All Articles in July, 2020

Natural ferromagnetic resonance in cast microwires and its application to the safety control of infrastructures

Published on: 31st July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8656791643

The natural ferromagnetic resonance (NFMR) in cast glass-coated amorphous magnetic microwires has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The NFMR reveals large residual stresses appearing in the microwire core in the course of casting. These stresses, together with the magnetostriction, deteRmine the magnetoelastic anisotropy. Beside the residual internal stresses, the NFMR frequency is influenced by external stresses applied to the microwire or to the composite containing the latter (the so-called stress effect). The dependence of the NFMR frequency on the deformation of the microwires is proposed to be used in the distant diagnostics of dangerous deformations of critical infrastructure objects such as bridges, dams, wind turbine towers, skyscrapers, stack-furnaces, embankments, etc. To this end, fragments of magnetic microwires will be embedded in the bulk of concrete structures or fixed on their surface during construction or after it by means of coating with a special concrete-adhesive plaster. Further, these structures are periodically irradiated with microwaves from a radar at frequencies close to the original NFMR, and the presence of latent dangerous deformations of the concrete structure is judged by the NFMR frequency shift.
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Clinical characteristics in STEMI-like aortic dissection versus STEMI-like pulmonary embolism

Published on: 31st July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8660373629

Dissecting aortic aneurysm with ST segment elevation, and pulmonary embolism with ST segment elevation are two of a number of clinical entities which can simulate ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Objective: The purpose of this review is to analyse clinical features in anecdotal reports of 138 dissecting aortic aneurysm patients with STEMI-like presentation, and 102 pulmonary embolism patients with STEMI-like presentation in order to generate insights which might help to optimise triage of patients with STEMI-like clinical presentation. Methods: Reports were culled from a literature search covering the period January 2000 to March 2020 using Googlescholar, Pubmed, EMBASE and MEDLINE. Reports were included only if there was a specification of the location of ST segment elevation and an account of the clinical signs and symptoms. Search terms were “ST segment elevation”,”aortic dissection”, “pulmonary embolism”, “myocardial infarction”, and “paradoxical embolism”. Fisher’s exact test was utilised for two-sided comparison of proportions. Proportion was calculated for each group as the number of patients with that parameter relative to the total number of patients assessed for that parameter. Findings: There were 138 patients with aortic dissection, 91 of whom were either fast-tracked to coronary angiography (81 patients) or fast-tracked to thrombolytic treatment (10 patients). There were 47 patients managed with neither of those strategies. There were 102 patients with pulmonary embolism, 71 of whom were fast tracked to coronary angiography, and 31 who did not receive that evaluation. Compared with their dissecting aortic aneurysm counterparts, those dissecting aortic aneurysm patients initially managed by percutaneous coronary intervention or by thrombolysis were significantly (p = 0.0003) more likely to have presented with chest pain, and significantly (p = 0.018) less likely to have presented with breathlessness. The preferential fast-tracking to coronary angiography prevailed in spite of comparable prevalence of back pain in fast tracked and in non-fast tracked subjects. Use of transthoracic echocardiography was also comparable in the two subgroups of dissecting aortic aneurysm patients. Pulmonary embolism patients fast tracked to percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly (p = 0.0008) more likely to have presented with chest pain than their pulmonary embolism counterparts who were not fast-tracked. The prevalence of paradoxical embolism was also significantly (p = 0.0016) higher in fast-tracked patients than in counterparts not fast-tracked. Cardiac arrest was significantly (p = 0.0177) less prevalent in fast-tracked pulmonary embolism patients than in pulmonary embolism patients who were not fast-tracked. Preferential fast-tracking to coronary angiography prevailed in spite of the fact that prevalence of documented deep vein thrombosis was comparable in fast-tracked subjects and in subjects not fast-tracked. The prevalence of use of transthoracic echocardiography was also similar in fast-tracked pulmonary embolism patients vs counterparts not fast tracked. Overall, however, transthoracic echocardiography had been utilised significantly (p = 0.007) less frequently in dissecting aneurysm patients than in pulmonary embolism patients. Conclusion: Given the high prevalence of STEMI-like presentation in aortic dissection there is a need for greater use of point-of-care transthoracic echocardiography to mitigate risk of inappropriate percutaneous coronary intervention(which might delay implementation of aortic repair surgery) and inappropriate thrombolysis(which might precipitate hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade) (75) during triage of patients presenting with ST segment elevation simulating ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Furthermore, during triage of patients with STEMI-like clinical presentation, the combined use of point-of -care echocardiography and evaluation for deep vein thrombosis will facilitate the differentiation between acute myocardial infarction, STEMI-like aortic dissection, and STEMI-like pulmonary embolism. Among STEMI-like patients in whom DAA has been ruled out by point of care TTE, fast tracking to PCI might generate an opportunity to identify and treat paradoxical coronary artery embolism by thrombectomy. Thereby mitigating the mortality risk associated with coronary occlusion. Concurrent awareness of PE as the underlying cause of paradoxical embolism also generates an opportunity to relieve the clot burden in the pulmonary circulation, either by pulmonary embolectomy or by thrombolysis. Above all, frontline clinicians should have a greater awareness of the syndrome of STEMI-like presentation of aortic dissection and STEMI-like pulmonary embolism so as to mitigate the risk of inappropriate thrombolysis and inappropriate percutaneous coronary angiography which seems to prevail even in the presence of red flags such as back pain (for aortic dissection) and deep vein thrombosis(for pulmonary embolism). 
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Short term effectiveness of extra corporeal shock wave therapy for plantar fasciitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Published on: 30th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8644439951

