All Articles in June, 2020

Triple negative breast cancer: Early stages management and evolution, a two years experience at the department of breast cancer of CHSF

Published on: 30th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8625623678

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and is a major public health problem. It is divided into several subtypes, including triple negatives. The general objective of our study is to establish the profile and the management of patients with triple negative breast cancer over a period of 2 years, operated in our department. During our study period, triple-negative breast cancers accounted for 10% of our population. The most affected age group ranges from 50 to 60. The majority of patients in our sample are pauciparous. In the group of patients who received hormone therapy, it was mainly HRT for 4 to 6 years. 96.77% of patients consulted a health worker within 3 months of the discovery of the signs. Adenopathies are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. 93.54% of the cases have an invasive ductal carcinoma. Triple negative cancers are essentially poorly differentiated. Triple-negative cancer has a high rate of cell renewal. In our study, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is mostly indicated for triple-negative breast cancers ≥ 30 mm at diagnosis and a delayed lumpectomy is then performed in 23.52% of the patients. For tumors of < 30 mm size, a lumpectomy is performed immediately in 76.47% of the patients, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Mastectomy was performed in 45.16% of patients; it was mainly indicated in front of a large tumor size associated with a small breast volume, then multifocal breast tumors. Breast reconstruction was performed in 21.42%. Radiation therapy is indicated in the majority of patients, postoperatively. In our population, 11 patients were proposed to have an oncogenetic survey; it was mainly indicated based on the Manchester criteria in front of a young age and a family history of cancer. There are two BRCA 1 mutations, one BRCA 2 mutation, and one case of absence of mutation. The therapeutic intake in case of a mutation is directed towards a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy and adnexectomy, proposed at the age of 40. Two patients had presented triple negative recurrences of their already treated breast cancer; first case PDL1 positive PD-L1 ≥ 1% treated with immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy (atezolizumab/abraxane) while the second and second PDL1 negative treated with chemotherapy alone. Despite their low frequency, triple negative breast cancers represent a subgroup marked by pejorative characteristics, a reserved prognosis, with limited treatment options.
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The “Follow-up Factor” in management development

Published on: 26th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628647076

Leadership is not just for leaders anymore. Top companies are beginning to understand that sustaining peak performance requires a firm-wide commitment to developing leaders that is tightly aligned to organizational objectives — a commitment much easier to understand than to achieve. Organizations must find ways to cascade leadership from senior management to men and women at all levels. 
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Level of Nurses to Patients Communication and Perceived Barriers in Government Hospitals of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia, 2020

Published on: 26th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628973755

Background: Communication is the process of exchanging information or messages from one group to the other through mutually understood verbal or non-verbal ways. Communication barrier is anything that prevents receiving and understanding the messages. poor communication between patients and the nurses’ result in an increased length of stay, wastage of the resource, patient dissatisfaction, absence of confidence, and frustration for both the nurses and the patients. This study will provide basic information on the level of nurses to patients’ communication and perceived barriers in government hospitals of Bahir Dar city. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of the nurse to patient communication and perceived barriers in government hospital of Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia, 2020. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional mixed-methods study was conducted from February 24 – March 9/2020 in government hospitals of Bahir Dar city. A total of 380 nurses were included in the quantitative study by using simple random sampling. For both the quantitative and qualitative study, at the initial stage of data collection and interview; informed consent was obtained from respondents. Data were entered into Epi Data 4.6 and analyzed with a statistical package of social science version 25. Data were mainly analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. For the qualitative study, purposive sampling technique was employed, and 7 participants were interviewed. Thematic analysis was used. Results: From the total participants 36.5% of nurses were found to have poor communication. Variables which have statistically significant associations with the level of communication were educational level, work experience, the unwillingness of nurses, and lack of communication skill. The highest perceived communication barriers were lack of continuous training with 82.7% followed by workload with 80.7% and lack of medical facilities with 79.2% as reported by nurses. All environmental-related barriers were the perceived barriers of the nurse to patient communication. Conclusion: In this study, the communication of nurses to patients is found to low. To enhance communication with the patients; nurses and other stakeholders like the ministry of health, the health bureau, and hospital authorities need to recognize the communication barriers. Giving awareness on the communication barrier for the nurses helps to minimize the barriers and improve the nurses to patients’ communication.
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Targeted community outreach events to deliver healthcare to diverse rural populations

