All Articles in March, 2020

Gender and side effects of group cognitive behavior psychotherapy

Published on: 31st March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8572409444

Males and females are different in their interactional behavior, their way of suffering, and their way of expressing themselves. It is therefore supposed that they react differently in group settings. This includes the degree to which they experience burdens and side effects of group psychotherapy. The objective of the study was to explore side effects of group psychotherapy in relation to gender. Seventy one patients in cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy were assessed with the UE G scale (unwanted events in groups). Burdens or side effects were reported by 98.6% of patients, severe and extremely severe burdens by 43.7% of patients. The highest average scores were found for “I was afraid not to know how to proceed in the future (1,34)”, “I realized how complicated everything is (1,32)”, “I have experienced the ongoing group therapy as burdensome (1,29)”, and “I have learned that group therapy is not my thing (1,01)”. Males score higher in their global judgement that group therapy was burdensome. There were no further significant differences in any of the specific items. The data suggest that side effects are a regular companion of group psychotherapy. A major negative effect of group psychotherapy is demoralization because of the observation of other patients, their problems and problem explanations. This is the same for both sexes. Research is needed on how to minimize burdens for patients.
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CT perfusion-guided endovascular treatment of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm in a patient with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Published on: 31st March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8582330421

Symptomatic vasospasm represents an uncommon complication of perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) which is a benign form of SAH without any recognizable source of bleeding accounting for about 15% of non-traumatic SAH [1,2]. 
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Palliative care approach to oncological patient – Main points

Published on: 31st March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8566861688

According to the World Health Organization definition, palliative care is an approach aimed at increasing the quality of life of patients and their relatives by addressing physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs and treating conditions early, such as pain while they are coming to terms with a life-threatening disease [1]. Palliative care services have started a rapid progress in developed countries such as Scandinavian countries, England and Canada since the beginning of 1990 [2]. Although palliative care cares for any patient who is in need of care, whether bed-bound or unable to look after themselves, one of the main area of interest is of course oncological patients and their relatives. Patients with advanced cancer, frequent sufferings from physical and psychological symptoms - primarily pain, reduced functional capacity, and reduced quality of life are in the scope of palliative care protocol [3]. The most common end-of-life symptoms and signs in palliative cancer patients are pain, anorexia, nausea, cachexia, weakness, dyspnea, ascites, anxiety, agitation, delirium, confusion and pressure sores. In order to achieve quality and continuous care in case management, a family doctor, specific branch specialist, nurse, dietician, psychologist, cleric, etc. should work together in a multidisciplinary approach and clinical guidelines and care protocols should be implemented [4]. However, it should be kept in mind that increasing the medication dose may not always be beneficial to the oncological patients in palliative services. The goal should always be maximum benefit with minimal tests and treatment. Palliative care does not aim to accelerate or postpone death; but it has many benefits in cancer patients and their relatives including the integration of the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of patient care into physical care, providing support for patients to live as active as possible until the last moment, improving the quality of life and the disease process, providing help and support in the grieving process [1,5]. Providing good care to advanced cancer patients requires that caregivers are educated and supported about their patients’ physical, psychological and social care needs. Balancing the physical and emotional needs of the caregivers will reduce the stress they experience, as well as increase the quality of life of their patients [6,7]. Professionalism in palliative care comes into play right at this point. There is no consensus in the medical world about by whom, when and to whom palliative care should be given. In this regard, the conflicts of opinion between specific branches such as anesthesia, internal medicine and neurology are inevitable. We think that the team leader should be a family physician or a palliative care specialist. The reason for this is the family medicine’s principles of core competencies including biopsycosocial, holistic, comprehensive approach and equal distance to specific branches. Of course when the palliative care specialist is the team leader the patient’s own family doctor still provides invaluable service because of his intimate and long-term knowledge about the patients. One key difference in some countries is that no distinction is being made between palliative and hospice care. Neither the insurance companies nor the state demands such classification because it doesn’t serve any practical purpose at the moment. However, in due time such distinction will be inevitable as one of the cost-cutting measure. Medical oncology will have to report about the expected survival of the cancer patients and it will further increase their workload given the exponential increase in cancer cases.
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Development of ELISA based detection system against C. botulinum type B

Published on: 30th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8562108005

Botulism is the disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins. It is produced by an obligate anaerobic bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. There is no immuno-detection system available in the world for the detection of C. botulinum. Secretory proteins of cooked meat media grown C. botulinum type B were extracted by TCA precipitation method. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against secretory proteins. Cytokine profiling of secretory proteins were done. An immunodetection system was developed to detect the C. botulinum type B using Secretory proteins of C. botulinum type B.
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Primary prevention of SCD with ICD in the elderly

Published on: 30th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8576353351

Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are electronic devices that can prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) caused by arrhythmic events in patients. The latest ESC/EAS and ACC/AHA Guidelines deem the placement of an ICDs appropriate in patients with heart failure class NYHA II and III in the presence of an ejection fraction less than or equal to 35% [1,2]. ICDs are usually not indicated in either class I or IV patients. The Guidelines recommendations for primary prevention of SCD with ICD implantation do not take into account the age of the patients but only their life expectancy which must be at least 1 year. Our patients usually are over eighty years old with heart failure and severely reduced ejection fraction. We must consequently decide if it is right to implant these patients with an ICD. Is the use of ICD in the patients over 80, in particular over 90 years old, really make sense becomes particularly important considering demographic changes that await us in the coming decades.
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Effectiveness of prenatal intensive counselling on knowledge, attitude and acceptance of post placental intrauterine contraceptive device among mothers