Background: The argument on whether extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) is beneficial in short- term intervention in adults with plantar fasciitis. It is important and necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to make a comparatively more reliable and overall assessment of the outcomes of ESWT in the less than 6 months. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases from 2000 to 2020. Randomized trials that evaluated extracorporeal shock wave therapy used to treat plantar heel pain were included. Trials comparing an extra corporeal shock wave therapy with control/placebo were considered for inclusion in the review. We independently applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria to each identified randomized controlled trial, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of each trial. Results: Four studies involving 645 patients were included. 3 RCTs (n = 605) permitted a pooled estimate of effectiveness based on overall success rate and composite score of visual analogue scales for pain at follow-up 1 (12 weeks). The pooled data showed no significant heterogeneity at the three-month follow-up (p - value of chi-square = 0.61, p = 0.74 and I2 = 0%). The shock wave group had a better success rate than the control group at the three-month follow-up (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.62-3.15, p - < 0.00001). For reduction of pain the pooled data showed no significant heterogeneity (p - value of chi-Square 0.28 and I2 22%). There were significant differences between the ESWT and control groups for all follow-up visits (random-effect model, three trials, MD = 15.14, 95% CI = 13.86 to 16.42, < 0.00001 at three-month). Conclusion: A meta-analysis of data from three randomized-controlled trials that included a total of 605 patients was statistically significant in favor of extracorporeal shock wave therapy at follow-up 1(12 weeks).
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Correlation between interdialytic weight gain, left ventricular hypertrophy and FGF- 23 in prevalent hemodialysis patients

Published on: 28th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8648999984

Background:Patients with end-stage renal disease are suspected to have significant volume shifts and thereby cardiovascular strain as a result to interdialytic weight gain, chronic fluid overload and fluid removal during dialysis. In long-term hemodialysis patients, higher IDWG (interdialytic weight gain) could be associated with poor survival. Patients with the lowest interdialytic weight gain have the greatest survival. Certain laboratory and imaging modalities could help to assess and monitor the appropriate fluid balance for hemodialysis patients. FGF -23 might be associated with cardiovascular morbidity in ESRD patients. Objective: To evaluate correlation between hypervolemia and left ventricular hypertrophy and FGF-23 in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 60 prevalent hemodialysis patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to interdialytic weight gain (IDWG): Group I (low IDWG): Patients with absolute weight gain < 3 kg. Group II (high IDWG): patients with weight gain ≥ 3 kg. FGF 23, routine laboratory tests and echocardiography were done for both groups. Results: high IDWG group has higher systolic blood pressure and LVMI than low IDWG group. In all patients group, FGF-23 had a positive correlation with (weight gain, Na, PO4, PTH, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, LV wall septal and posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass index) and had a negative correlation with Hb level. Conclusion: FGF-23 could be a marker of volume overload and LVH in ESRD patients, which affect morbidity and mortality in these patients. FGF- 23 might be a marker of anemia in ESRD as it has a negative correlation with HB.
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Zn2+ Ions-Immune Virucidal activities for children and adults with preventions against 2019-nCoV and COVID-19 infection

Published on: 28th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873197329

Zinc induced pediatric preventing respiratory 2019-nCoV is required that supplementation with zinc gluconate 20 mg in Zn deficient children resulted in a nearly twofold reduction of acute lower respiratory infections as well as the time to recovery. Zinc supplementation in children is associated with a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of pneumonia. Preventing 2019-nCoV pneumonia is required that zinc supplementation alone (10 to 20 mg) for more than 3 months significantly reduces in the rate of pneumonia. zinc pediatric intake may be required to be effective range 10~20 mg/d for 2019-CoV prevention, 10~30 mg/d for reduction of COVID-19 bronchitis, and 20~30 mg/d for recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia, in which Zn2+ could bind with viral surface proteins by Zn2+ions-centered tetrahedrally coordination pattern. On the other hand, for aults, the zinc-homeostatic immune concentration may provide a protective role against the COVID-19 pandemic, likely by improving the host’s resistance against viral infection. 50 mg of zinc per day might provide an additional shield against the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly by increasing the host resistance to viral infection to minimize the burden of the disease. In order to prevent that an outbreak of respiratory sickness caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a serious public threat and disrupted many lives,assessing the efficacy of FDA-approved Zn-ejector drugs such as disulfiram combined with interferon to treat COVID-19 infected patients has been proposed. The key strategies for preventing lung damages include avoiding direct lung infection, altering host-virus interactions, promoting immune responses, diluting virus concentrations in lung tissues by promoting viral migration to the rest of the body, maintaining waste removal balance, protecting heart function and renal function, avoiding other infections, reducing allergic reactions and anti-inflammatory. The interactions had been found on the binding specificity by Zn2+ ions-centered tetrahedral geometric coordination of the inhibitors against 3C and 3C-like proteases. In addition, transient zinc chelation TPEN and EPDTC have been noted as preventing virus replication. Zinc-induced ROS production in COVID-19 respiratory ailment and pneumonia occurs both in children and adults. In children. ROS production in zinc (Ⅱ)-immune pediatric patient with COVID-19 bronchitis and pneumonia cannot be elucidated yet. In adults, zinc induced ROS generation in pulmonary COVID-19 infected cells is that alterations of ROS-producing and scavenging pathways that are caused by respiratory viral infections are implicated in inflammation, lung epithelial disruption, and tissue damage, and, in some cases, even pulmonary fibrosis. The involvement of oxidative stress in cell deaths caused during RNA virus infection and ROS production is correlated with host cell death.
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Health professional stress during COVID-19 pandemic