Published on: 24th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628651982

Introduction: Rural populations often experience disparities in health and access to and quality of healthcare. Such disparities may differ among subpopulations. Community outreach events provide an opportunity for rural residents to receive health services and education at reduced or no cost. This project builds on our previous experience with community health fairs by providing health events that target specific underserved subpopulations (rural youth, Latinas, and men). Methods: Our first event provided free sports physicals to area students. The second provided free health screenings to men during an annual agricultural event (Bean Day). The third was a cardiovascular health event for Latinas that featured free or reduced cost health screenings and other health-related and culturally appropriate activities. Results: Thirty-five students received sports physicals, enabling them to participate in sports. Twenty-two Bean Day participants, primarily men, received health screenings; four were hypertensive, three were overweight, and 12 were obese. Over 100 women attended Latina Red Dress and received health services and education. For many in these subpopulations, events such as this provide the only healthcare they receive. During all three events, participants received education regarding any health issues of concern and referrals to local health clinics when appropriate (e.g. hypertension, high glucose levels). Conclusion: Community health events such as these provide culturally appropriate and economical means to deliver health services and education, enabling participants to identify and address any health concerns. Targeting events for underserved subpopulations helped engage them in their healthcare. These findings support the need for effective education and intervention efforts to address physical and mental health concerns in this rural area. This was our first contact with these particular populations whom we know need intervention to receive health care. Moving forward through 2020 and beyond we will have future health fairs in the same groups in order to assess if the health fairs are indeed impacting health of these children, men and minority women. 
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Determinants of neonatal near miss among neonates admitted to Ambo University Referral Hospital and Ambo General Hospital, Ethiopia, 2019

Published on: 24th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8625640828

Background: Neonatal Near-miss is defined as complications of neonates so severe as to be imminently life-threatening but survived due to chance or treatment. The number of neonates who survived morbidities were approximately 3 to 6 times greater than those who died. There was little evidence about neonatal near miss in Ethiopia. This study attempted to identify the determinants of neonatal near miss among neonates admitted to the Ambo University Referral Hospital and Ambo General Hospital. Methods: Hospital-based quantitative unmatched case-control study was conducted at the Ambo University Referral Hospital and Ambo General Hospital from March 1 to 28, 2019. The respondents, 134 cases and 268 controls were recruited by simple random technique. Data were coded, entered and cleaned in EpiInfo version 7 and exported to SPSS. Both Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was computed at 95% CI and the final model was checked by Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness -of-fit test. Multi collinearity and cofounders were not detected. Result: Multivariate analysis showed that distance more than 15km away from health facilities [AOR=2.11, 95% CI: (1.09, 4.095)], Unwanted, and unplanned current pregnancy [AOR=3.71, 95% CI: (1.28, 10.79)], less than four Antenatal care visit [AOR=6.55, 95% CI: (3.07, 13.98)], Instrumental delivery [AOR=4.62, 95% CI: (1.78, 11.98)] were positively associated with Neonatal Near Miss. Whereas Term Neonates [AOR= 87%, 95% CI: (0.05, 0.32)], and Normal birth weight [AOR=91%, 95% CI: (0.03, 0.28)] were negatively associated with Neonatal Near Miss. Conclusion: Distance from health facilities, Antenatal care visit, current pregnancy type, birth weight, gestational age and mode of delivery were determinants of Neonatal Near Miss. Therefore, providing adequate Antenatal services, health education and training is needed to improve neonatal health.
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COVID-19 in pregnancy: Our experience at a tertiary maternity unit in France

Published on: 24th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8625644678

