Miscarriage is a frequent outcome of pregnancy, with major emotional implications to the couple experiencing such an event. Threatened miscarriage is the commonest complication of early pregnancy and affects about 20% of pregnancies. It presents with vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps. On the other hand recurrent miscarriages are post implantation failures in natural conception. Increasing age of women, smoking, obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and a previous history of miscarriage are risk factors for threatened miscarriage. The pathophysiology has been associated with changes in levels of cytokines or maternal immune dysfunction. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings are important to determine the treatment options and provide valuable information for the prognosis. Many surgical and non-surgical interventions are used in the management of threatened and recurrent miscarriages. In this review, we present available evidence-based guidance on the incidence, pathophysiology, investigation and clinical management of recurrent miscarriage and threatened miscarriage, focusing mainly on the first trimester of pregnancy and primary healthcare settings. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice.
Pneumonia caused by the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease and the ongoing outbreak has been declared as a Pandemic by the World health organization. Pneumonia is a serious disease in pregnancy and requires prompt attention. Viral pneumonia has higher morbidity and mortality compared to bacterial pneumonia in pregnancy. All efforts are well exerted to understand the newly emerged disease features but still some areas are gray.
The treatment is primarily supportive with antivirals, steroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. Severe cases require intensive care monitoring with oxygen support, mechanical ventilation. Investigational therapies include convalescent plasma, cytokine release inhibitors and other immunomodulatory agents like interferons. The mortality appears driven by the presence of severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS) and organs failure.
COVID pandemic is a challenging and stressful socio-economic situation with widespread fear of infection, disease and death. In the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, studies are being conducted to ascertain the manifestation of disease in pregnant women and the fetal outcome.
The aim of our case series is to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, feto- maternal outcome of severe and critical COVID pneumonia in pregnant women in Latifa Hospital.
Many patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases complain “dizziness”, which is a distortion of static gravitational orientation, or an erroneous perception of motion of the sufferer or of the environment. In the vestibular cortical system, the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) serves as the core region having the strong interconnections with other vestibular cortical areas and the vestibular brainstem nuclei. By forming the reciprocal inhibitory interactions with the visual cortex (VISC), it also plays a pivotal role in a multisensory mechanism for self-motion perception. In a line of our studies on post-stroke patients, we found that there was a significant decrease in the cerebral blood flow in both the VISC and PIVC in the patients who suffered from dizziness. In this article, we provide a new concept that due to dysfunction of the visual-vestibular interaction loop, low cerebral blood perfusion in the PIVC and VISC might elicit post-stroke dizziness.
Objective: Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) occurs when there is misalignment of the atlantoaxial joint. Several etiologies confer increased risk of AAS in children, including neck trauma, inflammation, infection, or inherent ligamentous laxity of the cervical spine.
Methods: A single-center, retrospective case review was performed. Thirty-four patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of S13.1 were identified. Demographics and clinical data were reviewed for etiology, imaging techniques, treatment, and clinical outcome.
Results: Out of thirty-four patients, twenty-two suffered cervical spine trauma, seven presented with Grisel’s Syndrome, four presented with ligamentous laxity, and one had an unrecognizable etiology. Most diagnoses of cervical spine subluxation and/or instability were detected on computerized tomography (CT), while radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were largely performed for follow-up monitoring. Six patients underwent cervical spine fusion, five had halo traction, twelve wore a hard and/or soft collar without having surgery or halo traction, and eight were referred to physical therapy without other interventions.
Conclusion: Pediatric patients with atlantoaxial subluxation may benefit from limited 3D CT scans of the upper cervical spine for accurate diagnosis. Conservative treatment with hard cervical collar and immobilization after reduction may be attempted, but halo traction and halo vest immobilization may be necessary. If non-operative treatment fails, cervical spine internal reduction and fixation may be necessary to maintain normal C1-C2 alignment.
Shellfish are extensively consumed worldwide because of their nutritional value. In general they are good sources of low-fat protein rich in several essential vitamins and minerals as well as in the essential nutrients omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) . Shellfish belongs to “The Big 8” food groups causing allergy, which often does not outgrow during childhood. However, increase in IgE – mediated sea food allergy has been linked to shellfish. Seafood- associated shellfish include crustaceans & molluskans . These may cause mild local symptoms & lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions by ingestion, inhalation, or contact. Globally, the prevalence of shellfish allergy estimated to be 0.5% to 2.5% of the general population . There are limited data showing the prevalence of shellfish allergy in children.
A study on US pediatric population showed 1.3% of shellfish allergy. Children were more allergic to crustacean (1.2%) than mollusks (0.5%) . Tropomyosin is the major allergen.