Published on: 27th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8683054059

WHO declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, to be a pandemic on March 12, 2020. In Morocco, the first case was reported in March 2nd 2020. The mental health of general population, medical and nursing staff especially has been greatly challenged. The aim of the present article is to explore the stress status of medical and nursing staff associated with exposure to the COVID-19. The medical staff was asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire anonymously. In University Hospital Mohamed VI, in Marrakesh, Morocco. During May 2020. In total, 120 valid questionnaires were collected. Among them, there were 57 residents (47,5%), 30 internes (25%), 22 nurses (19%) and others: medicine students and technical staff. The age was between 23 and 60 years. 15% of professional lived alone, 85% with their family, 74% lived with an old person or with a person having a chronic disease. In our study: the severity of symptoms in 36% of the asked professional, deaths among health professionals in 15%, death of a family member in 14%, the rapid spread of pandemic in 90%, the lack of knowledge in 83%, and finally contamination risk especially if comorbidity associated in 2%. Further risk factors: feelings of being inadequately supported by the hospital in 42%, fear of taking home infection to family members or others in 80%, being isolated, feelings of uncertainty and social stigmatization in 43%. The psychological presentation was the nightmare 19 in %, the insomnia in 48%, the somatization in 18%, the irritability in 22%, the aggressiveness in 14%, the nervousness in 70% and the drowsiness in 5%. During the vulnerability of the individual’s conditions during and after the COVID-19, psychological intervention should be done and a mental health support for the health professional.
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COVID-19 associated hyperthyroidism due to destructive thyrotoxicosis in a young female patient

Published on: 27th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8643729535

SARS-CoV2 can induce multiple immunological and endocrinological changes. We report the case of a COVID-19 associated hyperthyroidism in a young female. Per definition the patient – because of having given birth six weeks previously - had a postpartum thyroiditis. However thus no antibodies were detected, the thyroiditis ceased without medication after the dissolving of the virus disease and the fT3/fT3-ratio proved a destructive thyreopathy as well as there was a close time link onset of the symptoms with the novel corona virus infection we argue it to be a COVID-19 induced thyrotoxicosis. This proves the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to alter thyroid function, therefore all COVID-19 patients should be monitored regarding endocrinological changes and TSH, fT3, fT4 should be assessed.
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Evaluation of Single Bilateral Intratesticular Injection of Cetrimide for Nonsurgical Sterilization of Adult Male Albino Mice

Published on: 27th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8650662346

Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage stray animal populations in a different part of the world. An experimental study was conducted from December 2018 to April 2019 at Mekelle University to evaluate the effect of single bilateral intratesticular injection of cetrimide 2% in adult albino mice. A total of 20 clinically healthy albino mice selected based on their age and sex and were divided randomly into five groups and evaluation was conducted for 30 days after intratesticular injection of cetrimide solution 2% at the dose rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg per testis and for control 0.1 mL normal saline per testis per 100 g body weight were given. All albino mice were evaluated for 30 days at a fixed interval. Change in body weight, scrotal width, sexual behavior, and fertility performance was also assessed. On day 30, all albino mice were sacrificed for histopathological study. Means  ±  Standard deviation of the mean, one-way, and a mixed model ANOVA (for repeated measures) was used to summarize the data, determine the effects of group and time on bodyweight and scrotal width. The significant increase in body weight (p - 0.001) and significant reduction of scrotal width (p - 0.001) were noted in all cetrimide treated in comparison to control groups. In addition, there was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of scrotal width in albino mice after intratesticular injection of cetrimide on day 1, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 with respect to their experimental groups. Testicular histology revealed that there were multinucleated giant cells in seminiferous tubules, derangement of tubular architecture along with infiltration of leucocytes and appearance of fibrous tissue were seen on testicular sections at a dose rate of 15 and 20 mg. Similarly, a significant change in the sexual behavior of the treated males and no pregnancy was detected on female albino mice after 21 days post-coital at 10, 15, or 20 mg cetrimide-treated males. In conclusion, a single bilateral intratesticular injection of cetrimide 2% at a dose of 15 and 20 mg might provide an effective way of sterilization and may be considered as an alternative to surgical castration in male animals. Besides, further assessment should be done in the future to identify the mechanism of infertility.
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Anticipation of difficulty during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Published on: 24th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639116784

Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide, it is accepted as the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones for its minimal invasiveness, less pain and early recovery. Purpose: To predict the difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients according to the recently published scoring system and select the difficult cases to be done by a senior surgeon. Patients: This is a prospective cohort study. This study took place Oct 6th University Hospital and Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo university; the study involved 120 patients admitted with calcular cholecystitis, arranged for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy after applying the scoring system. Results: In our study we found that age, sex and ultrasonographic data were significant predictive factors for assessment preoperatively difficult cases that will be operated upon. We found 14 patients above 50 years who scored to be difficult and very difficult were at outcome difficult, only three patients converted to open surgery over fifty. Conclusion: We can report that obese patient who were over fifty with history of previous upper abdominal surgery and ultrasonographic picture showed thick walled GB and pericholecystic collection had high risk of conversion. At this study scoring system was used for prediction of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy sensitivity was 93.75% and specificity was 52.94% of the scoring system at score 5 for prediction of easy or difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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Leakage after sleeve gastrectomy: Endoscopic stenting VS surgical intervention