Published on: 27th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8573348290

Introduction: Contraception is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. In the first year of postpartum period around 65% of women are having unmet need of family planning. Post Placental Intrauterine Contraceptive Device is not only advantageous to the women and couples; even the service providers benefit from PPIUCD. PPIUCD insertion on the same delivery table saves time and separate clinical procedure is not required. Methodology: The Quantitiative Pre-Experimental One Group Pre and Post Test research design was used. 70 Antenatal mothers were selected by using Purposive Sampling Technique who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and who were available during the period of data collection at selected hospital, Puducherrry. Data was collected by using Structured Interview Schedule. Result: The Pre test mean score of Knowledge was 9.98 ± 2.38 and Post Test mean score of Knowledge was 14.91 ± 1.15. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-20.82) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Attitude was 34.67 ± 5.67 and Post test mean score of Attitude was 44.27 ± 4.70. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-17.25) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Acceptance was 0.11 ± 0.320 and Post Test mean score of Acceptance was 0.29 ± 0.455. The paired‘t’ value of t = -3.778 found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Demographic and Obstetrical Variables like age at marriage, previous childbirth and decision maker of family about family planning have shown significant association with Post Test level of Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD at p < 0.05 and p < 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that Prenatal Intensive Counselling increases the mother’s Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD. So Prenatal Intensive Counselling on PPIUCD can be given to Antenatal Mothers during their antenatal visits to meet the unmet needs of family planning.
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ECHO…for a change!!

Published on: 27th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560266837

The childhood obesity is increased more than three folds in last two decades in developed world. There is nutritional transition seen in the developing world including India. The westernization in diet of the Indian population along with prosperity brings the brunt of overweight and obesity. This has future implications of liver diseases, heart diseases, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance; malignancies. Mumbai is the prosperous city and an economical capital of India. Also, the rampant use junk food, common outdoor eating’s, no grounds to play for children make the high likelihood that the prevalence of obesity to be higher than rest of the country. It can profoundly affect children’s physical health, social, and emotional well-being and self-esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. One of the best strategies to reduce childhood obesity is to improve the eating and exercise habits of the entire family. Treating and preventing childhood obesity helps protect the child’s health and has tremendous impact on child’s Physical and academic performance. And hence we at Aastha Bariatrics took initiative and launched ECHO... for a change (‘E’radicating ‘C’Hild ‘H’ood ‘O’besity), a pan Mumbai campaign against childhood obesity. This campaign was done in 15 high schools across Mumbai, which covered in total of 9000 students.
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Hypothesis about pathogenic action of Sars-COV-2

Published on: 27th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8561623062

The Hypothesis born on a simple clinical data noted by some Chinese Reserchers during the starting point of epidemic began in the dicember of the 2019, for the novel member of human coronavirus, officially named as SARS‐CoV‐2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a new strain of RNA viruses that has not been previously identified in humans [1]. Sars-COV and SARS CoV-2 have some clinical differences. First: The Sars, severe acute respiratory sindrome induce a respiratory disease in immunocompetent hosts, although can cause severe infections in infant, young children and elderly individuals; Sars-CoV-2 induce a middle infection into the young children but the mortality is more high in to the adult population. We made a macthing with balst p of these sequences, Sars COV-2, taken on GENEBANK with H1N1 neuraminidase and the not structural protein NS1 and NS2 an interferon antagonist that may also stimulate proinflammatory cytokines in infected cells We can speculate that the mutation is occurred on accessories protein making a different virulence action between the two species Sars Cov and Sars Cov-2, same action we have founded in the H1N1 viral pandemic of the 2019.
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Neuroanatomical profile of hemineglect in patient’s body image modification

Published on: 26th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560711773

Background: NSU is generally caused by right cerebral hemisphere lesions with a preeminent localization on the frontoparietal lobe. Aim: To assess the correlation between the typology and the brain lesion site and the consensual consent modality of body image modification after an integrated rehabilitative and neuropsychological treatment. Setting: A rehabilitation institute for the treatment of neurological gait disorders and neuropsichological failures. methods: Patients recruited were divided according to the brain lesion site into 3 groups (IG = ischemic group = 5 patients; HG = hemorrhagic group = 4 patients; IG + HG = ischemic + hemorrhagic group = 3 patients) based on CT brain performed in the post-acute phase. At time T0, the patients recruited underwent a systematic review of their current neuroradiological profile (location delineation and type of brain injury) compared with a consensual framing of the neuromotor and neuropsychological profile acquired at the time of taking charge in the ward. At time T1 and after the drafting and implementation of the rehabilitation treatment plan foreseen in the study (1 to 4 months after T0), the patients in our sample underwent a re-evaluation of their neuromotor and neuropsychological profile with controls of the same outcome parameters considered at time T0. Results: A parametrically but not statistically significant modification of the results obtained was observed by measuring the MI ULl, MI LLl and TCT scales in the group with hemorrhagic brain injury; the analysis of variance did not show any statistical significance in the relationship between the type of stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic or both) and the motor impairment passing from time T0 to time T1. The analysis of variance did not reveal a statistically or parametrically significant relationship between the type (ischemic, hemorrhagic and ischemic + hemorrhagic) of cerebral stroke and the variations of the neuropsychological profile. The T-Student test showed statistically significant changes in the importance of the lesion site in defining the degree of motor disability. In particular, we observed, about the presence of frontal lobe lesions, a statistically significant variation passing from the T0 time to the T1 time for the following motor scales in 9 of 12 recruited patients: MI LLl (26.4 vs. 62, with p < 0.05), TCT (43.6 vs. 80.6, with p < 0.01 for equal variance assumed and p < 0.05 for equal variance not assumed), FAC (0.8 vs. 2.3 with p < 0,01 for equal variance assumed and p < 0.05 for equal variance not assumed). Conclusion: We have confirmed the importance of the anatomical-dysfunctional correlation as a key concept from which to start in any neurorehabilitative treatment approach. Our work has highlighted the basic role of the right frontal lobe in the programming and execution of the gesture and its kinesthetic control as regards the left lower limb and the trunk.
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Evaluation of Uranium in Organs of Residents from an Uranium-Rich Region using Teeth as Bioindicators

