All Articles in August, 2020

Pregnancy complicated with deficiency of antithrombin: Review of current literature

Published on: 31st August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667872114

Antithrombin deficiency, although the rarest thrombophilia, carries the highest risk of thromboembolism. This risk is increased especially for pregnant women due to physiological coagulation changes in pregnancy. Therefore, in cases of positive personal and/or family history of thromboembolic events as well as recurrent pregnancy loss women should be tested for antithrombin deficiency. Antithrombin deficiency is caused by numerous mutations of serpin peptidase inhibitor clade C 1 gene (SERPINC) and is classified according to antithrombin plasma activity and antigen levels into Type I (quantitative defect) and Type II (qualitative defect). Complications during pregnancy can be divided into those regarding the mother and those concerning the fetus. The main clinical manifestation of antithrombin deficiency regarding the mother is thromboembolism occurring spontaneously or recurrently during pregnancy. Numerous major gestational complications such as miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction or fetal death, placental abruption, preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome can be linked to antithrombin deficiency. Close monitoring with early and adequate prophylaxis and treatment nowadays can mostly assure the positive pregnancy outcome for both mother and child. Prophylaxis/therapy with both low molecular weight heparin and antithrombin concentrate should start as soon as pregnancy is planned or at least as early as possible in pregnancy and continue until the end of the puerperium.
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Universal testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 upon admission to three labor and delivery units in Santa Clara County, CA

Published on: 31st August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667870286

Objective: To determine the prevalence of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in labor and delivery units in one of the epicentres of the West Coast. Study Design: This was a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to labor and delivery from April 15, 2020-May 15, 2020 after implementation of a universal testing policy on Labor and Delivery. Results: The prevalence of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the admitted labor and delivery population was 2.5%, of whom 87.5% were asymptomatic. Conclusion: We present additional data on the prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant patients on the West Coast, which is much lower compared to other locales, possibly as a result of aggressive ‘shelter in place’ policy. Universal screening is insufficient to detect asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 and thus rapid, universal testing should be prioritized for labor and delivery units for the protection of patients and staff, and to better allocate appropriate resources.  Key points: 1. 2.5% of 320 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. 2. 87.5% of positive patients were asymptomatic. 3. Universal testing on labor and delivery is necessary. 4. ‘Shelter-in-place’ policies reduced SARS-CoV-2. 
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Incidence and outcome of no flow after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction

Published on: 31st August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667871110

Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the infarct-related artery (IRA) is the most effective treatment modality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Incidence of no flow is 8.8% - 10% in primary PCI of STEMI patients. Our aim was to study actual incidence and outcome of no flow patients. Methods: Five hundred and eighty primary PCI patients were enrolled and evaluated from 2016 January to 2017 December. We used drug eluting stents in all cases. Majority of our patients (> 90%) presented to emergency six hours after onset of symptoms. There were many patients where there was no flow even after mechanical thrombus aspiration and pharmacological vasodilator therapy. We have studied primary outcome (mortality) of no flow in those patients. Results: There were 44 cases of no flow in our series (7.75%). Involvement of Left anterior descending artery (LAD) was in eighteen patients. Right coronary artery (RCA) was culprit in twenty four cases. Only two cases were seen in LCX territory. One month mortality rate in no flow group was 50% and 6.25% in successful recanalization group. One year mortality was 12.5% in successful recanalization group and 66% in no flow group. Conclusion: Refractory no flow during STEMI intervention is associated with increased incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). There is no established strategy to solve this phenomenon.
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Veterinary vaccine development: The helical project

Published on: 28th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8697190933

Vaccine production process have been fuzzy journey to the public and, in some degrees, to those in the setting. By clearly showing the lengthy and challenging journey of vaccine development process, thereby suggesting the economic and health implication of improper use of veterinary vaccines, the paper tries to add the attention given to infection prevention. Starting from the foundations, the types and requirements of veterinary vaccines are described. The paper concludes with current research and regulatory quos in the topic.
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Lipid profile of antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected patients attending infectious diseases service of University Teaching Hospital of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Published on: 26th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8683051917