Published on: 24th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639114108

Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is becoming more popular in the treatment of obesity. LSG is safe with a low morbidity. The complications rarely result in morbidity and even mortality. Leaks are the major complication associated with LSG with a reported prevalence between 1.9% and 2.4%. Objective: To compare surgical intervention and endoscopic stenting for treatment of gastric leakage after sleeve gastrectomy. Patients and method: Our study included 30 patients presented with post sleeve leaks discovered by routine postoperative imaging or during the follow up period. Patients were recruited from October 6th university hospital during the period from August 2017 to August 2019. Patients were divided to the following groups: 1) Endoscopy group: This included 15 patients with post sleeve leakage undergoing endoscopic stent insertion. 2) Surgery group: which included 15 patients with post sleeve leak age undergoing surgical management. This division was random. Results: Our study showed that Endoscopic stenting for management of post sleeve gastrectomy leakage is an effective method with lower morbidity and shorter post-operative hospital stay than surgical management. Some patients may be good candidates for early surgical intervention in type 1 leakage if managed early before dissemination of leakage and before tissues become friable. Complications of stents include stent migration (26%), stent related ulcer (13%) and stricture (13%). while the surgical intervention carries more complications (DVT, chest infection, wound infection and stricture) and longer postoperative hospital stay. Conclusion: endoscopic management of post-sleeve gastrectomy leakage with stenting is recommended because it successfully manages the leaks and avoids invasive procedures with less risk, with shorter hospital stay and early return of function.
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Serological and virological profile of patients with chronic hepatitis B infection in Eritrea

Published on: 24th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639906724

Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of liver associated morbidity and mortality with diverse spectrum of disease. It is estimated about 15% to 40% of patients with hepatitis B virus infection progress to chronic hepatitis and about 15% to 25% die from disease complications. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the serological and virological markers of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection to determine the natural history of chronic hepatitis B infection in the Eritrean setting. Methods: A laboratory-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 305 patients with HBsAg positive who presented to Orotta National Referral Hospital, Halibet Hospital, Sembel Hospital and National Health Laboratory in Asmara, Eritrea from January 2017 to February 2019. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect hepatitis B serological markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg, anti-HBsAb, HBeAg and anti-HBeAg). Hepatitis B DNA viral loads and liver transaminase levels were determined. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 25.0. Results: A total of 305 patients presented with HBsAg positive serology with a mean age of 41.3 (± 13.7) years ranging from 16 to 78 years. Males were 218 (71.5%) and females 87 (28. 5%).Anti-HBc was positive in 300 (98.4%), of which 293 (97.5%) were positive for HBsAg and 7 (2.3%) positive for anti-HBs. Among these 293 patients, 20 (6.8%) were HBeAg positive/anti-HBe positive, 242 (82.6%) HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe-positive and 31 (10.6%) were HBeAg negative/anti-HBe-positive. Detectable HBV DNA was found in 122(41.6%) of the 293 cases. Alanine transaminase was normal in 90% of HBeAg-positive and in 91.2% of HBeAg-negative patients. Hepatitis B DNA viral load was >2,000 IU/mL in 67 (22.86%) and >200,000 IU/mL level was more frequently detected in HBeAg positive (20.0%) compared to HBeAg negative (1.8%) subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study shows predominance of HBeAg-negative and low replication phase of HBV infection among patients in Eritrea. It also documented that most patients had chronic infection with normal liver transaminase levels in the absence of biochemical signs of hepatitis. This study will provide a basis for therapeutic evaluation of patients and planning national treatment guidelines in the Eritrean setting.
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A Comprehensive review on genomic diversity and epidemiology of COVID-19

Published on: 22nd July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639906558

A respiratory outbreak of COVID-19 started from Wuhan, China and on 30 January 2020, WHO declared this infection to be epidemic, implementing public health emergency worldwide. On 11th March 2020, observing its prevalence in the whole world and WHO declared as a pandemic. Many countries completely collapse in the grip of this pandemic, as there are no effective treatments available, the precaution is the sole remedy to minimize this infection. The emergence and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 (since the SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012] manifest the third time outline of highly contagious and pathogenic infection with infect-ability to spread globally in the twentieth-first century. The SARS CoV-2 genome is highly identical to bat coronavirus which is considered to be the perfect natural host. This coronavirus even utilizes the same ACE2 receptor as SARS-CoV and mainly spread the infection to the respiratory tract, which evidently showed that transmission of this virus through interactions and exposures. The death toll of these infected patients is increasing day by day especially when they have prehistory fatal diseases like cardiovascular, diabetics, and respiratory diseases. In this review, we summarized and explained the research progressed and available data on epidemiology, COVID-19 phylogenetic relation and its impact of different fatal disease and their relation and discuss the precautionary methods to combat this pandemic. Moreover, the pieces of evidence of spreading the virus through pets and prevention of being spreading by copper metal endorsement.
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Expectations versus reality: Improvement of symptom control and quality of life of oncology patients using medical cannabis

Published on: 22nd July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8657517928

Aim: To compare the expectations and the reality of oncology patients in terms of to the use of medical cannabis, including symptom control and related quality of life. Research question: Is there a difference between oncology patients expectations and their reality concerning the use of medical cannabis and what do oncology patients experience regarding symptom control and quality of life? Method: This research was done in a tertiary hospital in Israel at the oncology clinic A comparative study that used self- administered questionnaires for patients who received authorization to use medical cannabis. The first questionnaire was given to patients after receiving the authorization to use medical cannabis and asked about their expectations related to its use. Patients filled out the same questionnaire for the second time, approximately two months after. Comparison of the respondent’s answers, before and after using medical cannabis, showed reality of improving symptom control and Quality of Life. Results: Seventy-four patients completed both questionnaires. Most patients reported advantage in symptom control when using medical cannabis, although their expectations were somewhat higher than the reality experienced. Advantage of using medical cannabis was also found concerning improvement of quality of life. Seventy-five of patients still used medical cannabis once completing the second questionnaire and most of them reported that they would recommend the use of medical cannabis. Conclusion: It can be seen from this study that for many oncology patients the use of medical cannabis may be very helpful. However, the use of cannabis is not free of side effects, as can be seen from the patients’ reports. This has clear implications for oncology nursing practice and may lead to a better understanding of patients using medical cannabis in the future, in terms of its benefit and side effects. 
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When conservative treatment in trachea laserations?