Published on: 26th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588716918

The Uranium extraction and processing plant of INB (Brazilian Nuclear Industries) is in Caetité, a city located in a region hosting the largest Uranium reserve of the country. The degree of Uranium contamination in the Caetité population was investigated before using teeth as bioindicator, where a quite high Uranium concentration was measured in this region, about 160 times higher than the world-wide average. Radiobiological risks are here evaluated from Uranium burdens in organs as skeleton, kidneys, liver, tissues and blood, which were estimated from transfer coefficients and effective internal doses. This was accomplished by means of calculations with the use of the STATFLUX/ICRP approach, plus a set of Uranium transfer rate parameters as function of individual’s age assuming an uninterrupted exposure over a period of 60 years. It was found that U ingestion rates by residents of Caetité are three orders of magnitude higher than worldwide average, indicating that food and water would exhibit high levels of contamination. Calculated effective internal doses range from a minimum of one to a maximum of three orders of magnitude higher than background doses, for blood and bones respectively. The likelihood that this circumstance could lead to serious health problems as e.g. neoplasia is addressed. The methodology presented in this work offers subsidies for further studies on environmental pollution by radionuclides.
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A study on pacemaker pocket infection

Published on: 25th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8576354340

Objective: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections now constitute ∼ 10% of all endocarditis cases. The incidence of CIED infection is usually < 2%. Our objective was to study pacemaker pocket infection rate and different risk factors in our institution. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a period of five years from January 2011 to December 2016 and it included 1096 patients. Common risk factors like patients with diabetes, repeat procedure, chronic renal failure, chronic obstructive airway disease, immunosuppressive agents were studied in our patients. Results: Our study consisted of 1096 patients. Pacemaker pocket infection occurred in sixteen patients (1.5%). Chronic renal failure patients were one hundred thirty in our study (11.86%). There were three hundred fifty six diabetic patients (32.48%). Repeat procedure was done in ninety five patients (8.6%). Results: Our study consisted of 1096 patients. Pacemaker pocket infection occurred in sixteen patients (1.5%). Chronic renal failure patients were one hundred thirty in our study (11.86%). There were three hundred fifty six diabetic patients (32.48%). Repeat procedure was done in ninety five patients (8.6%) Eighty six patients were suffering from chronic obstructive airway (7.8%). Patients on immunosuppressive therapy were fourteen in our study (1.2%). Conclusion: Pacemaker pocket infections is a dreaded complication after pacemaker implantation. During implantation, there is a risk of device contamination with the patient’s own skin flora and it can be prevented by ideal surgical asepsis technique, pre and perioperative use of antibiotics.
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Dapt Review

Published on: 25th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8576364795

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) combining aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor has been consistently shown to reduce recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with aspirin monotherapy but at the expense of an increased risk of significant bleeding. Among patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES), shorter duration of DAPT (3–6 months) were shown non-inferior to 12 or 24 months duration concerning MACE but reduced the rates of major bleeding? Contrariwise, prolonged DAPT durations (18–48 months) reduced the incidence of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis, but at the cost of an increased risk of majör bleeding and all-cause mortality. Until more evidence becomes available, the choice of optimal DAPT regimen and duration for patients with CAD requires a tailored approach based on the patient clinical presentation, baseline risk profile and management strategy. Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) have indications for both dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and oral anticoagulation (OAC). Triple therapy (TT), the combination of DAPT and OAC, is recommended in guidelines. This article provides a contemporary state-of-the-art review of the current evidence on DAPT for secondary prevention of patients with CAD and its future perspectives.
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Artificial Intelligence in the healthcare of older people

Published on: 20th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8559314473

Clinical applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare are relatively rare. The high expectations in relation to data analysis influencing general healthcare have not materialized, with few exceptions, and then predominantly in the field of rare diseases, oncology and pathology, and interpretation of laboratory results. While electronic health records, introduced over the last decade or so in the UK have increased access to medical and treatment histories of patients, diagnoses, medications, treatment plans, immunization dates, allergies, radiology images, laboratory and test results, these have potential for evidence-based tools that providers can use to make decisions about a patient’s care, as well as streamline workflow. In the following text, we review the advances achieved using machine learning and deep learning technology, as well as robot use and telemedicine in the healthcare of older people. Key points: 1. Artificial Intelligence use is extensively explored in prevention, diagnosis, novel drug designs and after-care. 2. AI studies on older adults include a small number of patients and lack reproducibility needed for their wider clinical use in different clinical settings and larger populations. 3. Telemedicine and robot assisted technology are well received by older service users. 4. Ethical concerns need to be resolved prior to wider AI use in routine clinical setting.
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Vegetables associated with reduced risk of cancer