Introduction: HIV infection leads to metabolic disorders. The objective of this work was to study the lipid profile of HIV + patients followed at the University Teaching Hospital of Kinshasa (UTHK). Methods: This study analyzes the lipid profile of HIV + patients, aged at least 18 years, followed at the UTHK from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2014. The medians of different types of lipids, the frequency of lipid disorders, the general clinical characteristics of patients and factors associated with dyslipidaemia were studied. Haemoglobin (Hb), White Blood Cells (WBC), Leukocyte Formula (LF), Blood Sugar, Urea, Creatinine, Transaminases, Uric Acid, CD4s+ count were analyzed. Results: The lipid balance was performed in 38.8% of patients; 38.1% of them had dyslipidaemia. Total hypercholesterolaemia (28.6%), elevated LDL-C (19%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.8%) and HDL hypocholesterolaemia (42.9%) were observed. The medians of TG (128 mg / dL), HDL-C (51 mg/dL) and LDL-C (78 mg/dL) were high. Risk factors associated with dyslipidaemia were represented by WHO stage 4, tuberculosis (TB) and hyperglycaemia. The highest levels of LDL-C and TG and the lowest HDL-C were seen when CD4s+ were below 200 elements/µL. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS dyslipidaemia characterized in this study by HDL-C hypocholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and total and LDL hypercholesterolemia can be considered as an indicator of the progression of HIV infection.
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The relationship of cell phone use and aggression among young adults with moderating roles of gender and marital status

Published on: 26th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691260155

The use of cell phones has remarkably increased in the last two decades with several pros and cons. The negative consequences of cell phones on mental health have not been studied widely. Aggression, in this regard was a completely neglected area. The present study, therefore, was carried out to investigate the relationship between cell phone use and aggression and to further identify the moderating roles of gender and marital status between cell phone use and aggression. The inquiry included 500 young adults from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire was administered. It was hypothesized that there would be a strong positive relationship between cell phone use and aggression. It was further hypothesized that gender and marital status would be significant moderators between cell phone use and aggression. The results supported the hypotheses on significant differences and made a significant contribution in the existing scientific literature.
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Central nervous system diseases associated with blood brain barrier breakdown - A Comprehensive update of existing literature

Published on: 25th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8799409922

Blood vessels that supply and feed the central nervous system (CNS) possess unique and exclusive properties, named as blood–brain barrier (BBB). It is responsible for tight regulation of the movement of ions, molecules, and cells between the blood and the brain thereby maintaining controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu required for appropriate functioning. It also protects the neural tissue from toxic plasma components, blood cells and pathogens from entering the brain. In this review the importance of BBB and its disruption causing brain pathology and progression to different neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD) etc. will be discussed.
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Psychological studies of stress experienced by seamen during a long-distance sea voyage#

Published on: 25th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691261217

The issues investigated in the current study pertain to selected psychological aspects of human functioning in long-term stress conditions. Results of the analyses performed in this study have submitted evidence to confirm the hypothesis in which it is stated that staying on the sea for a long time is a difficult situation which contributes - to a greater or smaller extent - to starting the stress process in sailors. The role of interpersonal competencies that has been found most distinct; high level of this variable contributed to reducing both anxiety and the feeling of loneliness. It has been evidenced in the research that the skill of good functioning in varied social groups, which results from high level of development of several traits including: openness, spontaneity, responsibility, and sensitivity, becomes particularly important in long-term difficult situations in which there is little possibility of eliminating the real menace. Another conclusion to be inferred from the research is the one confirming the theoretical suggestion in which the importance of ‘ego strength’ in modifying the course of stress process is emphasised. This personality dimension has turned out to constitute the factor capable of protecting an individual against increase in both anxiety states and the feeling of loneliness during sea isolation. Another issue considered in the current study pertains to defining the role of ‘family variable’ in mediating the course of stress process under conditions of long-term task isolation. The analyses have confirmed the hypothesis in which it was assumed that sailors functioning in family systems characterised by high level of integration and quality, experience lower emotional costs during a voyage. Generally, it may be claimed that - according to the research results of the study - ‘family variables’ may constitute a significant predictor of both the ‘quality’ of a man’s functioning and personal costs he experiences in long-term stress conditions.
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SGLT2 Inhibitors and nephroprotection in diabetic kidney disease: From mechanisms of action to the latest evidence in the literature

Published on: 21st August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8651234199

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus constitutes a major problem in public health worldwide. The disease poses a high risk of severe microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetic kidney disease is the most common cause of end-stage chronic kidney disease and contributes to the increasing morbidity and mortality associated to diabetes. Sodium-glucose contransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) are the latest oral diabetic medications, which exhibit a great nephroprotective potential, not only by improving glycemic control, but also by glucose-independent mechanisms, such as decreasing blood pressure and other direct renal effects. We conduct a literature review based on the most recent scientific evidence with the goal to elucidate the postulated mechanisms of action of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic kidney disease, which are the base of the beneficial clinical effects that are seen in the condition.
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A study of 12c +12c nuclear reaction using a new M3Y-type effective interaction