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a rare disease, especially in children and adolescents. It was previously called premature ovarian failure (POF). It can be manifested as delayed puberty, primary or secondary amenorrhea that occurred before the age of 40 years with no less than two abnormal serum sex hormones (low estrogen and high gonadotropin). It is reported that the incidence rate is 1% at the age of 40 years and 0.01% at the age of 20 years. Although the disease usually occurs in middle-aged and elderly women, clinical practice in recent years has shown that it has also been found in adolescents and even children. It is generally believed that the etiology of POI includes genetic factors, immune factors, and iatrogenic factors. So far, several genetic mutations that may cause POI have been found clinically, but the etiology of 90% of POI is still unknown. In recent years, the incidence of POI in children and adolescents has increased, and there are more urgent requirements for its early diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management. Based on this, this article will mainly review the research progress of the etiology, treatment, and clinical management of POI in children and adolescents.
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition, more commonly seen in patients with history of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infections, or drug users. Today, we face one novel virus that has cause an outbreak of acute respiratory illness, affecting over a million individuals worldwide. New knowledge is been gained of the virus and possible complications are been seen. Following, we present the case of a 71-year-old man with diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia complicated with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.
Background: The Islamic religion has emphasized the importance of health and well-being, and Muslims have recognized the value of a good and healthy life based on Islamic recommendations. Health-oriented lifestyle is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that is the purpose of this study to investigate the Islamic lifestyle.
Methods: In this review study, we tried to explore practical strategies in Islam through access to credible sources in the form of a descriptive article on achieving a healthy lifestyle in nutrition. For this purpose, using keywords and electronic and manual searches in authentic Islamic and medical sources, information was searched and collected to answer the research question.
Results: Based on the results of the reviewed studies, the guidelines of Islamic religion and beliefs are mainly based on improving lifestyle factors and dietary habits. It has been emphasized that adherence to the Islamic dietary guidelines and lifestyle, may lead to less risk of diseases.
Conclusion: Given the availability of valuable nutritional resources and instructions in Islam to prevent and combat nutrition-related diseases, these theories can be applied and prevent from spreading and creating malnutrition-related diseases; the guidelines of Islam on healthy lifestyles in nutrition can be recommended to the world as a basic strategy
Physician-patient communication is the most basic element and vital skill of physicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and establishing diagnostic protocols. As the risks of contagion and viral infection are higher in physicians and health workers, front line soldiers inpatient care units, so they should establish strict protective measures. However, patients value greatly face to face and close relationships with their doctors, including facial interviews and physical examinations. So social and physical distancing between physician and their patients can be remarked as a bigger toll than the risk of COVID-19 contagious.
Following the COVID-19 proliferation beyond China’s borders at the beginning of 2020, containment measures have been taken by different countries around the globe. Citizens were forced to stay at home. Specifically, on March 19th, the Argentine Government decided to implement the “Social, preventive and mandatory isolation”, strategy that unfortunately impacts on the lifestyle, the practise of physical activity and on the nutritional aspect of the population. The aim of this study was analize eating habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 lockdown on the 9 de Julio city, Bs. As., Argentina. The survey was conducted using Google Form. The questionnaire was divided into different sections: sociodemographic data, eating habits, physical activity and concepts and emotions associated with isolation. The research reached 287 responses with a medium socioeconomic level. During isolation, the frequency of purchases decreased. It was observed an increase in the consumption of pasta, bread and cakes. Concerning the physical activity, approximately 70% declared to train before the COVID-19 lockdown, decreased by 13% during the lockdown. Other activities conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown; the most mentioned were cleaning the house, cooking, watching television, series and movies. A percentage greater than 50% of the surveyed population associated the situation of lockdown with positive emotions (share with my family, stay at home); while only 24% associate it with negative emotions (anxiety, anguish, fear). It is expected that most habits will return to normal, however, it would be interesting to know which of those developed, adopted and implemented during lockdown will remain in the new normality.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell donation among Saudi population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted at different malls in Riyadh. Selection of malls was done randomly according to the geographical distribution of Riyadh, in which sample size was calculated and distributed equally. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that addressed their knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell transplantation and donation.
Results: Results of this study showed that population knowledge about stem cell transplantation and donation is considered to be low. Only (37.8%) has enough information about stem cell transplantation and donation. There is a positive correlation between level of education and participant’s knowledge regarding stem cell transplantation and donation. The study revealed that 39.3% of participants have willingness for stem cell donation.
Conclusion: It has been found that two third of population expressed lack of knowledge about stem cell transplantation and donation. Also, only 40% of participants showed willingness for donation, and the most common reason for not donating stem cell was the lack of information about stem cell and the value of donation While, increasing level of education was associated with better understanding of stem cell donation and its role in therapy and saving lives. Therefore, suitable campaign, advertising and counseling program for population is recommended to increase level of knowledge and motivation toward stem cell donation.