Published on: 19th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8558604918

The present study aimed to investigate and identify the association between the intake of allium vegetables and colorectal cancer (CRC) in population. A hospital‐based matched case‐control study was conducted between June 2009 and November 2011 in three hospitals. Eight hundred thirty three consecutively recruited cases of CRC were frequency matched to 833 controls by age (within 2.5 years of difference), sex, and residence area (rural/urban). Demographic and dietary information were collected via face‐to‐face interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression.
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Educational strategy to increase knowledge and risk perception about sexually transmitted infection in polytechnic students

Published on: 19th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8577723979

Introduction: The incidence of STI-HIV/AIDS is on the rise, making adolescents a vulnerable group at risk. Objective: To increase the knowledge and perception of risk about STI-HIV/AIDS, through Educational Intervention in students of the Polytechnic Institute ¨Hermanos Gómez¨ of the Municipality San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque Province. Method: Quasi-experimental study, intervention at the ¨Hermanos Gómez Polytechnic Institute, of the Municipality of San José de la Lajas, through affective, participatory, animation and reflection techniques, the universe being made up of 17 students aged 16-17 years of specialty in Industrial Chemistry, during the period from December 2014 to November 2015. The variables used were: knowledge about STI-HIV/AIDS and perception of risk towards said diseases. Results: after the intervention, an increase in the level of knowledge of the main STIs in the study was evident: Syphilis, Condylomas, HIV/AIDS, Gonorrhea, Trichomonas, Candida Albicans and Herpes simplex, which were adequately identified by 60%; 71% recognized the routes of sexual transmission, 60% the typical clinical manifestations, an increase in the levels of knowledge about the use of condoms to prevent STIs, and in the same way the perception of risk in an 83% after the intervention. Conclusion: After the intervention, there was an increase in knowledge of STIs, transmission routes, clinical manifestations, condom use, and risk perception.
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Trends in Teledentistry

Published on: 18th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8567880367

Socioeconomic barriers appears to be the greatest threat to dental care apart from considering the geographic location of the population. Access to need of care becomes primary consideration and through teleconsultation it is possible to overcome these barriers. As oral cavity being gateway to entry of health problems, dental treatment becomes a pivotal in health care system. Tele medicine and Tele dentistry becomes effective in treatment of health problems, reducing the chances of late stage detection of the abnormalities. It allows us to utilize our time better and screen more patients. This article aims to provide amazing technology of Tele dentistry involving all the dental specialties to reach all the populations of the society.
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Epstein-Barr infection causing toxic epidermal necrolysis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and cerebritis in a pediatric patient

Published on: 18th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8559324517

Toxic epidermal necrolysis -the most serious variant of Steven Johnson Syndrome -arises as the result of cell-mediated cytotoxic reaction against keratinocytes. Most common inciting factors include drugs, and infections. On the other hand, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a syndrome characterized by enormous immune response in the absence of down-regulation of activated immune cells resulting in cytokine storm causing severe tissue damage. Up to date, several cases of concomitance of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) and Hemophagocytic Lympohystiocytosis (HLH) in pediatric patients have been reported. Both situations can be fatal and pediatricians should be aware that these two clinical entities are not mutually exclusive, to the contrary they may coexist. We herein describe a case of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis with Central Nervous System involvement due to EBV infection.
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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders – What does it mean?

Published on: 17th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8566852662

Prenatal alcohol exposure is one of the most important causes of preventable cognitive impairment in the world. The developing neurological system is exquisitely sensitive to harm from alcohol and there is now also substantial evidence that alcohol-related harm can extend beyond the individual person, leading to epigenetic changes and intergenerational vulnerability and disadvantage [1].
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A comparative study between ultrasound guided and landmarks guided intraarticular sacroiliac injections in spondyloarthritis patients

Published on: 17th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8570200949

Purpose: Sacroiliac joints (SIJ) inflammation and pain is particularly common in patients with Spondyloarthritis. Intraarticular SIJs injections represent a valuable therapeutic option in this condition. In the rheumatological outpatient clinics this procedure is usually done by landmark guidance (LG) or ultrasound guidance (USG). Thus we aimed to compare the short term efficacy of USG vs. LG SIJ injections using five outcome measures: 1. Pain; 2. SIJ status (number of positive provocation tests per symptomatic SIJ on physical examination); 3. Disability; 4. Quality of the night sleep; 5. Patients’ satisfaction. Methods: We enrolled 44 consecutive spondyloarthritis patients with pain in the SIJs that did not respond to NSAIDS and that were otherwise on a stable medical treatment. All patients also had ≥ 3 positive pain provocation tests per SIJ on physical examination. Patients were randomly allocated to receive a single SIJ injection with 7 mg Betamethasone (1 ml) and 1% Lidocaine (1.5 ml) either under USG or with LG. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in all outcome parameters. However, the USG approach performed significantly better than the LG ones in all parameters. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the improvement in all patient reported outcomes (VAS, RMDQ, JSEQ) and the reduction in the number of positive SIJ pain provocation tests per symptomatic joint. Conclusion: Both USG and LG SIJ injections proved to be an efficient treatment for SIJ pain in SpA patients. However, USG of the intervention led to statistically better results in the present study.
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Giant prolactinoma case with side effects due to cabergoline

Published on: 16th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8559315208