Published on: 21st July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639105303

Introduction: The tracheobronchial injuries are usually fatal and some of the lucky people can reach emergency services without dying in the place of trauma. They can cause severe symptoms which can be lifetreathing. This type of injuries must been taken carefully and need to decide fast what treatment you going to give. Case report: We present a 53 years old patient who has been stabbed during a fight and got his trachea ruptured. His complaints shortness of breath and neck swelling. He can be treated conservatively with bronchoscopic and clinical evaluation. Discussion: Tracheobronchial injuries are life-threatening and the airway must be secured first. They can be treated conservatively in some cases. CT can be useful but fiberoptic bronchoscopy is the key in diagnosis. Conclusion: Although early treatment of tracheal lacerations is urgent surgery, it is reported that these injuries can be treated with conservative methods under appropriate conditions.
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Stress evaluation of maxillary central incisor restored with different post materials: A finite element analysis

Published on: 21st July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639114755

Introduction: With the availability of different post systems and various studies on the strength of teeth restored with posts, the controversy as to which post systems provide better stress distribution of post and longevity of tooth has not been resolved. The purpose of this study was to compare the stress distribution of three different post materials using finite element analysis. Materials and nethod: Three dimensional finite element models of central incisor, three posts with crown were constructed on computer with software. Posts of three different materials (Ni-Cr post, Glass fiber post, and Zirconia post)with zirconia crown were virtually generated and a force of 100 N was applied at an angle of 450 on the palatal surface of the crown. Von Mises stresses were evaluated on the cervical, middle and apical third of the root. Results: The maximum stresses were seen on the cervical one-third in each post material indicating that this region is more prone to fracture in tooth restored with posts. Among the three materials tested, Ni-Cr post showed maximum stress generation followed by Zirconia post and glass fiber post. The maximum stresses generated by the posts were 11.4 MPa, 10.58 MPa and 4.11 MPa respectively. Conclusion: The less rigid post material like glass fiber post can be used in an endodontically treated anterior teeth.
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Biomarkers in acute kidney injury

Published on: 20th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8635214937

Acute kidney injury is a common condition associated with high morbidity and short-term mortality. Its pathophysiology varies according to the numerous conditions associated with its genesis. Biomarkers allow detecting changes at the level of kidney function; therefore, they play an important role in the prevention, early diagnosis, therapeutic response and prognosis of acute kidney injury. The search for biomarkers for acute kidney injury began over 15 years ago; initially, only serum creatinine was available for diagnosis. However, throughout history, great advances have been made in research, which have allowed the finding of new biomarkers in order to improve the health and quality of life of patients. A narrative review of the literature is carried out on the basis of available scientific evidence to clarify the role and importance of biomarkers in the context of acute renal injury.
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The practice of self-medication in children by their mothers in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

Published on: 17th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8658074907

Self-medication is a common practice in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). There are few studies on mothers’ practice of self-medication in children in DRC. Trying to draw an inventory of this practice, we carried out a survey of self-medication of children under 12 years of age by their mothers (n = 392) in Lubumbashi, DRC. The main objective was to assess frequency of self-medication and the secondary purposes were to describe habits, dangerous behaviors and common mistakes. The results speak for themselves: 96% of the mothers self-medicate their children; 95.7% do not know the exact dosage of the drug used; 97.17% do not check the expiry date; over 91% of the mothers use antimalarials, 41.3% antipyretics/analgesics and 26.3% antibiotics. Healthcare practitioners should involve household members in focused awareness on self-medication and its negative implications in order to encourage them to serve as change agents against the practice by mothers.
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Premaxillary osteotomy in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate: Skeletal and dental changes

Published on: 16th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639114756

Purpose: To evaluate changes in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) who premaxillary osteotomy and secondary alveolar bone grafting as compared to children with BCLP who are not indicated for surgery, and to determine variables that differentiate patients who do or do not require osteotomy. Material and methods: Twenty-four children with BCLP were included in the study: 12 who underwent osteotomy (intervention group) and 12 who had no surgery (control group). Radiographic and model values of the intervention group were compared before (T1) and after (T2) premaxillary osteotomy, and measurements were compared with those from the control group at T1. Results: Convexity, ANB (point A-nasion-point B), and maxillary depth was more diminished at T2 in children in the intervention group. Point A, anterior nasal spine, and pogonion were retroposed after surgery, and the anterior spine was higher. At T2, the upper incisors were proinclinated and intruded, and overbite was improved. Models revealed increased intermolar intercanine width as well as intrusion of upper incisor after surgery. Premaxilla and upper molars were more extruded, had a higher total maxillary height and increased extrusion of upper incisor in children who underwent osteotomy. Conclusion: After surgery, children who undergo surgery have a premaxilla that is more normalized and more level with the occlusal plane, as well as improved dental inclination. Variables that differentiate children who require osteotomy from those who do not include more extrusion and protrusion of the premaxilla, and a greater extrusion of the upper incisors.
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The mechanisms of cardiac myopathies, a kinetics approach: Leading review