Published on: 20th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872658487

This paper is a study of nuclear reactions involving 12c + 12c nuclei carried out with a heavy-ion nucleus-nucleus optical potential derived from a new M3Y-type effective interaction, called B3Y-Fetal, within the framework of optical model at the incident energies of 112, 126.7, 240, 300, 1016 MeV. Folding analyses of the differential cross sections associated with the elastic scattering of the nuclear system, determined at these incident energies with four B3Y-Fetal-based folded potentials constructed from double folding model, have shown the DDB3Y1- and BDB3Y1-Fetal potentials to be the best in excellent agreement with previous work done with the M3Y-Reid. The agreement of the B3Y-Fetal with the famous M3Y-Reid effective interaction, which is also used for folding analysis in this work, is further buttressed and well-established by the findings of this study Herein, the values of the renormalization factor, NR ranging from 1.1117 to 0.8121, obtained with the B3Y-Fetal have been found to be slightly higher, with lower reaction cross sections, aR = 1418 - 1047 millibarns, than NR = 0.9971 - 0.8108 obtained with the M3Y-Reid effective interaction whose accompanying reaction cross sections, being higher, range from 1431 to 1050 millibarns. This depicts the B3Y-Fetal as having a better performance. Additionally, results of folding analyses have shown the best-fit folded potentials, DDB3Y1- and BDB3Y1-Fetal potentials to be in agreement at all incident energies, implying that the cold nuclear matter has an underlying soft equation of state.
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Video-assisted thoracic surgery in advanced non-small cell lung cancer treatment

Published on: 14th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8653118841

Non-small cell lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite recent advances in adjuvant treatments, surgical resection is basis of treatment. With the development of minimally invasive surgery in thoracic surgery, surgeons work on minimally invasive surgery for advanced stages of lung cancer, previously considered non-operable at all or previously considered non-operable with minimally invasive surgery approach. Minimally invasive surgical techniques which are routinely used in the surgical treatment of early-stage lung cancer have started to be treated in more complicated and advanced stages of lung cancer. Bilateral anatomic resections, operations after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bronchial sleeve lobectomies, double sleeve lobectomies, complementary pneumonectomies, and carinal sleeve resections can be performed by minimally invasive methods. The option of video-assisted surgery should be considered with oncological principles at foreground if patients have acceptable lung and cardiac performance conditions with minimal comorbidities. This study reviews VATS experience in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer worldwide and discusses potential benefits and limitations of using VATS technology to perform thoracic surgery procedures.
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High energy lasers and new applications

Published on: 14th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8656784701

In the beginning of 1973 in the USSR the study of possibility of LJE designing was conducted. The reflector, located in the tail of the rocket prototype, concentrated the obtained radiation in air and ensured micro-burst that the reactive thrust was created. The successful results of different models of the reflectors tests, which were at the same time the laser light receivers, had been obtained. One should note that all experiments pointed out above were conducted with the use of electric discharge CO2- lasers with power up to 10 kW, while for the injection into orbit of different highly and technologically effective equipment (global network connections, Internet, photo-monitoring of Earth surface, debris cleaning) the radiated power substantially higher is required. Thus, for example, for SC launching with the weight 1000 kg the laser with power not less than 15 MW is necessary [1,2].
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Antiviral and Antinematodal potentials of chitosan: Review

Published on: 14th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872700405

For many years, chemical pesticides have been performed to control different pests and diseases and this may be due to their broad spectrum of action, easy of application and the relatively low cost. But these chemicals have environmental risks, thus alternative control agents are needed. Chitosan is one of the novel suggested solutions to reduce the economic losses associated with chemical pesticides. Chitosan is naturally-occurring compound, as well as safe and biodegradable which obtained from certain natural sources. Chitosan have unique properties which help to control viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, plant nematodes and other pests locally and systemically.
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Silent cerebrovascular disease in hypertensive adults is frequent and age-dependent

Published on: 13th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8677986450