Dopamine agonists should usually be the first treatment for patients with prolactinomas of all sizes, because these drugs decrease serum prolactin concentrations and decrease the size of most lactotroph adenomas. Cabergoline is preferred first. When cabergoline develops side effects bromokriptin is switched. Cabergoline is more efficient than bromocriptine. Its side effect profile more favorable than bromocriptine. Cabergoline is an ergot dopamine agonist that is administered once or twice a week. Cabergoline can have rarely serious psychiatric adverse effects, including psychosis, impulse control disorders, dyskinesia, pulmonery fibrosis and valvular heart disease. Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors, 93%-95% of the cases are microadenomas. Macroprolactinomas larger than 40 mm, known as giant prolactinomas, are exceptionally rare, accounting for 0.5% - 4% of all prolactin-hypersecreting adenomas. In our case, after the 7 x 6 cm giant macroprolactinoma operated we report the manic episode occuring during the second week of cabergoline treatment. In the treatment of patients with prolactinoma, cabergoline is a first choice drug because it has a better tolerance profile and is more effective, however, bromocriptine can be switched to when drug resistance or side effects develop to cabergoline.
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A case of Pulmonary Tuberculosis complicated by Pulmonary Thromboembolism

Published on: 14th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8633817133

We report a case of pulmonary embolism complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis. A 48-year-old woman suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis more than 6 years without formal treatment. Recently, she went to hospital because of “chest tightness and dyspnea”, and died in the process of admission to hospital. Pulmonary embolism was found by autopsy and histological examination. We analyzed the relationship between pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary thromboembolism and the problems we should pay attention to in forensic pathology.
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Using correlative microscopy for studying and treatment of Mycoplasma infections of the ophtalmic mucosa

Published on: 12th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553865045

Purpose: We have studied in 18-month 21 patients showing kerato-conjunctivitis and/or dermato-blefaritis, where we will find a constant presence of mycoplasma in SEM optical cytology samples. The 21 patients were divided as follows: 7 allergic, 7 alleged allergic and 7 not-allergic, this division it makes between a clinical approach considering clinical history and symptoms. At the first examination, 16 of the 21 patients had a single or multiple infection in which the main pathogenic element was found to be Mycoplasma; the remaining 7, 4 of them were suspected allergic patients, 2 of it, were allergic subjects with the presence of eosinophils or mast cells. Material and methods: All the study is constructed on citological optical microscopy and citological electron scanning microscopy (SEM) images for demonstrate the efficacy of the SEM in clinical approach at allergic, not allergic and suspected allergic patients. Therapeutic treatment and Results: Treatment of the allergic and false allergic patients has made with local somministration of galenic composition with ialuronic acid 3 ml and Tetracycline hydrochloride 30 mg and with low level of cortisone and antisthaminic therapy. This treatment is necessary to eradicate the Mycoplasma infection and counteract toxic action of this pathogen on mucosa. Discussion: After appropriate therapy we note that allergic patients have a greater predisposition to redundancy in infections in the short period (minimum 20 days), while alleged allergic patients have more prolonged infection periods (between 3 and 5 months), with constant presence at low levels of persistent Mycoplasma. The latter continue to show signs and symptoms similar to allergic patients, but with a negative test for tear IgE and absence of eosinophils and/or mast cells, in the optical and SEM samples displayed.
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Prevalence of premarital sexual practice and associated factors among Goba town high school students, South East-Ethiopia

Published on: 12th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553234584

Background: Premarital sexual practice significantly attributes for increase adolescent’s risk of unintended pregnancy, early marriage, abortion and STIs. In Ethiopia adolescents were intended to engage at early initiation to sexual intercourse without having proper protection has been one of the concerns. Study aimed to assess the prevalence of premarital sexual practice and associated factors among high school students. Method: A facilities based study design was employed. Data were collected from 291 randomly selected Negade and Finca Bamo high school students using structured questionnaire from June 1-30, 2018. Bi-variate logistic regression used to identify variables that crudely associated and variables with p - value < = 0.05 fitted to multiple logistic regression. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was estimated using multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of premarital sex. Result: Among high school students, 31.2% reported had experienced premarital sexual practices. This shows that premarital sexual practices among high school adolescent’s students were high. Drinking alcohol [AOR = 4.06, 95%CI, (2.06 - 7.99)]. Watching pornographic video [AOR: 2.78, 95%CI, (1.45 - 5.3)] and educational status of mothers [AOR: 0.33; 95% CI (0.13, -0.84)] were significantly associated factors. Conclusion: Drinking alcohol, watching pornography and mother education were predominantly significantly associated. Therefore, an integrated effort needs to be highlighted to deter the health behavioral problems of school adolescents at the early stages. 
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Mesoscopic irreversible thermodynamics of morphological evolution kinetics of helical conformation in bioproteins ‘DNA’ under the isothermal isobaric conditions

Published on: 11th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8570215259