Nasopalatine duct cyst is the most common non-odontogenic cyst. It develops in the midline of the anterior maxilla. It is usually asymptomatic and sometimes it can be overlooked or misdiagnosed. We present 10 patients who applied to Istanbul University Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
Noise is widespread in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health impacts. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings and is now increasingly caused by exposure to social and environmental noise. Incidence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been observed to increase substantially in the recent years. Several advances have taken place in past few years for understanding the molecular basis of NIHL. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms implicated in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has significantly increased. Research in the field of genetics is also advancing at a rapid speed, and several genes linked to NIHL have been discovered. This could help in developing preventive and treatment strategies. This review article focuses on the current research and future trends on auditory effects and consequences of noise pollution in humans, stressing the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies as a public health measures.
Related the extremely transmittable abilities of SARS-CoV-2,a harmonious virus to the bat CoV, gets transmitted by three principal processes-- the inhalation of droplets from the SARS-CoV-2 infected person, contacting to the person, and by the surfaces and materials defiled with the virus. Whereupon bat Coronavirus is mostly like the pandemic causing virus SARS-CoV-2, bats are often deliberated and figured out as a possible primary host although no intermediate has not been defined yet in the wherewithal of transmission. The Spike Glycoprotein plays an important role in the case of penetration with the assistance of the ACE2 receptor and the Receptor Binding Domain. In the human body, infiltrating the nucleic acid into host cells, SARS-CoV-2 attacks one cell and one by one into the whole human body; therefore, infected cases are found symptomatic and asymptomatic considering the immune power. Patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes proceed with their treatment with ACE2 often; therefore, there might be a high chance of getting infected. Whereas the SARS-CoV-2 infects the blood and then lungs, Antigens improvement can be better in order to avoid high-complicated effects. Currently, no vaccination or no accurate cure and treatment has not been defined. An explanation with analysis on SARS-CoV-2 has been performed from the aspect of virology, immunology and molecular biology. Several relevant figures have been included hereby in order to a better understanding of the very concept.
Background: Alcohol and chat use during adolescence is associated with academic and health problems, including abuse or dependence in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and early initiation of alcohol and chat use among school-going adolescents.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 546 school-going adolescents. The ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) was used to assess ACEs, Alcohol and chat use was assessed by questions prepared by the authors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between overall ACE score and alcohol use and the potential moderating effects of confounders.
Results: prevalence of chat chewing behavior was 26.6% followed by alcohol use 20%. A total of 66.2% of participants reported at least one ACE, and 5.93% reported four or more ACEs. High/Multiple ACEs (ACEs=1-3 and above 3) were significantly associated with increased alcohol use behaviors (AOR=1.491(1.072-3.078) and (AOR=3.171(1.330-7.560) respectively and increased chat use behaviors by 4.92 times (AOR=4.92, 95%CI=2.640-8.432) and 11.022 times (AOR=11.022, 95%CI=1.230-25.560) respectively controlling other factors.
Conclusion: ACEs were significantly associated with risk behaviors, alcohol and chat use may lead to poor health, and educational outcomes among adolescent students and numbers of ACEs have graded association. Social support, sex, residence, parent educational status, and current level of depressive symptoms were significant modulating factors, which parents, school teachers, psychologists, and adolescent health care providers should give the concern to decrease the effect on school-going adolescents.
Oxalate nephropathy due to Hyperoxaluria and elevated serum oxalate level is a well-known cause for interstitial fibrosis, and ESRD. Conditions associated with high serum Oxalate, should be considered as a possible contributing factor for a patient’s tubular injury.
Well known cause for Hyperoxaluria including enteric Hyperoxaluria (due to gastric bypass, chronic pancreatitis, small Bowel resection, or malabsorption, as well as depletion of enteric oxalate-degrading bacteria [e.g., Oxalobacter). Other known causes of oxalate nephropathy include primary Hyperoxaluria, ethylene glycol intoxication, vitamin B6 deficiency, excessive ingestion of vitamin C or dietary substances rich in oxalic acid, aspergillosis, prolonged renal failure and various drugs (e.g., Known medications to cause Oxalate Nephropathy are: Orlistat, Praxilene, COX-2 inhibitors).
Unusual presentation with Acute Kidney Injury with incidental finding of high serum Oxalate in a patient with a known CKD stage III, recently started on Polyethelene Glycol to treat his constipation.
