can be used to predict CI-AKI. Methods: Patients underwent cardiac catheterization from December 2017 to February 2018 at Jersey Shore University Medical Center were enrolled in the study. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or an increase of ≥ 25% from the pre-procedure value within 72 hours post-procedure. The maximum allowable contrast dose was calculated using the following formula: (5* (weight (kg)/creatinine level (mg/dL)). A multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for potential confounders, were used to test associations between LVEF and CI-AKI. Results: 9.6% had post catheterization CI-AKI. A total of 18 out of 44 (44%) of patients who had CI-AKI also had ongoing congestive heart failure. No statistically significant association found neither with maximum allowable contrast (p = 0.009) nor ejection fraction (p = 0.099) with the development of CI-AKI. Conclusion: In spite of the fact that no statistically significant relationship found between the percentage maximum contrast dose and the ejection fraction with the post-procedure CI-AKI, we heighten the essential of employing Maximum Allowable Contrast Dose (MACD) and ejection fraction in patients undergoing PCI to be used as a clinical guide to predict CI-AKI.
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Pulse Synchronized Contractions (PSCs)

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8319360286

A key platform underpinning the traditional understanding of the cardiovascular system, with respect to the behavior of large arterial vessels, is Otto Frank’s Windkessel Hypothesis [1]. This hypothesis posits simply that the smooth muscle walls of large arteries do not undergo rhythmic contractions in synchrony with the heartbeat but, rather, behave as passive elastic tubes undergoing distension from pulsatile pressure waves. The Windkessel Hypothesis is elegant, well described for over a century, ingrained in the understanding of cardiovascular medicine and physiology, and simply wrong. Several groups have now shown that the arterial smooth muscle wall undergoes rhythmic activation in synchrony with the heartbeat in a variety of tissues, including human brachial artery; canine coronary, femoral, and carotid arteries; rabbit aorta; feline pulmonary artery and rodent aorta [2-8]. The phasing of these events is such that the upstroke of the contraction slightly precedes the upstroke of the pulse wave, suggesting nomenclature for the events as pulse synchronized contractions, or PSCs [3,6-8]. PSCs have been found to be of neurogenic origin, sensitive to the neural blocker tetrodotoxin [3,8]. Although the specific neural pathways regulating PSCs have not been elucidated, the alpha-adrenergic system is at least partially involved, as evidenced by reduction or blockade of PSCs by the alpha-adrenergic blocker phentolamine [8]. Further, PSCs have not been observed following vessel excision in in vitro studies, as an intact nervous system is not present. The pacemaker for the PSC resides in the right atrium, as suggested by two lines of evidence. First, pacing of the right atrial region to faster than spontaneous frequencies leads to a one-to-one correspondence of PSC frequency with the stimulation rate [3]. Additionally, excision of the right, but not the left, atrial appendage results in elimination of PSCs [3]. As the pacemaker region for PSCs and the heartbeat both lie in the right atrium, this may potentially allow for coordination between the heartbeat and pulse wave with PSCs [3,5,8]. Extensive evaluations also have been performed showing the PSC was not an artifact produced either by cardiac contractility or from the vessel distension from the pulse wave [3,5,6].
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States Care - The Cure for Patient Healthcare

Published on: 12th November, 2019

Clinical physicians believe they are drowning . . . because they are! Between complying with an ever-changing landscape of time-wasting federal regulations, avoiding Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations, plus the entire billing process, who can keep up with the literature, study a patient’s medical history, or even talk with a patient?!? 
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Correlation of plasma protein from MDS, young and elderly patients by SDS-page

Published on: 11th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330254423

Summary: Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic malignancies characterized by progressive cytopenias, ineffective hematopoiesis, bone marrow hypercellularity and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Objectives: Identify plasma proteins from MDS patients and from two healthy controls groups (young and elderly) by SDS-Page. Methods: Plasma from 08 healthy young, 08 healthy elderly and 08 MDS patients were used for this study. Proteins were fractionated, precipitated, used for SDS-PAGE gel analysis, stained with comassie brilliant blue, scanned and bands were analyzed. Results: It was possible to identify in both, 20% fraction and supernatant, proteins that were differentially expressed in each group. The ones that have showed some clinical relevance. Fibronectin was highly expressed only in the young control group. α2-Macroglobulin was also expressed in both control groups, but it was not expressed in the MDS group. Haptoglobin was highly expressed only in the elderly control and SMD groups. Conclusion: Protein expression in plasma can be a biomarker for MDS, and may play a key role in the process of aging and hematologic malignancies development.
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Immunohistochemical expression of Nestin as Cancer Stem Cell Marker in gliomas

