All Articles in October, 2020

Intentıonal reımplantatıon of hopeless teeth: Cases serıes

Published on: 31st October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872657975

Intentional replantation is an alternative for the treatment of advanced periodontal destruction of the anterior teeth. Systemically healthy three female patient was referred to our clinic with functional complaints. Diagnosis were chronic periodontitis and class III mobility was noted at the mandibular incisors with complete periodontal attachment loss. After phase I periodontal treatment periodontally involved teeth were extracted, endodontic treatment accomplished, the teeth were replanted and fixed to its place with fiber reinforced composite splint. At the end of 2 years tooth was in function with alveolar bone gain. Intentional replantation provided long-term maintenance of patient’s own teeth.
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Galenic hospital laboratory during COVID-19 emergency: A practical experience in an advanced country

Published on: 31st October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8870088144

In the actual COVID-19 emergency, as pandemic disease, in many countries at the same time there was the rapid need to use preventive and therapeutic measures to control the diffusion of infection. In PC AREA (Italy north) in the period between March and May 2020, in fact, were observed about 1000 deaths related to COVID-19 (in march 2020 + 271% death vs 2019). Between all the measure submitted by public international institution like WHO, OMS, CDC and many other, the deeply use of disinfectants product became a crucial fact in safety procedure and protocols. The high amount of this disinfectants and antiseptic was needed especially in hospital settings or assimilates structure (named as COVID-19 hospital) but also for territorial healthcare need. So it was needed to buy from industries this product but also to start an internal production in galenic laboratories. This because pharmaceutical industries not provided in some cases the request amount of this “”safe life products. In this work is reported a practical experience in a public hospital, Pc AREA related GALENIC extra -ORDINARY PRODUCTION of disinfectants and antispetics. The result of this local experience experience can be easily translated to other countries in the world (advanced or also not advanced).
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Antifungal activity of epecific plant essential oils against fusarium graminearum

Published on: 31st October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872656156

fusarium graminearum is one of the most popular phytopathogens of cereals worldwide. F. graminearum is the major causal agent of head blight of wheat and barley. Disease-resistant cultivar development, antagonistic microorganism usage and fungicide treatment are the most common strategies in head blight management strategies. However, these methods have some important disadvantages. The use of plant-derived essential oil against F. graminearum seems to be a promising approach due to the recent researches. This review summarizes the potential use of essential oils to fight against F. graminearum.
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Reactive Oxygen spray as prophylaxis for COVID-19 infection

Published on: 30th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873218105

Viral transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19 is very high within households despite self isolation [1,2]. Transmission of the virus is thought to be similar to that of influenza. Virus is shed into respiratory secretions which can be transferred through coarse droplets or fine aerosol released when a person coughs, sneezes or talks. These droplets/aerosols may infect another either by direct contact with the mucous membranes or through fomite transmission. 
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Evaluation of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of marine Bacillus subtilis ESRAA3010 against different multidrug resistant Enterococci (MDRE) and cancer cell lines

Published on: 28th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872659898

Fifty nine isolates belonging to six species of Enterococci namely, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus mundtiiand Enterococcus avium (n = 35, 15, 4, 3, 1 and 1 isolates, respectively) were obtained from different clinical specimens including urine, pus, blood, wound, sputum and synovial fluid. The highest numbers of Enterococci were recorded from the pus (20 isolates, 33.90%) followed by urine (12 isolates, 20.34%) while the lowest frequency was observed with synovial fluid samples (2 isolates, 3.39%). These isolates showed different multidrug resistant patterns with the lowest resistant for linezolid (n = 5, 8.48%), followed by teicoplanin (n = 14, 23.73%) and vancomycin (n = 20, 33.90%) while they exhibited the highest resistant against penicillin (n = 53, 89.83%), oxacillin (n = 50, 84.75%), erythromycin (n = 49, 83.05%) and streptomycin (n = 47, 79.66 %). On the other hand, a free living marine bacterium under isolation code ESRAA3010 was isolated from seawater samples obtained from the fishing area Masturah, Red Sea, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, 16S rRNA gene analyses and phylogenetic data proved that isolate ESRAA3010 is very close to Bacillus subtilis and then it was designated as Bacillus subtilis ESRAA3010. It gave the highest antagonistic activity against all clinical Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus mundtiiand Enterococcus avium isolates under study with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 4 to 56 µg/mL, 4 to 12 µg/mL, 4 to 8 µg/mL, 4 to 8 µg/mL, 8 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, respectively as well as minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) (8 to 64 µg/mL, 4 to 16 µg/mL, 4 to 12 µg/mL, 4 to 16 µg/mL, 12 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively). Moreover it showed anti-proliferative activity against colon (HCT-116), liver (HepG-2), breast (MCF-7) and lung (A-549) carcinomas with IC50 equal to 39, 50, 75 and 19 µg/mL, respectively which indicates its prospective usage in the upcoming decades.
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Syphilitic pemphigus