A 27-year-old man presented to our hospital for abdominal pain and a cheesy discharge from the umbilicus which lasted for a few days. He was afebrile. The physical examination revealed periumbilical tenderness and discharge from the umbilicus. There were no signs of general infection. Otherwise, he had neither specific symptoms nor a palpable abdominal mass. Pelvic computerized tomographic (CT) scanning) confirmed the presence of a cyst in the midline of the abdominal wall, with communication with the bladder and peripheral calcification. The mass was infiltrated to the perivesical fat (Figure 1). The patient was prepared for surgery. During laparotomy, a urachal cyst with the cuff of the bladder dome were removed (Figure 2). Recovery was unremarkable. The resected specimen was a partial cystectomy specimen with perivesical fat and the median umbilical ligament
Objectives: Tension-free vaginal tapes are the gold standard of the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI); however, long-term recurrence of SUI after this surgery has been a matter of problem. Here, we attempted to determine the incidence of its recurrence and to identify the risk factors of 4-year-recurrence of SUI after this surgery.
Methods: Of all patients undergoing this surgery (n = 341, 2015-2019), 71 patients were met the study inclusion criteria. Of 71, SUI recurred in 8 patients, with the recurrence rate being 11.3%. The following three were identified to be independent risk factors: older age, history of delivery of macrosomic baby (>4 kg), and the presence of mixed urinary incontinence. The frequency of recurrence in cases with mixed incontinence amounted for 19.5%. Recurrence was 22 and 50% for women with macrosomic delivery once and more than twice, respectively.
Conclusion: Advanced age, macrosomic delivery and mixed urinary incontinence have shown to be independent risk factors of recurrence of SUI after tension-free vaginal tape-obturator at 4 years.
Key message: Stress urinary incontinence can recur so investigate possible risk factors is a priority. Our paper relates recurrence with: advanced age, fetal macrosomia and mixed incontinence.
Background: A Grey 12-year-old Arabian endurance horse gelding was referred to the SHS Veterinary Center for anorexia, mild colic of 5 days duration, and melena of 1 day duration. The owner reported recurring colic, 12 episodes of mild colic in the previous year.
Methods: On admission, vital signs were within normal limits and body condition score was estimated to be 3/9.
Results: Packed cell volume (PCV) was 28% [reference range (RR): 31% to 47%] and plasma total protein was 58 g/L (RR: 60 to 80 g/L). Hematochezia was observed. Abdominal ultrasound examination detected no abnormalities. Over the next 12 h, the horse experienced hematochezia and several mild episodes of colic and death. A necropsy was performed. A mass arising from the right dorsal ascending colon near the base of the cecum and extending transmurally from the colonic mucosa into the mesocolon was a 8 cm × 5 cm × 8 cm firm, homogenous, tan mass. The portion of the mass that extended into the colonic lumen was pedunculated, with an ulcerated surface. The adjacent segments of colon were markedly reddened and edematous. Histologically, the mass was comprised of large interweaving sheets of small, spindle cells with ill-defined cell borders embedded in abundant myxomatous matrix. Tumor cells contained scant eosinophilic cytoplasm and oval to elongate nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Mitotic figures were rare (1/10) high power fields. Tumor infiltrated between the muscularis interna and the muscularis externa at the myenteric plexi.
Conclusion: Gross and histologic appearance, were consistent with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Severe Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common, serious problem affecting critically ill children that lacks effective treatment options. Currently, there are no treatment options for AKI other than supportive care. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is employed to reduce Fluid Overload (FO) burden and treat metabolic disturbances in AKI. Identifying patients upon admission who may require CRRT has potential clinical care implications. The aim of this study was to determine if the RAI had diagnostic capabilities to identify patients who would require CRRT.
The analytic cohort consisted of patients who required CRRT and illness severity score matched controls who did not require CRRT at a single center. Patients who required CRRT had higher mortality rates, length of stay, and use of ventilatory and inotropic support. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) assessed and compared the discriminatory accuracy of three scores: 1) the renal angina index (RAI), 2) serum-creatinine (sCr) based AKI on day 0 and 3) modified RAI created with an additional RAI injury tranche that corresponded to severe stage 3 AKI sCr elevation.
Compared to Day0AKI (AUC 0.78, 0.70-0.87; sensitivity 0.63, 0.45-0.79; specificity 0.93, 0.870.97) and RAI (AUC 0.76, 0.69-0.82; sensitivity 0.94, 0.81-0.99; specificity 0.57, 0.47-0.66), the modified RAI had the highest AUC (0.79; 0.72-0.85) with a high sensitivity (0.91; 0.77-0.98) and moderate specificity (0.65; 0.56-0.75) for prediction of CRRT requirements. As a more accurate tool for discriminating patients in need of CRRT, a modified RAI has numerous potential implications. Identifying patients who ultimately require CRRT at an earlier timepoint may influence timing of CRRT initiation in an attempt to avoid further FO, or may influence nephrotoxin administration. The diagnostic capabilities of the modified RAI may be refined by the addition of urinary biomarkers. These findings should be validated in a larger cohort.
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Ivano- Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine
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University of Agriculture, Pakistan
Muhammad Sarwar Khan
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