Published on: 11th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8457474432

Background: Gliomas represent the most frequent primary tumors of central nervous system (CNS), contributing to more than half of the incidence of brain tumors. Cancer stem cell markers (CSC) identify a group of patients at high risk for progression. Nestin is an intermediate filament (IF) protein was first described as a neural stem cell/progenitor cell marker. Nestin-positive neuroepithelial stem cells are detected in the subventricular zone of the human adult brain and they remain mitotically active throughout adulthood. The expression of Nestin in gliomas has been suggested to be related to dedifferentiation, improved cell motility, invasive potential and increased malignancy. This study aims to investigate Nestin immunohistochemical expression in different types of glioma and its correlation with different clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Nestin immunostaining was studied in 60 specimens of glioma using avidin-biotin peroxidase method. Results: Nestin was strongly expressed in 11/60 (18.33%), moderately expressed in 29/60 (48.33%) and weekly expressed in 15/60 (25%) of studied gliomas. A significant positive correlation was found between Nestin expression and histologic type (p < 0.001) and increasing grade of gliomas (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Increased Nestin expression is correlated with tumor progression, increasing grade and poor prognostic parameter of glioma. Nestin is a useful marker for detection of CSC in high-grade glioma which is responsible for resistance to chemo-radiotherapy and may serve as a predictor for patient outcomes.
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Packaging challenge for COVID-19 drug

Published on: 9th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872698600

At present Corona virus is the most burning topic across the world. At present there is no drug available to cure 100%. So many companies are trying to make it possible as soon as they can. The basic characteristics of the product is “Non-Toxic made of sugars Carbohydrates”. A Galectin is a protein that recognizes carbohydrates and modulates intracellular and extracellular interactions primarily related to the immune system. In some cases Galectins act as a glue bringing molecules together. The major focus of the research is on extracellular interactions.
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Human mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media promotes the wound healing process - An in vitro study

Published on: 8th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8333008907

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) conditioned medium (CM) has a promising prospect towards skin regeneration. Therefore, human dental pulp and adipose stem cells (DPSCs and ADSCs) were isolated, propagated and evaluated for their stemness and genetic stability over time in culture before making CM. We aimed to characterize the applicability of lyophilized ADSCs and DPSCs derived CM (AD-CM and DP-CM) at 5 mg, 10 mg and 20 mg for wound healing process. The ability of wound closure was assessed by direct human dermal fibroblast cell scratch assay, treated with variable concentrations of AD-CM and DP-CM in vitro. Additionally, we also assessed the expression of different cytokines and growth factors secreted from ADSCs and DPSCs in the CM relevant to the wound healing by cytokine array analysis. Our data demonstrates a significant effect of both the AD-CM and DP-CM in wound healing within 24 hrs compared to that in control.
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Incidence of hypertension in a high-risk workgroup (Police officers) - Observational study

Published on: 8th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8333010066

Introduction: Hypertension is a silent pathology in a way that affects all four spheres to be considered as such; magnitude, transcendence vulnerability, and feasibility. The World Health Organization estimates that 45% of deaths from heart disease and 51% of deaths from stroke globally are caused by hypertension. Material and method: A longitudinal, descriptive and quantitative observational study was carried out on the personnel of high-risk public service providers. Results: The total population sampled was 550 people where it was possible to determine the sex where the disease predominates, since 92% of the hypertensive population belong to the male sex, while 8% of the female population. 57% of the total population were classified as normotensive, while 21% were classified as High Normal, Grade I Hypertension, and Grade II Hypertension. Discussion: AHT is the result of a series of interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors in an organism that tries to adapt to the increase of the cardiac output and the peripheral resistance of the blood vessels, which is manifested by the increase in blood pressure figures. Physical activity has been shown to have a lower risk of hypertension compared to sedentary individuals. The daily stress these workers face predisposes them to suffer their manifestations as headache, muscle pain, fatigue, digestive disorders and constant elevations of blood pressure.
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A unique case of metastatic spinal epidural abscess associated with liver abscess following ascending cholangitis and Escherichia coli bacteremia