Objectives: Our main objectives are to reveal the pregnancy and neonatal impacts of COVID-19 infection and to compare it to the results that are reported in the literature. Methods and materials: The characteristics of the admitted pregnant patients COVID-19 positive with their initial presentation, course at the hospital, and short term follow-up are exposed. Correlation of the age and gestational age with the severity of the disease was calculated. Results: Thirty five COVID-19 positive pregnant patients presented between the beginning of March and the end of April 2020. From 5 weeks till 41 weeks of gestation, all trimesters were included. The mean of age is 32 and the BMI equal 28.2. Associated comorbidities included not only diabetes and hypertension but also PCOS. The symptomatology was considered mild in most of the cases. The distribution of the symptoms included cough in 86%. 10 out of 35 delivered and cesarean was performed in 50% of the cases. The mean length of stay is 6 days. Neither maternal nor neonatal deaths occurred. There is a significant correlation between the age of the patient and the severity of the disease but this is not the case with gestational age. Conclusion: Our results were comparable to the literature in terms of initial presentation, associated comorbidities and the length of stay. Despite the fact that the cesarean rate was high, it was far below that of the literature. More data is still needed about COVID-19 in pregnancy.
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Why are more otorhinolaryngology surgeons dying from Covid-19 than any other surgical specialty?

Published on: 22nd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8627238391

Covid-19 infection is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This has resulted in the present pandemic from which thousands of people have died including many front-line health care workers. Of the surgeons who have died from covid-19 it would appear that otorhinolaryngology surgeons have made the largest sacrifice (Figure 1) [1].
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Femoral venous closure: A single-centre retrospective analysis in real world all comers with MynxGrip® vascular closure device

Published on: 18th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628667812

Background: Vascular closure devices (VCD) are routinely used to achieve haemostasis following percutaneous arterial procedures. The extravascular polyethylene-glycol based MynxGrip® device (Cardinal Health) received FDA approval for use in the closure of femoral veins, but so far limited data is available on its use, especially with concomitant use of anticoagulants. Method: This is a retrospective analysis of data from a single-centre on the effectiveness and complication rates following the use of the MynxGrip® device for femoral venous closure in patients undergoing diagnostic/interventional (temporary pacing during balloon aortic valvuloplasty, or electrophysiology) procedures utilising 5-7F sheaths. Results: 85 patients (mean age 74 years) underwent femoral venous closure with the MynxGrip® device. 51.8% were male. The rate of concomitant anticoagulant or antiplatelet use was 52.9%. Device deployment was 100% successful with full haemostasis in all cases. There were no major vascular complications (bleeding, thrombosis, or infections). There was one case of a minor small venous hematoma which did not require treatment. The mean length of stay was less than 1 day (67.1% patients discharged the same day) and overnight stay only indicated by interventional procedure. Conclusion: These data support safety and efficacy of the MynxGrip® device for femoral venous closure with same-day discharge, even with concomitant aggressive antiplatelet and anticoagulant use. It has the potential for use in other large bore venous access sites. 
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A Perspective on therapeutic potential of weeds

Published on: 18th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628652609

Nature gives us a diverse plethora of floral wealth. Weeds have been recognized as invasive plant by most of scholars in today’s world with extraordinary travel history. They are considered to be noxious for adjoining plant species and also as economic hazard. Weeds inhabited in almost entire biomes and have capability to survive in harsh conditions of environment thereby become source of inspiration for finding novel phytoconstituents. Weeds play a significant role in absorbing harmful micro pollutants that are affecting ecosystem adversely. There are so many examples like canna lily, bladder wort, coltsfoot, giant buttercup etc. playing crucial part in sustaining environment. Different isolation and characterization approaches like high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy etc. have also been fetched for obtaining novel constituents from weeds. The main aim of this review is to analyze the therapeutic potential of weeds established in New Zealand and effort to unfold the wide scope of its applications in biological sciences. Upon exploration of various authorized databases available it has been found that weeds not only are the reservoir of complex phytoconstituents exhibiting diverse array of pharmacological activities but also provide potential role in environment phytoremediation. Phytoconstituents reported in weeds have immense potential as a drug targets for different pathological conditions. This review focuses on the literature of therapeutic potential of weeds established in New Zealand and tried to unveil the hidden side of these unwanted plants called weeds.
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Specific meningoencephalitis in patients with transplanted kidney