The morphological evolution kinetics and instabilities of alpha helical peptide 3.613, which involves large amount of stored torsional elastic deformation energy (3-40 eV/molecule), is formulated by the variational method based on the connection between the rates of internal entropy production and the changes in the global Gibbs free energy, assuming that one has isobaric irreversible processes under the isothermal conditions. The present mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamic approach relies on the fact that the global Gibbs free energy of helical conformation involves not only the bulk Gibbs free energy of the amino-acid back bone structure but also the interfacial Gibbs free energy of the enclosing cylindrical shell or the cage associated with the side-wall molecular branches, and their interactions with the immediate surroundings. The proposed variational analysis applied directly on the proposed macro-model has furnished a nonlinear integral equation in terms of the normalized and scaled internal and external variables. This allows us to track down the motion of the total pitch height of the alpha polypeptide along the well-defined trajectories in the displacement-time space, dictated not only by the initial configuration of the helix but also through the gradients of the global Gibbs free energy of the strained helical conformation as the main driving force. In the negative manifold, there is a well-defined region below the dynamic instability regime, in which the helical conformation can evolve towards the nonequilibrium stationary states by expanding, or contracting, depending upon whether the interfacial free energy and/or the applied stress system are below or above the well-defined thresholds level dictated by the initial pitch height. The highest life time may be realized along that trajectory, which follows up the threshold level of the interfacial specific Gibbs free energy, which is gs = -315 erg/cm2. In the upper region of the negative manifold, the helical conformations are driven by the very large applied uniaxial tension or the negative pressure induced by the thermal expansion, in the range of p > 1GPa and/or the strong negative interfacial free energies [3-4 pH] or their combinations, they show strong kinematic instabilities, which can cause not only the accelerated unfolding phenomenon but also cause large extensions that end up with the catastrophic decimations by ruptures and fragmentations. In the positive manifold, the aging behavior of the polypeptide follows up a S-shape path having rather speedy aging behavior compared to the negative manifold, which is separated from by a well-defined boundary, which represents the isochoric path having longest relaxation times, which can be achieved with great stability. Finally, one could attempt to estimate the upper limit of the relaxation time of aging for the modern hominin, from samples of exceptional preservations, relying on the present nonequilibrium theory as well as on the very limited knowledge on the post-mortem DNA and the present pitch heights of the modern hominin, which is found to be about 25,840 yrs, with a life expectation of 451,800 yrs. These figures are very close to those calculated for Neanderthals (SH), which are found to be 31,820 yrs and 499,100 yrs, respectively.
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So-called idiopathic scoliosis – disfiguring deformity in children, pain problems in adults. Information about biomechanical etiology, classification and therapy

Published on: 10th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553234161

In the article presented the etiology of the so-called idiopathic scoliosis (Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis [AIS]), new classification, there are given rules of therapy and causal prophylaxis. This knowledge is based on observations from 1984, but essentially from the years 1995 – 2007. In 2001 it was given the first description in classification – “S” scoliosis in 1st group / type and “C” and “S” scoliosis in 2nd A / B group and types, in 2004 “I” scoliosis in 3rd group / type.
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“Syndrome of Contractures and Deformities” according Prof. Hans Mau. Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment: Recommendations for parents

Published on: 10th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560724023

In development of movement apparatus in small children, youth and – if not cured – in adults play the role two factors. First is connected with small disorders in brain – and in Pediatrics Orthopedic Departments we see very often children with the symptoms of Minimal Brain Dysfunctions [MBD]. The second is connected with asymmetries in anatomy and in function of movement apparatus in “Syndrome of Contracture and Deformities” described by Professor Hans Mau (Tübingen, Germany). These second problems are the subject of this paper
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Therapeutic application of herbal essential oil and its bioactive compounds as complementary and alternative medicine in cardiovascular-associated diseases

Published on: 10th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8586050480

Background: Herbal essential oil contains pharmacological benefits for intervention treatment of various diseases. Studies have demonstrated its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effect involving in vitro cell culture and preclinical animal models. It has been also traditionally used to reduce anxiety and hypertension in human. However, scientific studies elucidating its mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, as well as its effectiveness and safety as phytotherapeutic compounds are still progressing. Recent studies showed its promising effect in depression-cardiovascular disease intervention. However, comprehensive evaluations to enlighten latest advancement and potential of herbal essential oil are still lacking. Objective: In this systematic review, the depression-cardiovascular effects of herbal essential oil on lipid profile, biochemical and physiological parameters (e.g haemodynamic) are presented. The route of delivery and mechanism of action as well as main bioactive compounds present in respective essential oil are discussed. Methods: Article searches are made using NCBI PubMed, PubMed Health, SCOPUS, Wiley Online, tandfonline, ScienceDirect and Espacenet for relevant studies and intellectual properties related to essential oil, depression and cardiovascular disease. Results: In experimentation involving in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials, herbal essential oil showed its effectiveness in reducing coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries), heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias, heart failure, heart valve disease, congenital heart disease, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), pericardial disease, aorta disease, Marfan syndrome and vascular (blood vessel) disease. Conclusion: This review gives a valuable insight on the potential of essential oil in the intervention of depression associated with cardiovascular diseases. Studies showed that herbal essential oil could act as vasodepressor, calcium channel blocker, antihyperlipidemia, anticoagulant, antiatherogenesis and antithrombotic. It can be proposed as an interventional therapy for depression-cardiovascular disease to reduce doses and long-term side-effect of current pharmacological approach.
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Bioactive components of tea

Published on: 10th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8558605706

Tea (Black tea and Green tea) are one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. However, with the increasing interest in the health properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers some of the recent findings on the health benefits of both green and black tea. The mechanisms of action of various black and green tea components have been presented. Green tea contains a unique set of catechins that responsible for its biological activity potentially relevant to the prevention of diseases. Although there has been much focus on the biological property of the major tea catechins, black tea offers major health benefits either due to the presence of the catechins in epimerized form or some other active components of both varieties of tea. Characteristics unrelated to the antioxidant properties of green and black tea might also be responsible for their therapeutic potential in preventing diseases. Synergistic effect of the tea constituents is increasingly recognized as being potentially important to the medicinal benefits of black and green tea. The studies indicate that tea has the potential of being a part of diet for healthy living.
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Non-force electromagnetic fields