Published on: 6th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8301352650

Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a life-threatening infection that may develop as a result of an underlying hepatobiliary disease. A possible complication of PLA is metastatic spread, resulting in distant seeding of infection in other organs, and occasionally in the epidural space. Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare infection with severe potential complications. We describe a 71-year-old patient who presented with ascending cholangitis that was complicated by micro PLA, with a subsequent Escherichia coli bacteremia and metastatic SEA. An emergent surgical intervention with laminotomy and drainage of the epidural collection was performed. The patient was treated with a prolonged antibiotic regimen, with uneventful recovery and no neurologic sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a SEA following E. coli PLA.
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Drug abuse and its ramifications on skeletal system

Published on: 5th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330461480

The purpose of this study is to highlight the drug abuse hazards and preventive aspects. From a public health perspective, substance abuse has long been a source of major concern, both for the individual’s health and for wider society as a whole. The UK has the highest rates of recorded illegal drug misuse in the western world. In particular, it has comparatively high rates of heroin and crack cocaine use. Substances that are considered harmful are strictly regulated according to a classification system that takes into account the harms and risks of taking each drug. The adverse effects of drug abuse can be thought of in three parts that together determine the overall harm in taking it. Some addictive substances are more damaging to the skeletal system along with the others. In this review article, an effort has been taken to elaborate the effects of addictive drugs on human highlighting these most problematic substances for bones and also the promising potential prevention aspects of drug abuse.
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Protection from the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Disorders, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington’s Disease, and Parkinson’s Diseases, through the Mitigation of Reactive Oxygen Species

Published on: 4th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8302209826

The biological changes caused by oxidative stress (OS) are known to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. The brain is particularly vulnerable to OS due to its high lipid content and extensive consumption of oxygen. OS processes, particularly the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), play a critical role in how neurodegenerative disorders develop. This is evidenced by in vivo studies investigating various biomolecules related to OS, such as products of lipid and DNA oxidation. Accordingly, ROS can also cause oxidative-related damage in neurodegenerative disorders, including dopamine auto-oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, glial cell activation, α-synuclein aggregation, excessive free iron, and changes in calcium signaling. Furthermore, excessive levels of cellular oxidants reduce antioxidant defenses, which in turn propagate the cycle of OS. As such, it is increasingly important to determine the linkage between a high intake of antioxidants through dietary interventions and a lower risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, in addition to modulating the immune system, optimal nutritional status is capable of changing various processes of neuroinflammation known to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Accordingly, a better understanding of the role ROS plays in the etiology of neurodegeneration is needed, along with the identification of dietary interventions that may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for both the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, this review presents a comprehensive summary of the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, nutrients believed to be useful for mitigating and counteracting ROS are discussed. 
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Diagnosis of critical congenital heart defects in Iceland 2000-2014

Published on: 4th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8301342754

Critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) are preferably diagnosed prenatally or soon after birth. Late diagnosis has been related to poorer prognosis. The aim of this study is to assess when CCHDs are diagnosed in Iceland and whether late diagnosis is a problem. All live born children in Iceland and foetuses diagnosed with CCHDs during the years 2000-2014 were included. CCHD was defined as a defect requiring intervention or causing death in the first year of life, or leading to abortion. The total number of pre- and postnatal diagnosis of CCHDs was 188. Prenatal diagnosis was made in 69 of 188 (36.7%). Of 69 diagnosed prenatally 33 were terminated due to CCHD. Of the 155 live born children with CCHD, 36 (23.2%) had a prenatal diagnosis and 100 (64.5%) were diagnosed shortly after birth, before discharge from birth facility. 19 children (12.3%) were diagnosed late, that is after discharge from birth facility. Coarctation of the aorta was the most common CCHD diagnosed late (6/19). Prenatal screening and newborn examination give good results in diagnosis of CCHDs in Iceland. Late diagnosis are relatively few, but both the number of prenatally diagnosed CCHDs and CCHDs diagnosed shortly after birth can be further improved.
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Do beta adrenoceptor blocking agents provide the same degree of clinically convincing morbidity and mortality benefits in patients with chronic heart failure? A literature review