Published on: 16th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8631130997

The normal adult heart is a well maintained machine that has a mechanism for growth replacement of the sarcomere that is lost by natural degeneration. This process ensures the heart has the strength of contraction to function correctly giving blood supply to the whole body. Some of the force of contraction of the sarcomere is transmitted to its major protein titin where its strength results in unfolding of a flexible section and release of a growth stimulant. The origin of all the cardiomyopathies can be traced to errors in this system resulting from mutations in a wide variety of the sarcomeric proteins. Too much or chronic tension transfer to titin giving increased growth resulting in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and too little leading to muscle wastage, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). HCM can ultimately lead to sudden cardiac death and DCM to heart failure. In this paper I show (1) a collection of the tension/ATPase calcium dependencies of cardiac myofibrils that define the mechanism of Ca2+ cooperativity. (2) I then reintroduce the stress/strain relationship to cardiomyopathies. (3) I then review the cardiomyopathy literature that contains similar Ca2+ dependency data to throw light on the mechanisms involved in generation of the types of myopathies from the mutations involved. In the review of cardiomyopathy there are two sections on mutations, the first dealing with those disrupting the Ca2+ cooperativity, i.e. the Hill coefficient of activation, leading to incomplete relaxation in diastole, chronic tension, and increased growth. Secondly dealing with those where the Ca2+ cooperativity is not affected giving either increased or decreased tension transfer to titin and changes in sarcomere growth. 
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Acute necrotising pancreatitis masquerading as psoas abscess: A report of two cases

Published on: 15th July, 2020

Acute pancreatitis is commonly diagnosed clinically, with its classical presentation of upper abdominal pain, backed by raised serum levels of enzymes amylase and lipase. However, unusual presentation of this common surgical emergency as a psoas abscess is a rare finding which can lead to missed diagnosis with a fatal outcome. We present here two such cases of acute necrotising pancreatitis masquerading as psoas abscess, with no classical clinical symptoms and only mildly raised levels of serum amylase and lipase. The region of pancreas involved by necrosis influenced the site of presentation of the psoas abscess. In the first case, acute necrotising pancreatitis involving head and neck of pancreas presented as psoas abscess presenting in the right lumbar region, while the left side collection due to pancreatitis involving body and tail of pancreas manifested as an abscess in left flank. While evaluating the aetiology of a psoas abscess, a differential diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis should be kept as a possibility.
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Unusual cause of parietal thoracic pain: A case report

Published on: 15th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8633816931

We report the radio-clinical observation of a 21-year-old patient, referred for anterior chest parietal discomfort evolving for 3 months ago, with the notion of trauma. The chest CT (computed tomography) scan detected a costal cartilage fracture without associated traumatic pulmonary or mediastinal changes. This case illustrates the usefulness of imaging in the diagnosis and management of costal cartilage fractures, and for screening out differential diagnoses. The aim of this study is to determine the interest of imaging in the study of fractures of the chrondro-costal cartilage. Is to determine the CT value in chrondro-costal cartilage fracture.
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Ground-state bands of doubly even 166Hf Nucleus

Published on: 15th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8656796393

This study was carried out to investigate the rotational structure of even-even 166Hf isotopes using the phenomenological fitting, Sood’s semi-empirical formula. The rotational energies from the calculated values were compared to the experimental spectrum. The result shows that in 166Hf, calculated energies fit the experimental values to a remarkable degree of accuracy.
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Management of acute tongue swelling

Published on: 14th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8631718785

Background: Tongue swelling often presents as an acute upper airway obstruction. Aim: To present a case series of patients presenting with an acute tongue swelling sharing our experience in managing these patients. Subjects and methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients presenting acutely to the emergency department (ED) at two institutions in Scotland. All patients were evaluated by an otolaryngologist for probable causes of tongue swelling. Data were collected on demographics, co-morbidities, clinical history, examination findings, acute airway management and subsequent care the patients needed. Results: A total of 32 patients (mean age ± STD, 61.6 ± 18.8; 65% male) were included in the study from two teaching hospitals. The most common presenting symptoms were difficulty in speaking (30/32, 94%) and dysphagia (27/32, 84%). Breathing difficulty was only observed in 8 of 32 patients (25%). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor’s induced angioedema was the most common cause (45%) for acute tongue swelling. Three (9.4%) patients required intubation; 2 (6.3%) on initial presentation. Two patients had emergency tracheostomy for breathing difficulties due to supraglottic swelling on flexible pharyngolaryngoscopy. Conclusion: Acute tongue swelling is a life-threatening condition. The patients on ACE inhibitors would appear to be at higher risk of developing acute tongue swelling. Such patients with potentially compromised airway need to be treated in a facility where emergency intubation and tracheostomy can be performed at a short notice.
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Physical activity and health-related quality of life among physiotherapists in Hebron/West Bank

Published on: 13th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8643757048