Published on: 17th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628628844

We described a case of specific (tuberculous) encephalitis in a patient after kidney transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy, continuously required in post-tranplant period, may cause various complications, such as infections. Specific meningoencephalitis is an infection that is rarely diagnosed and more common in immunocompromised patients. Case report: A 30-year-old man had kidney transplantation (kidney donor was his father). He previously was two years on chronic hemodialysis treatment because of end-stagerenal disease based on diabetic nephropathy. He has diabetes type 1. The early post-transplant period duly passed with satisfactory clinical and laboratory parameters of renal function. Two months after transplantation, he presented with febrile condition, signs of septicemia and dehydration with significant neurological deficit and expressed meningeal signs. In cerebrospinal fluid we found lymphocytosis, elevated proteins and positive micobacterium tuberculosis antibodies (Hexagon method) and we suspected to specific etiology of meningitis. Performed computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain with contrast confirmed the expected finding. Due to the poor prognosis of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in immunocompromised patients, only prompt diagnosis can improve survival in this group of patients. The therapeutic protocol after kidney transplantation include the prophylactic use of antituberculous drug (Isoniazid 300 mg) during the 9 months.
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Ependymomas with extraneural metastasis to lung in children: A case report and literature review

Published on: 16th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628662175

Ependymomas, which account for 10% of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors, arise from the ependymal cells that line the cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. Extraneural metastasis to lung is rare for ependymomas primary tumors. Repeated surgeries that disrupt the blood-brain barrier may contribute to haematogenous spread, but the mechanism remains unclear. We present a case of ependymoma with extraneural metastasis to lung in a child and discuss reported cases of extracranial metastatic ependymoma with this presentation.
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Fibrinolytic therapy with tPA failed because it was based on a flawed concept

Published on: 16th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628672035

Fibrinolytic therapy has become synonymous with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) based on the belief that tPA alone was responsible for natural fibrinolysis. Although this assumption was belied from the outset by disappointing clinical results, it persisted, eventually causing fibrinolysis to be discredited and replaced by an endovascular procedure. Since time to reperfusion is the critical determinant of outcome, which in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) means within two hours, a time-consuming hospital procedure is ill-suited as first line treatment. For this purpose, fibrinolysis is more fitting. The assumption that tPA is responsible for fibrinolysis is contradicted by published findings. Instead, tPA ‘s function is limited to the initiation of fibrinolysis, which is continued by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and that has the dominant effect. tPA and uPA gene deletion and clot lysis studies showed the activators have complementary functions, requiring both for a full effect at fibrin-specific doses. They are also synergistic in combination thereby requiring lower doses for efficacy. A clinical proof of concept study in 101 AMI patients who were treated with a 5 mg bolus of tPA followed by a 90 minute infusion of prouPA, the native form of uPA. A near doubling of the 24 h TIMI-3 infarct artery patency rate was obtained compared to that in the best of the tPA trials (GUSTO). In further contrast to tPA, there were no reocclusions and the mortality was only 1% [1]. A sequential combination of both activators, mimicking natural fibrinolysis, holds promise to significantly improve the efficacy and safety of therapeutic fibrinolysis.
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The choice of optimal modern muscle relaxants (rocuronium bromide, atracurium besilate and cisatracurius besilate) in one-day surgery in children

Published on: 15th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8633140096