Published on: 9th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8558604059

The non-force magnetic fields were first predicted by Chandrasekhar in 1956 in his well-known published work [1]. Since then there have appeared a large number of theoretical studies [5,6,15,17] with the research into various aspects of physical manifestations of non-force magnetic fields. However by now their existence in the technical physics and in laboratory experiments has not been experimentally confirmed [30]. Nevertheless the indistinct presence on the Earth of such fields was, in a sense, discovered in the natural electromagnetic field much earlier.
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A quantum mechanical model for hole transport through DNA: predicting conditions for oscillatory/non-oscillatory behavior

Published on: 9th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8558600875

A quantum mechanical model that considers tunneling and inelastic scattering has been applied to explain the hole transfer reaction from a G (Guanine) base to a GGG base cluster through a barrier of Adenine bases, (A)n (n = 1-16). For n = 1, the ratio of tunneling to inelastic scattering is about 6, which is sharply decreased to around 0.23 and 5.23 × 10-8 for n = 4 and 16 respectively, suggesting dominance of inelastic scattering for n ≥ 4. As in experiment, the calculated product yield ratios (PGGG) exhibit a strong distance dependence for n < 4, and a weak distance dependence for n ≥ 4. We also predict conditions under which oscillatory or non-oscillatory charge transfer (CT) yield are expected.
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Impact of Christian meditation and biofeedback on the mental health of graduate students in seminary: A pilot study

Published on: 9th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8552069109

With increasing awareness of the mental health issues among the clergy and seminary students, it is important to explore possible interventions to help address their mental health concerns. This pilot study examined the impact of Christian meditation and biofeedback on levels of stress, anxiety, and depression of seminary students. Participants of this study included 20 theology students from two seminary campuses. Participants were of various ethnic backgrounds and had an average age of 31. At the beginning of the study, participants were randomly assigned to practice either Christian meditation or biofeedback for 4 weeks, three times per day, and to keep a log of their practice times. The results from the paired samples t-tests indicated that both Christian meditation and biofeedback significantly reduced the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by the participants. ANCOVA indicated that neither intervention was more effective than the other. Seminaries, churches, and pastoral care groups should look into these interventions as a good source to help their clergy cope with stress, anxiety and depression.
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Clinical relevance linked to echocardiography diagnosis in Bland, White and Garland syndrome

Published on: 6th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560715071

Introduction: Bland, White and Garland syndrome is a coronary anomaly with high mortality without treatment. Its clinical presentation is varied which makes epidemiological documentation difficult. Echocardiography is a useful non-invasive tool for diagnosis. Objective: To determine the echocardiographic variables that lead to the diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome and their clinical relevance. Material: Observational, prospective and cross-sectional study in 31 patients of the “William Soler” Pediatric Cardiocenter, from 2005 to 2018. To check the association of echocardiographic variables with the diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome, an effectiveness study was carried out that included the analysis of the incidence of echocardiographic variables that lead to the diagnosis of this entity. The clinical relevance was estimated according to the minimum importance limit. The statistical validation of the research results adopted a significance level of less than 5% (p < 0.05). Results: The variables that facilitate the echocardiographic diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome were the echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous connection and the reversed flow in the anomalous left coronary artery. These echocardiographic measures have clinical relevance according to the quantification of risk estimators (incidence) the echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous connection, RR 39.00 and the reversed flow in the anomalous coronary artery, RR 26.31. LIM´s calculation value amounted to 6.31 and coincided with the risk estimators (incidence). Conclusion: The echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary arterial trunk and the detection of the local intracoronary reversed flow instituted as factors to be considered for the effective diagnosis of the disease. The documentation of the diagnostic aspects of the syndrome through echocardiography contains high statistical value and clinical relevance.
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Do genes matter in sleep?-A comprehensive update

Published on: 5th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8556126395

Sleep is considered as a complex process in human beings and is least understood mechanism. Role of sleep in synaptic plasticity remains a debatable topic till date. Sleep is influenced by genetic background of the individual. EEG done in human sleep showed strong influence of genetic factors. A handful of familial analyses involving specific gene loci and twin studies has been done in this regard. In this review article focused discussion on genetic contribution to sleep phenotypes, twin and familial linkage studies and effect of genetic variation on sleep will be covered
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Dairy cattle producers’ perception on Oestrus Synchronization and mass artificial insemination services in Waliso and Ilu Districts of South West Shoa Zone of Oromia, Ethiopia

Published on: 5th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8545201990

The study was conducted in Ilu and Waliso districs of South West Shoa Zone to investigate the perception of dairy cattle producers on oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination services. A total of 122 respondents (38 from Ilu and 84 from Waliso districts) owning at least one lactating cow and participated in synchronization program were randomly selected and interviewed individually by using semi- structured questionnaire. Both primary and secondary data were used to generate reliable information on the intended topic. All collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 20 and the output was presented by descriptive statistics such as percentage and mean values in inform of graphs. Most of the respondents (67.15%) indicated that their satisfaction level towards synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. Only few of them reported being satisfied as (medium-13.45%, good - 12.35% and very good - 7.05%). This might be because of shortage of feed, silent heat, poor performance of the inseminator and low awareness of farmers on the technology. From the study it was also noted that the overall percentage (26.22%) of calving rate to oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. This might be due to heat detection problem (36%); A.I technician efficiency (29.25%), absence of A.I technician (23.9%) and distance of A.I center (10.25%). Therefore, the skill and knowledge based training should be given for both the farmers and implementers to enhance perception and adoption of the technology.
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The different levels of depression and anxiety among Pakistani professionals