Introduction: Physical activity (PA) directly affects Health-related quality of life. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between physical activity levels of physiotherapists and their physical activity promotion strategies. in Hebron/West Bank. Method: The study relied on cross-section, which included 150 PTs distributed over 42 centers of Hebron areas in Palestine country. The questionnaire is based on Likert scale items pentagonal level, which included several aspects of Health-related quality of life. Statistical analysis was used to test the associations between different categorical variables (p < 0.05). Results: of total 150 participants, most of them were male 56%, their ages ranged from 25-30 years (46%), and holding bachelor’s degrees 78%. About 60% of them are in good physical health. Most participants feel vitality, depression, quit, have energy, and are happy in the most of the time. In addition, most of them believe their health is similar to that of the members of the surrounding community. The study showed there is no relationship between general health and age except in the age group over 40 years, and females are the most exposed group. In addition, there is an influence relationship between physical and psychological with age, and this effect also includes females more than males. Conclusion: Physical functioning of most of the participants was good, while most of the participants had problems with their work and the major effect was on the female category.
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Determination of body image perception and life satisfaction in patients undergoing hemodialysis

Published on: 9th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628635367

Objective: This descriptive study was conducted in order to determine body image perception and life satisfaction of individuals undergoing hemodialysis treatment. Material and methods: The population of the study consisted of individuals who were treated in hemodialysis units in the city center of Kırşehir. Patients. The study was conducted with 135 patients. Questionnaire, multidimensional body-self relations questionnaire, and satisfaction with life scale were used as data collection tool. Results: According to study results, total mean scores of MBSRQ were significantly low in individuals who were older than 65, illiterate, had an extended family, were unemployed, had low income, suffered from disease and underwent hemodialysis treatment for 10 years and longer, had arteriovenous fistula in vascular insertion site, had body mass index within the class of morbid obese, and had no planned transplantation. SWLS mean scores of individuals, who were in the age group of 25-34 years, high school graduate, employed, described their income status as very high, had CRF for 6-12 months, underwent hemodialysis for 6-12 months, were waiting for renal transplantation, were significantly high. As a result of the correlation analysis made between body image and life satisfaction, it was determined that there was a positive, quite significant correlation Conclusion: As a result, it was determined that hemodialysis patients were affected by body image and life satisfaction negatively due to many factors and the total score of body image scale was very low.
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The rising role of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of COVID-19 infections

Published on: 7th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8623431074

Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide [1,2]. The Mid-20th century witnessed most of the antimicrobial discoveries but recently there is dramatic shortage of new classes of antimicrobial agents due to failure to build a sustainable antimicrobial discovery platform [1-4]. For example, antibiotics comprise ˂ 1.5% of the compounds under investigation at the major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies [1,5]. 
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Hemorrhagic shock due to irreducible uterine torsion in a third trimester twin pregnancy: A case report

Published on: 7th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628624184

Uterine torsion is a rare life-threatening event that happens at any age or any gestational age. By definition, it consists of a rotation of more than 45 degrees around the long axis of the uterus. The reported cases have variable presentations. The uterine torsion can happen without any sequelae either for the fetus or the mother. However, fetal and maternal mortalities were also reported in such a case. We hereby, report the case of a 29-year-old female patient, with previous four Normal Vaginal Deliveries, pregnant with twins, presenting at 36 weeks gestation with an irreducible uterine torsion at the third trimester of her pregnancy complicated by maternal and fetal deaths. We concluded that the prognosis is improved as long as the management is done rapidly. More data is needed to know about the genetic predilection and the characteristics of imaging workup for a rapid preoperative diagnosis of this condition. 
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Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia: Factors predicting upstaging to carcinoma

Published on: 6th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8633817372

Aim: Percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) is considered the gold standard technique for initial histological diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions seen on screening mammogram, but it is less reliable for diagnosing atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) due to significant rates of diagnosis upstaging to malignant disease after excision biopsy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict diagnosis upstage to carcinoma in patients diagnosed with ADH on core biopsy. Methods: A retrospective database search identified 52 consecutive CNB of suspicious breast lesions revealing pure ADH. Inclusion criteria included asymptomatic women presenting for screening mammogram, who subsequently underwent surgical excision. Logistic regression analysis evaluated clinical, radiological, and histological factors. Results: A total of 52 patients with ADH on CNB were identified who met our criteria. Twenty-six of 52 patients (50%) were upstaged to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma, based on histological interpretation of the surgically excised specimen. Lesion size was showed to be a statistically significant predictor on univariable logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed Asian ethnicity and lesion size as independent predictors of malignancy (p = 0.050 and 0.011, respectively). Conversely, women of Middle Eastern and European origin and lesions < 15 mm on mammography were negative predictors of malignancy. Conclusion: Lesion size ≥ 15 mm on mammography and Asian ethnicity are independent risk factors for breast carcinoma in asymptomatic patients diagnosed with ADH on CNB.
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Statistical and equation model analysis on COVID-19