The choice of the optimal muscle relaxant in one-day surgery in children with “small” surgical interventions remains relevant to this day. In modern pediatric surgery, the requirements for the quality of muscle relaxation are highest. However, along with the effectiveness of the drug, its duration and controllability of the action, as well as the safety of use, are important [1-7]. The aim of the study: To determine the pharmacoeconomic rationale for the rational use of muscle relaxants, depending on the duration of operations in one-day surgery in children. Material and research methods: The study was conducted in surgical clinics of the Azerbaijan Medical University. The study included 156 children who were operated on routinely from 0 to 16 years old (risk of anesthesia I-II ASA), who used combined endotracheal anesthesia during surgery. Based on the requirements of the GCP international program (Good Clinical Practice), the inclusion of children in the study was carried out only after the written consent of the parents. The studied patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the muscle relaxant used: IA (n = 52) - rocuronium bromide (esmeron), IB (n = 52) - atracurium besilate (tracrium), IC (n = 52) - cisatracurius besilate (nimbex). Depending on the type of general anesthesia, these groups were also divided into 2 subgroups: anesthesia based on isoflurane + fentanyl ″ + iso ″ and anesthesia based on sevoflurane + fentanyl ″ + sev ″. The main groups were also divided into 2 age subgroups: children under 2 years of age – IA1, IB1, IC1 and children from 2 to 16 years old – IA2, IB2, IC2.
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Epiphora as a sign of unexpected underlying squamous cell carcinoma within sinonasal inverted papilloma

Published on: 15th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628632437

Sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP) is a benign tumor which originates from the sinonasal Schneiderian mucosa and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal and sinus neoplasm [1]. Pathologically, SIP epithelium inverts into submucosal stroma, which is different from other types of nasal papilloma. Unlike other benign tumors, SIP exhibits remarkable aggressive behaviors, including invasiveness, recurrence and malignant transformation [2]. Therefore, SIP can spread into the paranasal sinus, orbit, and cranial base, which can lead to poor prognosis for SIP patients [2]. Secondary squamous cell carcinoma is malignancy formation within the SIP. It is considered primary if there is no additional mucosal condition or secondary if it occurs in conjunction with an additional condition, which is estimated to occur in about 9% of cases [3]. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with SIP and secondary SCC of the right nasal cavity. This study was adherent with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
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Long-term results for post-interventional systemic heparinization following angioplasty of peripheral vessels

Published on: 15th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8612480354

Objective: The long-term outcome of percutaneous transluminal angioplasties is mainly determined by restenoses, either by progression of the underlying disease or by intimal hyperplasia. Pharmacological substances on the one hand and the implantation of stents on the other have been developed with the intention of preventing precisely this complication. While patients are treated after PTA of peripheral vessels with different low-molecular-weight heparins, the indication for stent implantation is determined individually rather by experience. The aim of this study was to determine gender-specific risk factors of long-term outcome after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of peripheral vessels with or without stentimplantation. Methods: In the present study, we examined the long-term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of peripheral vessels. Between 2007 and 2017, in total, 3,276 patients underwent PTA with or without stent implantation in our clinic. All patients were treated postinterventionally for 48 hours with 25,000 IU heparin (Unfractionated Heparin (UFH), heparinsodium-Braun, 25,000 I.E./5 ml, 2 ml/h) monitored by the partial thromboplastin time and subsequently underwent a control investigation every 6 months. The endpoint of the study was determination of symptomatic stenosis larger than 50% that required reintervention. Results: 239 (68.2% with mean age 68.02 years) male patients and 111 female patients (31.71% with mean age 62.92 years) were evaluated with complete follow-up. A total of 470 PTAs were performed on male patients and 213 on female patients in multiple interventions. The majority of patients at the time of treatment were in stage IIb according to the classification of Fontaine (81.6% of male patients and 68% of females). In our sample, peripheral arterial disease stage III and IV according to Fontaine classification occurred twice as frequently in female patients as in male patients (stage III in 12.6% in female versus 6.1% in male, and stage IV in 18% in female versus 8.9% in males). In both groups, the femoral superficialis artery was most frequently dilated (64 cases, 30% in female and 155 cases, 32.9% in male), followed by the iliacal communis artery (46 cases in female and 99 cases in male, both with 21.5%). A balloon angioplasty of the tibialis anterior and posterior arteries was performed twice as frequently in female patients as in male patients (28 cases with 13.1% of tibialis ant. artery in female versus 32 cases with 6.8% in male patients, and in 17 cases with 7.9% of tibialis post. artery in female versus 16 cases with 3.4% in male patients). In this study, without consideration of gender, patency rates of 79% after 2.5 years, 67% after 5 years, 49% after 7.5 years and 37% after 10 years were determined for PTA without stent implantation. Between the 7th and 10th year in follow-up, the cumulative patency rates for stent implantation was 49%, whereas it was 31% for PTA alone. The results of this study show that the stent assisted PTA`s of comm. artery and external iliacal artery are significantly independent of risk factors better than the femoral vessels, and these in female patients better than in male patients. Male patients do not benefit significantly from stent implantation in the long term. As the COXI and II regression analyses show, gender-linked results are most evident for renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus, and less pronounced also for the number of open lower leg vessels. Conclusion: Under consideration of gender and risk factors, while male patients with diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency and/or poor run-off did not benefit from stent implantation in the long-term, female patients with similar risk factors showed higher patency rates after stent therapy. In addition, the long-term results after PTA of femoral superficialis artery and poplitea artery are significantly worse than PTA of the pelvic vessels in both genders.
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Applications to reduce the amount of excess cement for cement-retained implant supported prostheses: Mini review