Published on: 5th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8545199443

The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between work-stress, depression and anxiety among six major professionals (doctors, engineers, bankers, nurses, teachers, and lawyers). The inquiry included 260 professionals from different private and governmental sector organizations of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Job Stress Scale and the subscales of Depression, Anxiety & Stress Scale for depression and anxiety were administered. Based on the hypotheses, a strong positive correlation was found between work stress and depression & anxiety. The current study revealed that stress at work not only prevailed among different Pakistani professionals on severely alarming levels but significantly contributed in developing depression and anxiety. 
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Zoon’s Vulvitis: A case report

Published on: 4th March, 2020

Zoon’s vulvitis or plasma cell vulvitis (PCV) is a rare, benign inflammatory condition of the vulvar mucosa [1]. PCV can present with an asymptomatic lesion, or can cause discomfort, dyspareunia and pruritus [2]. In this way, PCV can mimic other lesions of the vulval mucosa, such as lichen planus.
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His bundle pacing in heart failure: A review of current literature

Published on: 3rd March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560715663

Biventricular (BiV) pacing revolutionized the heart failure management in patients with sinus rhythm and left bundle branch block; however, left ventricular-lead placement is not always technically possible. Also, BiV pacing does not fully normalize ventricular activation and, therefore, the ventricular resynchronization is imperfect. On the other hand, right ventricular pacing for bradycardia may cause or worsen heart failure in some patients by causing dyssynchronous ventricular activation. His bundle pacing comes as an alternative to current approaches as it activates the ventricles via the native His-Purkinje system, resulting in true physiological pacing, and, therefore, is a promising site for pacing in bradycardia and traditional CRT indications in cases where it can overcome left bundle branch block. Furthermore, it has the potential to open up new indications for pacing therapy in heart failure, such as targeting patients with PR prolongation, but a narrow QRS duration. In this article we explore the history, clinical evidence, proposed mechanisms, procedural characteristics, and the role in current therapy of His bundle pacing in the prevention and treatment of heart failure.
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Pathological left ventricular hypertrophy and outflow tract obstruction in an infant of a diabetic mother: A case report

Published on: 3rd March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560717043

Background: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) are at increased risk of developing congenital anomalies including cardiac defects. Pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and outflow tract obstruction is a rare but known cardiac comorbidity in infants of diabetic mothers. The severity of this condition in IDMs can vary from an incidental finding on echocardiography to an infant with severe symptoms of congestive heart failure and specific management of the condition varies. Aim: The aim of this article is to report this clinical entity in a Nigerian infant born to a mother with poor glycaemic control in pregnancy and highlight management. Case report: We report a term neonate who was diagnosed as a case of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and outflow tract obstruction delivered to a mother with gestational diabetics with poor glycaemic control in pregnancy. Child was treated successfully with β-adrenergic blocker and showed resolution of hypertrophy in follow-up echocardiography. Conclusion: Infants of diabetic mothers are very high risk infants. Pathological left ventricular hypertrophy in IDM have good prognosis. Early recognition and prompt intervention is advocated.
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Common reproductive problem associated with one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in West Africa

Published on: 3rd March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875582446

The problems of reproduction in the camel are not extensively investigated as in the bovine, caprine and ovine species. There is need to elucidate the problem in detailed in order to overcome the problem of production and genetic multiplication. The information collected on these problems is derived mainly from questioning the camel owners, slaughterhouse material and very limited clinical and farm observations.
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Anatomical changes of the development of red Sokoto goat stomach

Published on: 3rd March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875587753

This study is aimed at investigating the age related changes in postnatal development of red Sokoto goat stomach. In this study, a total of ten red Sokoto goat digestive tract samples were used and they were grouped into five (5) age categories (group A to E). The goat ages were estimated using dentition eruption and wearing. The stomach was identified and separated from the other part of digestive tract. The gross study revealed that the stomach was composed of four (4) segments that named; rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum with anatomical demarcations between them. The biometric study of weight, length, width, thickness, and volume was found to be increasing with advancement in postnatal ages with the following valves shows the mean value of weight, length, width, thickness and volume were to be 29 to 58.0 (g), 23.5, to 52.1 (cm), 15.4 to 29.0 (cm), 0.48 to 1.0 (mm) and102 to 432 (cm3) from group A to group E respectively. Based on the above findings it was suggested that more research should be conducted using histological techniques and electron microscopy in order to finalize on the findings.
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Depression as a civilization-deformed adaptation and defence mechanism

Published on: 2nd March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8544395440

Depression is currently one of the main barriers to further civilizational development. Despite intensive efforts, it is a growing health, social and economic problem. We still lack clarity regarding the ethology of depression and treatment is still mainly symptomatic. The authors postulate that depression has similarities with anxiety and from an evolutionary perspective is an archaic defence mechanism. Formerly, through the agency of complex psychological, biological and social mechanisms, healing was facilitated in conditions of an intense, short-term nature. Adverse civilizational and environmental changes have caused pathological changes in both the mechanism of depression and corresponding defence mechanisms such as the induction of an anxiety state. Related to depression is the mechanism of thanatosis, concerning chronic biological and psychosocial dysfunctions. It is a mechanism for activating self-eliminating processes to free the community from the burden of a dysfunctional individual.
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