Published on: 22nd October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691703922

A 34-week premature newborn, child of a mother without prenatal controls, a marijuana user, with gestational syphilis with a positive rapid plasma reagin test (RPR) titer 1:16, did not receive treatment during pregnancy. The newborn presented congenital syphilis, RPR titer 1: 256 positive test.
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Can the Wondfo® SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies be used as a rapid diagnostic test?

Published on: 21st October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8689018987

Background: An outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the performance of the Wondfo® lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay that detect SARS-CoV-2- IgG, IgM antibodies (Wondfo® IC), using the results obtained by the fluorescence immunoassay test as reference diagnostic. Material and methods: 97 serum specimens collected and analyzed by four independent laboratories of Sergipe/Brazil was used for validated the Wondfo® SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies test. The COVID-19 positive serum specimens were determined by fluorescence immunoassay technique, used as reference standard. Results: An overall of 97 serum specimens show 39 (39/97) SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive specimens, 33 (33/97) SARS-CoV-2 IgM positive specimen and 25 non-reagent specimens (25/97). However, the Wondfo® IC assay detected only 9 (9/97) IgM/IgG positive specimen and 25 (25/97) no-reagent specimen. A weak correlation was found between the outcomes of the Wondfo® IC assay and fluorescence test. The accuracy between the two tests was 32.08%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Wondfo® IC assay were of 11.12%, 100%, 100% and 25.27%, respectively. Moreover, no false positive sample was determinate, whereas 88.89% of false negative results were found. Conclusion: The Wondfo® IC test failed in providing a quick, valid, and reliable results and appears not to be a good alternative for clinical use in detecting pandemic coronavirus. However, if the limitations of the rapid test are known, some correction factors can be used in order to adjust the epidemiological data.
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Lower-body negative pressure/ergometer exercise in bed rest: Effects on female orthostatic tolerance

Published on: 21st October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8689024101

Introduction: Alternatively using gradient lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) and ergometer exercise (LBNP + ergo) under a flight schedule framework was explored to detect its orthostatic capacity maintenance effects in female subjects after 15 days of -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR). Methods: Twenty-two female university students were divided into a control group (n = 8), an LBNP group (n = 7), and an LBNP + ergo group (n = 7). Ergometer exercise consisted of an interval exercise protocol with 2 min intervals alternating between 41% and 70% VO2max. Gradient LBNP was decompressed in 10 mm Hg intervals to -40 mmHg every 5 min. intermittent ergometer exercise and LBNP were alternatively performed. Tilt test was performed 2 days before HDBR (R-2), on the day of HDBR termination (R+1), and 5 days after HDBR (R+5). Results: Fifty percent of the participants (11/22) did not pass the tilt test on R+1. The orthostatic tolerance time decreased from 20 to 16.1 ± 2.1 min in the control group, to 10.0 ± 2.7 min in the LBNP group (p = 0.01) and to 16.3 ± 2.0 min in the LBNP + ergo group. The HRs and BPs were at similar level among three groups during tilt test on different test days. Compared with the control group, the LBNP + ergo group had higher SV and CO percentage changes at R+1(p < 0.023) and R+5 (p < 0.00001) during the tilt test. Conclusion: LBNP combined with ergometer exercises fails to prevent orthostatic intolerance but it induced some positive hemodynamic changes during tilt test after 15 days HDBR.
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COVID-19 related rhabdomyolysis