Published on: 12th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8620529291

Cement-retained implant-supported restorations has been preferred by many clinicians due to its ease of production, low cost and similarity to dental supported restorations [1]. In the literature, many complications caused by residual cement, ranging from acute severe bone resorption to implant loss, have been published as a case report/ series [2-7]. In another study [8], residual cement was seen in 81% of implant cases that are clinically identified as peri- implantitis. Hence it has been indicated that a strong relationship has been determined between residual cement and development of chronic peri-implant infection [9].
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Inhaled statins to combat COVID-19 – prophylactic and treatment approach

Published on: 12th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8620514372

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world (WHO, 2020). The genome of the SARS-CoV-2 has been reported over 80% identical to the previous human coronavirus (SARS-like bat CoV) [1]. As of May 2020, more than 5 million people have been affected worldwide with deaths amounting to 333000, the numbers increasing at an alarming rate day by day.
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Can house flies mechanically carry and/or transport sars-cov-2?

Published on: 11th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8620505552

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that causes different infections in humans has become a challenge for humanity because it has caused many deaths worldwide. This new virus is considered as a zoonotic infectious particle, the clear mechanisms of the pathogenicity and transmissibility of this virus are not exactly known. Therefore, here some characteristics of a possible transmission are analyzed for house flies.
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Assessment of cardiovascular and renal functions during treatment with Desmodium adscendens therapy

Published on: 9th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873221073

Desmodium adscendens is a rain forest medicinal herb used in managing quite a number of medical conditions. Its efficacy in the treatment of several diseases has made it a first line herb for doctors, especially in managing all forms of spasm. It is however common knowledge that some of these medicinal herbs impact severely on the normal functioning of some vital organs of the body during their administration. The present study was carried out to assess the renal and cardiovascular performance in subjects undergoing treatment with Desmodium adscendens with a view to advising against its indiscriminate use. The parameters used for the assessment of renal functions were serum creatinine and urea concentrations and their clearance. Also, changes in electrolyte concentration of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride concentration were used to assess cardiovascular performance. The histology of the kidney and heart tissues was also done to determine if the extract has impact on the cyto-architecture of the organs. Twenty-four (24) wistar rats were used for the experiment. The rats were grouped randomly into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 served as control, and the rats in the group were given normal rat feeds and water. Group 2 served as low dose group, and rats in this group were administered with low dose of extract 300 mg/kg. Group 3 served as medium group, and rats in this group were treated with medium dose of extract, 450 mg/kg. Group 4 served as high dose group, and rats in this group were treated with high dose of extract 600 mg/kg. The extract was administered for 28 days. Result showed that the extract did not impact negatively on the normal function of the renal and cardiovascular system of the treated groups, rather it enhanced their performances. It can therefore be concluded that the extract is beneficial to renal and cardiovascular functions if used within the treatment dosage. 
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COVID-19: The possible medical strategies

Published on: 9th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8620504344

In late 2019, a pandemic crisis started in Wuhan, China, swept the whole world. The disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-19 virus that belongs to the corona family of viruses. The virus mainly caused failure of respiration, and led to many deaths worldwide. The main focus of research and medicine is to find more about the virus, as well as the development of effective preventive and therapeutic measures. While many trials and opinions have been published, which might support or contradict each other, this article tries to provide a simplified viewpoint about the disease. We highly recommend the therapeutic strategies to include drug combinations that can target the pathogenesis at many levels. For example, a combination of an effective anti-viral Remdesivir, soulable ACE2, and an immune modulator.
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A trial of conservative care for restoring scapular dyskinesis: A clinical series