Published on: 3rd July, 2020

Background: An infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus called COVID-19 has raged across the world since December 2019. The novel coronavirus first appeared in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to Asia and now many countries around the world are affected by the epidemic. The deaths of many patients, including medical staff, caused social panic, media attention, and high attention from governments and world organizations. Today, with the joint efforts of the government, the doctors and all walks of life, the epidemic in Hubei Province has been brought under control, preventing its spread from affecting the lives of the people. Because of its rapid spread and serious consequences, this sudden novel coronary pneumonia epidemic has become an important social hot spot event. Through the analysis of the novel coronary pneumonia epidemic situation, we can also have a better understanding of sudden infectious diseases in the future, so that we can take more effective response measures, establish a truly predictable and provide reliable and sufficient information for prevention and control model. Methods: We establish different models according to the different developments of the epidemic situation, different time points, and different response measures taken by the government. To be specific, during the period of 2020.1.23-2020.2.7, the traditional SIR model is adopted; during the period of 2020.2.8-2020.3.30, according to the scientific research results, it was considered that the novel coronary pneumonia has a latent period, so in the later phase of epidemic development, the government has effectively isolated patients, thus we adopt the SEIQR model accordingly. During the period of 2020.3.31-2020.5.16, because more asymptomatic infected people were found, we use the SEIQLR model to fit. Finally, through a SEIR simulator, considering the susceptible number, the latent number, the infected number, the cured number, death number and other factors, we simulate the change of various numbers of people from the beginning to the next 180 days of novel coronary pneumonia. Findings: The results based on the analysis of differential equations and kinetic models show that through the prediction of the model established in the first phase, the epidemic situation of novel coronary pneumonia in Hubei Province was controlled at the end of March, which is in line with the actual situation. The rest of Hubei province, except for Wuhan, lifted control of the departure channel from 0:00 am on March 25, and Wuhan was also unblocked on April 8. Through the establishment of the second-phase model, it is found that the epidemic situation will reach its peak in mid-February. For example, the quarantine admission of the hospital declined after mid-February, which is inseparable from the measures to build square cabin hospitals in early February so that more and more patients can be admitted. The model established in the third phase shows that the epidemic had been completely controlled by the end of May, which is also in line with the reality. Because in mid-May, the Wuhan government conducted a nucleic acid test on all the citizens to screen for asymptomatic infected persons to fundamentally control the spread of novel coronary pneumonia. Interpretation: Hubei Province, as the center of the initial outbreak of novel coronary pneumonia, people were forced to be isolated at home during the Spring Festival, the most important Chinese holiday, and the whole society was in a state of suspension of work and study. The Chinese government had taken many measures in response to the epidemic, such as shutting down the city, vigorously building square cabin hospitals, and prohibiting people from gathering. At the beginning of May this year, the epidemic in Hubei Province was finally effectively controlled. For ordinary citizens, we should not cause unnecessary panic about the unknown novel coronavirus. Instead, we should fully understand and be familiar with this virus. In addition to the relevant medical knowledge, we should also understand the spread of infectious diseases through appropriate mathematical models. By mathematical models, we can understand the degree of harm of infectious diseases, when to control it, how to stop it, and use scientific views to reveal the original face of the novel coronavirus to the public without causing social panic.
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In silico comparative analysis of HIV protease inhibitors effect on 2019-nCoV coronavirus 3CLpro

Published on: 3rd July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8627241132

The novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV has become a bane to mankind and spread worldwide and infected many people. Thus, there is an urgent need of a cure for the severe pneumonia disease caused by this virus. In this study, In silico comparative analysis has been done for HIV protease inhibitors on coronavirus 3CLpro protein which has shown the major interactions and common amino acid residues involved in interactions. The amino acid interaction analysis has revealed two amino acids ARG4, LYS5 to be the major amino acids targets among selected ligands. The binding energy analysis has also revealed Cobicistat as one of these best suited ligand for 3CLpro.
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An exceptional case of bilateral vestibular areflexia complicating acute otitis media

Published on: 2nd July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8627247898

Introduction: Bilateral vestibular areflexia is a rare pathological entity whose most frequent etiology is drug ototoxicity. We report an unusual case of bilateral vestibular areflexia complicating acute otitis media through which we raise the difficulties of diagnosis and therapeutic management of this pathology. Case Report: 57-year-old Tunisian patient who consults for a loss balance associated with earache and hearing loss. Initial clinical examination revealed bilateral acute otitis media with a right harmonious vestibular syndrome and normal neurological examination. The diagnosis of post-otitis labyrinthitis was retained. The patient was put on antibiotics and corticosteroids. The evolution was marked by the persistence of instability in darkness and oscillopsia; vestibular explorations concluded with bilateral vestibular areflexia. MRI concluded to posterior labyrinthitis and eliminated central neurological involvement. The patient was kept under betahistine. The tympanic cavity was drained by a tympanic aerator on both sides. Vestibular rehabilitation was started quickly. Gradual improvement was obtained of autonomy with persistent oscillopsia. Conclusion: Bilateral vestibular areflexia poses diagnostic problems based on anamnestic and clinical arguments and vestibular explorations. The therapeutic management is delicate, vestibular reeducation occupies a primordial place.
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Uterine Fibroid Embolization in time of Covid-19

Published on: 2nd July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8625644641

The coronavirus pandemic has caused major changes in society around the world, especially in healthcare systems. Patients with various medical ailments and conditions who were scheduled to undergo elective treatments before the pandemic arrived, wonder now if they still should follow through with it.
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Curettage is a risk factor for marginal umbilical cord insertion

Published on: 2nd July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628672442

Objective: To identify the risk factors for marginal cord insertion (MCI). Material and Methods: This case-control study was carried out between 1st February and 30th June 2019. Singletons with and without MCI at delivery were recruited. Main variables analyzed included maternal age, parity, number of previous dilatation and curettage (D&C) or manual vacuum aspiration (MVA), time interval between each procedure and conception, cord insertion. Fisher’s exact test, t-test and logistic regression were used to compare data from both groups. Results: We found 60 cases of MCI (4.1%). The significant (p < 0.05) risk factors for MCI were past-history of D&C (aOR 5.97, 95% CI 1.95-18.25) particularly when conception occurred ˂ 5 months after D&C (OR 10.5, 95% CI 1.36-81.05), fetal female sex (aOR 3.82, 95% CI 1.41-10.32), parity ≥ 4 (aOR 2.63, 95% CI 1.05-12.71) and past-history of MVA (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.23-8.76). Conclusion: Women should be advised to conceive at least five months after D&C.
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