Background: Cerebral small vessel disease and extracranial atherosclerotic carotid disease are manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Information on these two pathologies in hypertensive population with low cardiovascular risk (CVR) is scarce. Objective: To explore frequency and characteristics of silent CVD in hypertensive adults and cognitive repercussion of these alterations. Methods: 39 hypertensive patients (mean age: 53.5 years) were studied. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (3T), doppler ultrasound of the carotid artery and neuropsychological studies were obtained. Results: 79% of patients presented white matter lesions (WML), 18% showed only cerebral atrophy and/or enlarged perivascular spaces, 60% presented hyperplasia of intimal media complex (IMC) and/or atheroma plaques. In women, a significant correlation was observed between IMC thickness and bifrontal index, and WML was greater in patients with carotid plaques. A non-significant decrease in neuropsychological performance was observed in the groups of patients with intra and/or extracerebral injury and a negative correlation with the bifrontal index in men was found. Conclusion: Frequency of intra and extracerebral silent CVD was high in hypertensive adults with low to moderate CVR. WML and brain atrophy were partially related with carotid lesions. Age significantly influenced the appearance of intra and extracerebral lesions. Cognitive performance did not decrease significantly due to the presence of these lesions.
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Entropy via Art

Published on: 13th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8656790972

From the energy involved in a physical or chemical process, part of it cannot be utilised as work. Entropy S is the thermodynamic quantity that is the measure of this energy where the concept of entropy was first introduced by Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888) in 1865. Entropy is also a basic and general conception that deals with “order” (low entropy) and “disorder” (high entropy) of all systems in the universe from human body and up to the star systems. With the development of science entropy deviates from treatment of subjects related to heat and work and currently it is used also to analyse knowledge as well as in economics. 
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A case series review of patients with Thrombocytopenia and Absent-Radii syndrome (TARS) and their management during pregnancy

Published on: 12th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667871373

Bleeding diatheses due to platelet-related disorders can present challenges to treating clinicians especially in the context of peri- and post-partum patients in the obstetric setting. TARS is an inherited disorder characterised by reduced bone marrow platelet production, skeletal deformities affecting radii and other limbs; cardiac, renal, and other heterogeneous anomalies may occur. It is caused by co-inheritance of a microdeletion and a nucleotide polymorphism in the RBM8A gene on chromosome 1. Bleeding phenotype is more severe than platelet numbers might predict especially in infants but improves with age. There is minimal literature regarding impact in pregnancy and puerperium. We describe management of three pregnancies in the haematology-obstetrics clinic. As platelet counts normally decrease through pregnancy, close monitoring is required in TAR syndrome. No major bleeding was seen antenatally but two required platelet transfusion during labour. No other treatment definitely improves bleeding, although case reports of steroids claim variable success. Tranexamic acid may be helpful, and thrombopoietin agonists represent a potential future option. 
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Endometriosis as a risk factor for colorectal cancer

Published on: 12th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667860684

Endometriosis is a common benign disease in women of reproductive age, it has been associated with an increased risk of various malignancies that is defined by certain histological criteria mainly 80% in ovary and 20% in extragonadal sites such as intestine, rectovaginal septum, abdominal wall, pleura and others; the greatest risk for colorectal cancer is women with adenomyosis or endometriosis; Several genetic alterations have been found in the risk of endometriosis associated with cancer; The symptomatology, imaging and endoscopic characteristics simulate other inflammatory and malignant lesions that make the preoperative diagnosis of extragonadal endometriosis difficult. This is a review of the knowledge about endometriosis and its potential risk of malignancy, particularly with colorectal cancer 
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Protecting teeth and gums during rigid endoscopy of the upper aerodigestive tract: Our experience with a disposable, mouldable and rigid thermoplastic mouthguard

Published on: 11th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8650653783

Direct rigid pharyngoscopy, laryngoscopy and oesophagoscopy are very common procedures in the Otolaryngology-Head & Neck department, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The phayngoscopes, laryngoscopes and oesophagoscopes are solid straight metal instruments to facilitate examination and passage of instruments through them. The process of pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagoscopy invariably involves some contact with the upper dentition resulting in some pressure over the teeth and jaw when suspension laryngoscopy is carried out. 
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Visual evoked potentials: Normative values from healthy Senegalese adults

Published on: 11th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8652203971

Introduction: Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are potential differences recorded on the scalp in response to visual stimulation. They are obtained with slowly repeated stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine the normative values of the visual evoked potentials in our setting. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study from February 1 to April 30, 2019 at the Clinical Neurophysiology laboratory of the I.P. Ndiaye Clinic at CHNU Fann in Dakar (Senegal). Results: We found that men had high averages of N75, P100 and N145 wave latencies and low averages of P100 wave amplitude (p>0.05). However, neither age nor body mass index influenced the parameters of VEPs. Conclusion: Sex is important physiological variable in establishing laboratory normative values for VEPs. There is a marked difference between the sexes for the VEPs parameters.
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A mild form of Familial Mediterranean Fever associated with a polymorphisms C.NT 1588,-69G>

Published on: 11th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8648993484