Published on: 8th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628657543

The shoulder is the greatest movable joint in the human body. Its anatomical design allows a wide range of motion in all directions, leading to an insubstantial balance between stability and mobility. Conservative treatments are suggested by a number of authors for restoring the scapular dyskinesis. However, this condition can be overlapped by other clinical findings. Therefore, comprehensively analysing individual biomechanical rationale is central to design the ideal rehabilitation regimen to overcome scapular dyskinesis by restoring the scapular thoracic rhythm and preventing the associated problems. This study presents a brief clinical series of three patients with shoulder pain due to the alteration of their scapulahumeral rhythm and highlights a comprehensive examination and follow up an evidence-based rehabilitation algorithm to regain pain free functional ability in daily routine life.
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How does urine pH effect the tooth decay?

Published on: 5th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8614540735

The basic aim of the present study was to relate tooth decay with the pH of the urine. pH is very important aspect which affects and depends upon the urine specificity. The glomerulus is a necessary part in the structure of kidney. The glomerulus is involved in the filtration of blood, which is involved in acidification with the help of kidneys. A cavity or hole is formed within the tooth and it can leads towards tooth decay. Cavity in its structure is so small when it is at its starting point but with the passage of time cavity becomes large in between of the teeth and it can be a main reason to the complex diseases. A total of 100 students get participated in this study from Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan. In this subjects went into the lab with their urine samples taking in the urine collection bag. In this a strip is used to find the values pH. Strip is placed in the urine collection bag for a minute. Then we noted the different values of different subjects. We designed a research project based upon the results that depend upon either there was any relation among tooth decay and pH. The aim of the project was either there is any relation among the tooth decay and urine pH. It was concluded that there was no any kind of relation among urine pH and tooth decay.
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Biomarkers in Enteropathic Arthritis

Published on: 4th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8616347490

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)-associated arthritis is called Enteropathic Arthritis (EA) which is classified among the group of Spondyloarthritis (SpA), because its presentation is variable. The current trend is to classify them as autoinflammatory rather than autoimmune diseases, since no antibodies have yet been identified. The study of biomarkers (BM) will help us with early identification and hence, to provide treatment in the early stages, prior to radiographic progression, which will enable prompt identification of the disease phenotype. 42 patients diagnosed with IBD were included, of which 48% were females; the mean age of the study group was 48.12 ± 5.02 (95% CI). The average time of evolution of disease was 37.57 ± 14.28 months; most patients referred to the rheumatologist had a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (83%). According to our analysis, we were able to determine that the three most significant variables influencing the development of sacroiliitis were: Lactoferrin, ANCA and HLA B27 (p < 0.5). The variable that can be ruled out because of its almost neglectable contribution was fecal calprotectin.
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Anticancer activity of novel surface functionalized metal doped hydroxyapatite

Published on: 3rd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8616336600

In this manuscript it has been described a novel synthesis of mercury doped hydroxyapatite (Hap) and its application on human liver carcinoma cell line (Hep G2) and human lung fibroblast carcinoma cell line (MRC 5). Nano-sized hydroxyapatite doped with Hg2+ was synthesized by a solution based chemical method along with mercury ion. The surface of nanoparticle of mercury doped hydroxyapatite (MHAp) was functionalized by using phosphonomethyl iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) for making it stable as dispersed phase with negative zeta potential. Surface functionalization was confirmed by FTIR measurements. Crystalline nature, morphology and surface topology were studied by powder XRD, FESEM and AFM measurements. Particle size of the well dispersed sample was obtained by HRTEM image. The studies on cell viability of Hep G2 and MRC 5 cell in presence of mercury doped HAp nanoparticle (MHAp) were determined through WST assay. It was observed that nanocomposite exhibited a site specific action towards MRC 5 cell lines along with reduction of toxicity toward normal cells.
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Methods of identification models of soil humidity