Published on: 20th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691888726

A novel coronavirus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a high rate of human-to-human transmission has emerged, resulting in a worldwide public health crisis of catastrophic proportions. Common initial symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) include fever, cough, fatigue, myalgia, and shortness of breath. Complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury, acute kidney injury, and secondary infections [1,2]. There have been reports of patients infected with COVID-19 who either presented with muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis or developed muscle damage as a late complication during hospitalization [3-8]. 
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Liver disease in the Era of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic

Published on: 20th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691702820

Coronavirus infections have caused outbreaks in humans: SARS-COV ((Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) resulting in significant mortality and morbidity
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Maternal and perinatal outcomes of uterine rupture in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

Published on: 20th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691249258

Introduction: Uterine rupture is one of the peripartum complications, which cause nearly about one out of thirteen maternal deaths. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mortality among women with uterine rupture in referral hospitals of Lubumbashi, in the south east part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from December 1st, 2012 to 31st, 2016 on uterine rupture. During the study selected 158 women were included by using exhaustive sampling method. Data were checked, coded and analyzed into STATA version 12. Chi-square test was used to identify the predictors of maternal and perinatal mortalities in women with uterine rupture and 95% Confidence Interval of odds ratio at p - value less than 0.05 was taken as a significance level. Results: The overall prevalence of uterine rupture was 0.49%. The average age of the patients was 29.5 ± 6.2 years and 71.52% of them were between 20 and 34 years old; more than 60% had a parity ≥4 (average parity: 4.7 ± 2.5). 81.17% of the cases had a fully ruptured uterus and 51.17% of the uterine ruptures were located in the lower segment. Repair of the pregnant ruptured uterus was performed in 93.04% of the cases and hysterectomy in 5.06%. Maternal and perinatal mortalities were 8.86% and 72.04% respectively. Regarding maternal mortality, no parameter showed a significant association with maternal death. As for perinatal mortality, parity ≥4, complete rupture and segmento-corporeal lesion were significantly associated with perinatal death (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Uterine rupture remains one of the causes of maternal and perinatal mortality in Lubumbashi. The place occupied by uterine ruptures in obstetric activity requires joint and urgent action by all stakeholders in the health system in order to combat this scourge, witness to poor quality obstetric care.
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Cystic fibrosis and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A rare occurrence with diagnostic dilemmas, similarities and contradictions

Published on: 20th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8686101406

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary syndrome composed of exocrine gland dysfunction involving multiple systems which if untreated may result in chronic respiratory infections, pancreatic enzyme deficiency and failure to thrive. The association between CF and other inherited diseases or congenital anomalies is rare. We describe a rare case of CF with concomitant congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). 21- Hydroxylase deficiency accounts for most CAH cases. Varity in clinical phenotypes depends on the amount of enzymatic activity which in turn depends on different combination of gene mutations. The genes of CAH and CF are located in different locations. The chance of these diseases coexisting in our patient would be a rare combination. However, such a case will be more frequent in our population than others because of consanguineous marriage and common ancestors. There are diagnostic difficulties, similarities and contradictions between two diseases and they are pointed out.
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Experiment of a novel four-spherical intrauterine contraceptive device with nickel-titanium

Published on: 20th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691260293

The aim of this study was to develop a novel four-spherical intrauterine contraceptive device (4-SIUD) with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) for human, and to evaluate the contraceptive effect. The 4-SIUD composed of 4 mesh spheres and 5 support arms. The shape of 4-SIUD was like a “T”. The height (H), upper width (D) and thickness of the 4-SIUD for macaques were 0.8 cm, 0.5 cm and 0.3 cm, and for human were 4.5 cm, 4.0 cm and 0.8 cm, respectively. The 4-SIUD was inserted into 5 macaques and pregnancy was not observed at 12 months. Three women used the 4-SIUD for 12 months, uterine perforations, expulsion, pain, and pelvic inflammatory did not occur. The results suggested that the 4-SIUD is appropriate for rhesus macaques and human use, and has a good contraceptive effect.
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StatesCare–The Cure for “Patient” Healthcare