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease caused by mutation(s) in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV, pyrinmarenostrin) gene [1,2]. FMF is characterized by recurrent fever crises combined with serosal, synovial, or cutaneous inflammation and, in some individuals, by the eventual development, in the long-term, of systemic amyloidosis [3,4]. FMF mainly affects peoples living along eastern Mediterranean Sea (Turks, Sephardic Jews, Armenians) and it is not a rare disease in other Mediterranean areas such as Greeks, Italians and Iranians [4,6]. Until now, more than 304 sequence variants have been recorded [6]. In Italy M694V, V726A, M680I, M694I and E148Q are the most frequent FMF-associated mutations [7]. Here, we describe a recent case of mild FMF, characterized by all the clinical manifestations indicative of FMF described in the literature, according to Tei-Hashomer criteria [4] and by the analysis of MEFV gene, characterized by polymorphism c1588-69G>A. This is in agreement with previous our observations in a wider sample collected in the years. We are training to define the relations among gene mutations and clinical forms of FMF.
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Estimating global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic

Published on: 11th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8646216717

Background: There is a huge global loss of lives due to COVID-19 pandemic, the primary epicentre of which is China, where the causative agent of the disease, SARS-CoV-2 was first emerged in December 2019. This study aims to explore the severity, in terms of case fatality rate (CFR), of COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Data of ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic were retrieved from website of the WHO, and processed for the estimation of global (both including and excluding China) CFRs of COVID-19. CFRs were explored following the naive estimates, 14-day delay estimates, and linear regression model analysis, during January 25, 2020 to April 25, 2020, on weekly basis. To explore the current situation, in terms of CFR, data for the next 13 weeks (May 2, 2020 through July 25, 2020), were processed by naive and linear regression model analysis. Results: Mean CFRs, in naive estimates, were 4.59% for the world including China, and 3.62% for the world excluding China. The 14-day delay estimates of CFRs were 15.6% globally, and 21.65% in countries outside China. Following statistical model, global (both including and excluding China) CFRs were 6.81%, by naive estimates, and ~13%, by 14-day delay estimates. Global CFRs of COVID-19 during May 2, 2020 to July 25, 2020, ranged 4.1% – 7.04%, by naive estimates, and by statistical regression analysis the CFR was 3.19%. Conclusion and recommendations: The CFR might help estimate the need of up-to-date hospital supplies and other mitigation measures for COVID-19 ongoing pandemic, and therefore, instantaneous CFR estimations are recommended.
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COVID-19 disease with persistently negative RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2

Published on: 7th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8653632638

Introduction: The disease outbreak of COVID-19 has had a great clinical and microbiological impact in the last few months. In the preanalytical phase, the collection a sample from of a respiratory tract at the adequate moment and from the correct anatomical site is essential for a rapid and precise molecular diagnosis with a false negative rate of less than 20%. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study of COVID-19 disease with a persistently negative RT-PCR test in patients seen at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER) in Mexico City in the period of March through May of 2020. 38 patients were registered with negative RT-PCR test obtained through nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabbing. We evaluated the distribution of data with the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality. The non-parametric data are reported with median. The nominal and ordinal variables are presented as percentages. Results: The average age of our cohort was 46 years and 52.63% were male (n = 20). Diabetes Mellitus was documented in 34.21% (n = 13) of the patients, Systemic Hypertension in 21.05% (n = 8), Obesity in 31.57% (n = 12) and Overweight in 42.10% (n = 16). Exposure to tobacco smoke was reported in 47.36% (n = 18) of the patients. The median initial saturation of oxygen was 87% at room air. The severity of the disease on admission was: mild 71.05% (n = 27), moderate 21.05% (n = 8) and severe or critical in 7.89% (n = 3) of the cases respectively. 63.15% (n = 24) sought medical care after 6 or more days with symptoms. Lymphopenia was documented in 78.94% (n = 30). Median LDH at the time of admission was 300, being elevated in 63.15% (n = 24) of the cases. The initial tomographic imaging of the chest revealed predominantly ground glass pattern in 81.57% (n = 31) and predominantly consolidation in 18.42% (n = 7). The registered mortality was 15.78% (n = 6). Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 and a persistently negative RT-PCR test with fatal outcomes did not differ from the rest of the COVID-19 population since they present with the same risk factors shared by the rest of patients like lymphopenia, comorbidities, elevation of D-Dimer and DHL on admission as well as a tomographic COVID-19 score of severe illness, however we could suggest that the percentage of patients with a mild form of the disease is higher in those with a persistently negative RT-PCR test.
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