Published on: 3rd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628651926

For the operational forecasting of the dynamics of moisture reserves, it is reduced to the prediction of precipitation and total evaporation (E). The remaining elements of the balance either do not change over time, are either known or are defined as functions of P and E. The plant’s need for water E (evapotranspiration) is determined on the basis of the bioclimatic method in the modification of B.V. Danilchenko (2) by the formula: Eu = Е К b K M (1)
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Impact of mineralformation on restoration of the soil structure in nakhchivan AR and geographical spreading legitimacy

Published on: 3rd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628623679

The silt fractions have a great impact in soil structural formation. If the soil forming rocks don’t disturb, crush and weather, the soil forming processes on them occur weakly, the organic substances cause formation of the loamy stratums without completely turning. This mostly influences the initial soil forming layers. The reproduction minerals in these soils cause initial minerals majority by occurring weakly. If these processes occur quickly then they cause a gradual increase of the reproduction minerals and reduction of the initial minerals. The heights of the zones where the geographical spreading of such stratums is situated depend on levels.
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Effective COVID-19 prevention and control in areas of ultra-dense population: Lessons from Macau SAR

Published on: 3rd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628651927

In this paper we summarise, in chronological order, all COVID-19 preventive measures undertaken by the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) government during the first quarter of 2020. The information and narrative contained herein may be of useful to other parts of the world in COVID-19 control and prevention, especially cities with ultra-high population densities. The four main lessons from Macau SAR are: (1) Proactive leadership and early prevention. (2) Strict adherence to community endemic control. (3) Clear prioritising of public health. (4) Planed relief for financial hardships amidst the post-pandemic recession.
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Quality Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor Stem Sheath Enriched with Spondias mombin Extract

Published on: 3rd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628641937

The nutritional compositions of sorghum stem sheath-Spondias mombin extract were evaluated. The enriched stem sheath extract were obtained by mixing sorghum stem sheath and Spondias mombin (iyeye) extract in varied proportions at 100:0; 0:100; 95:5; 90:10 and 85:15. The five samples were subjected to analysis: proximate, mineral, vitamin C, antinutrient composition. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that observable increases were noticed in proximate, vitamin C and mineral composition from 5% inclusion of Spondias mombin extract in sorghum stem sheath drinks. The anti-nutrient compositions: tannin, oxalate and saponin, ranged from (0.144 to 0.442, 0.303 to 0.385, 0.070 to 0.198) mg/100 ml, respectively for sorghum stem sheath- Spondias mombin extract which were within consumable safe limits. The study concluded that nutritious enriched drinks could be produced from sorghum stem sheath and Spondias mombin extract at ambient temperature.
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Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with molecular targeted therapy for a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma with intrahepatic metastasis and main portal vein tumor thrombus: A case report and literature review

Published on: 2nd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8616348339

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high morbidity, high recurrence, and high mortality rates. In China, the morbidity of HCC is fifth among all malignant tumors and HCC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Most HCC patients also have liver cirrhosis. Surgery is the sole curative method for HCC; however, many patients are diagnosed with HCC during its advanced stages so radical resection can no longer be performed. Therefore, the proportion of patients who undergo radical hepatectomy is less than 30%. Patients with mildly advanced HCC cannot undergo hepatectomy and thus transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and/or biological targeted therapy are alternative options. However, data on the effects of TACE therapy or biological targeted therapy are limited. Therefore, an investigation of multimodal and individualized treatments is critical to ensure the best treatment. In June 2018, we treated an advanced HCC patient with multiple metastases and right portal vein tumor thrombus. The patient exhibited partial remission after undergoing treatment with TACE and crizotinib capsules for 1 month. The case and a literature review are reported here.
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Complicated grief in the DSM-5: Problems and solutions

Published on: 1st June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628653171

The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders volume 5 (DSM-5) is the influential textbook published in 2013, by the American Psychiatric Association, as a guide to psychiatric diagnosis. It helps to ensure that doctors are consistent in their use of diagnostic terms.
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