Published on: 4th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8304637476

Chronic heart failure has been extensively characterized as a disorder arising from a complex interaction between impaired ventricular performance and neurohormonal activation. Since beta adrenoceptor blocking agents are currently considered an integral component of therapy for the management of patients with severe chronic heart failure; several well designed clinical trials have been conducted to determine the morbidity and mortality benefits of these agents these studies, however did not yield the same results in terms of morbidity and mortality benefits. Currently only Bisoprolol, Carvedilol and sustained release metoprolol succinate have clinically proven and convincing morbidity and mortality benefits the current list of approved medicines of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) of the republic of Ghana does not provide coverage for these lifesaving therapeutic agents. The objective of this review was to collate the relevant scientific evidence that will convince the authorities at the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) of the Republic of Ghana to include at least one of the evidence based beta adrenoceptor blocking agents in the list of approved medicines. A thorough search on the internet was conducted using Google scholar to obtain only the clinically relevant studies associated with the benefits of beta adrenoceptor blocking agents in patients with chronic heart failure published in the English language. The phrases beta adrenoceptor blocking agents and chronic heart failure were used as search engines. The search engine yielded several studies that met the predefined inclusion criteria. However, only the Cardiac Insufficiency BIsoprolol Studies (CIBIS-I and CIBIS-II), Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study (COPERNICUS) and Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial (MERIF-HF) because of the clinical relevance of their findings Beta adrenoceptor blocking agents such as atenolol and propranolol have been used in the management of patients with chronic heart failure. However, their efficacy and optimal dose in reducing mortality have not been scientifically established not all beta adrenoceptor blocking agents scientifically studied provide the same degree of clinically meaningful and convincing morbidity and mortality benefits in patients with chronic heart failure.
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A Systematic review for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with Myocardial Fibrosis: A CMR LGE Study

Published on: 4th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 1185948222

Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients have a predisposition for malignant VT/VF and consequently, sudden cardiac death (SCD). In single center studies, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) defined fibrosis has been linked to VT/VF. However, despite innumerable investigations, SCD has not been definitely attributable to LGE. Explanations for these are believed to be related to insufficient statistical power. Methods: We performed an electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed: and CMR abstracts for original data published or presented between Jan 2001 to Mar 2011. Key search terms: HCM, LV fibrosis, SCD and LGE. Studies were screened for eligibility based on inclusion criteria: referral for CMR exam with LGE for HCM; and follow-up for incidence of VT/VF and SCD. Categorical variables were evaluated between patient groups via Chi-square test. Results: A total of 64 studies were initially identified. Of these, 4 (6.3%) were identified and included (n = 1063 patients). Three prospective and one retrospective study were included. LGE was detected in 59.6% of patients. As expected, the presence of myocardial fibrosis was associated with VT/VF (x2 = 6.5, p < 0.05; OR 9.0, (95% CI 1.2 to 68.7). Moreover, myocardial fibrosis strongly predicted SCD (x2 = 6.6, p < 0.05; OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 9.7). Conclusion: Despite single center CMR studies, LGE has consistently predicted VT/VF while prediction of SCD has remained paradoxically unlinked. Although the lack of studies meeting our criteria limited our ability to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis, we have been able to demonstrate for the first time that LGE-defined fibrosis is a predictor of SCD in patients with HCM0.
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Anthropometric characteristics and somatotype of professional soccer players by position

Published on: 1st November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8304643029

The anthropometric characteristics are decisive for an optimal physical level and, therefore, a good level in the game; and they can be different depending on the game position. The aim of this study was to identify the physical characteristics, body composition and somatotype of professional soccer players and to verify differences according to their playing positions: goalkeepers, defenders, forwards and midfielders. The measurements were performed on 57 male players of a soccer team of the Spanish Football League One. Twenty seven anthropometric variables were measured (height and body weight, four bone breadths, eleven girths and ten skinfolds) and the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis was also performed. The percentage of body fat has been determined from 11 different equations. Goalkeepers showed the highest weight (80.2 ± 3.2 kg), supraespinal (10.5 ± 3.8 mm) and abdominal (15.6 ± 3.5 mm) skinfolds than others positions. In relation to body fat percentages, similar results were obtained from the equations of Jackson-Pollock (from 3 and 7 skinfolds), Carter, Withers, and Heyward and Stolarczyk (mean value 7.8 ± 1.5%). Higher results were obtained from the other equations applied. Differences among positions were also found concerning body composition; goalkeepers showed the highest body fat percentage (9.4 ± 1.4%). Mean somatotype was also different among positions; goalkeepers and forwards presented a balanced mesomorph somatotype while defenders and midfielders showed an ecto-mesomorph one. The differences in morphological characteristics according to the team position were notice only in goalkeepers, especially regarding their weight, abdominal and supraespinale skinfolds and the percentage of fat tissue.
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Biological membranes: The laboratory of fundamental physics

Published on: 1st November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8304623831

Biological membranes present an essential constituent of living cells. Their main role is to separate the interior of a cell from its surrounding, however allowing the selective transfer of specific material through it. Configuration changes of membranes are often correlated with important biological processes [1-7].
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