Published on: 20th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691717864

Fifty years of Washington’s fixes for healthcare have brought us to the brink: insurance is unaffordable and care is unavailable, certainly not in time. The way to make healthcare work for We the Patients (all Americans) is to take healthcare authority away from third-parties – government and insurance – and restore the direct doctor-patient connection with no bureaucrat in between. The cure for patient Healthcare is StatesCare combined with market-based medicine. Financial models confirm this approach will make care both affordable and accessible in a timely manner. 
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Hormones and depression in women

Published on: 15th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691260689

It is well known that depression is more common in women than in men with more prescriptions for antidepressants, hospital admissions for depression and suicide attempts. However another aspect to be considered is that depression is different in women than men because women have depressive episodes at times of hormonal shift which is a physiological phenomenon not encountered in men. This is why hormone therapy is so important.
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Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on ICSI outcome: A prospective study

Published on: 14th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691249136

Aim and objectives: The primary aim was to measure the sperm DNA damage and to study the magnitude of sperm DNA damage. Secondary objective was to study the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on Day 5 Blastocyst expansion (graded 1-5). Results: There is an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation with an increase in age. Increased sperm DNA fragmentation is also associated with abnormal motility and morphology in semen samples. However, there is no reduction in expansion or grade of blastocyst. Conclusion: Sperm DNA fragmentation testing is a useful investigation in unexplained infertility. However, Sperm DNA fragmentation has no significant association with Day 5 embryo grade in ICSI cycles. Thesis work of Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine student: Dr. Ramya Harish
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Endometrial thickness and frozen thaw embryo transfer: A prospective study

Published on: 14th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691248908

Aim and objectives: Endometrial Window of Implantation (WOI) is open in the midsecretory phase wherein the markers of invasion and cell adhesion are manifested .The primary objective was to find out the predictive value of Endometrial thickness and profile as a prognostic factors for embryo transfers during ART. Materials and Methods: Endometrial thickness assessment was performed with grey scale ultrasound on the day of transfer just before thawing the embryos in patients undergoing Frozen embryo transfer cycle after endometrial preparation. Results: The mean age and standard deviation of study population was is 33.26+5.95.Out of 69 patients there was clinical pregnancy in 33 patients , miscarriage in 10 patients and ongoing pregnacy in 23 patients. So the implantation rate was 47.83% (33/69), early miscarriage rate (pregnancy ending before 12 weeks) was 14.49%(10/69) and the ongoing pregnancy rate was 33.33% (23/69). Endometrial thickness < 6 mm had comparable implantation rates but low ongoing pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The ultrasound morphological and vascular grading of endometrial thickness and vascularity is useful to synchronise Day 5 embryo transfer and window and implantation thereby minimizing the loss of good embryos in nonreceptive endometrium.
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Comparison of oocyte maturity rates in recombinant Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and triptorelin acetate triggers: A prospective randomized study

Published on: 13th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691250260

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) like exposure in the mid cycle for inducing the oocyte maturation is the very crucial step in the success of ICSI treatment. Introduction of LH surge endogenously by GnRH-agonist for final oocyte maturation induction, may be more physiological compared with the administration of HCG. Since GnRH agonist would induce FSH surge also along with LH surge, as happens in natural cycle. However, the effects of giving HCG trigger for inducing only LH surge and giving GnRH agonist trigger for inducing both LH and FSH surge, in patients treated for ICSI with GnRH antagonists need more research. Sub fertile patients planned for ICSI, meeting the requirement of inclusion criteria, were started with recombinant FSH from day 2 of menstrual cycle. GnRH antagonists were started from day 6 of stimulation. FSH dose was adjusted according to the individual response. Trigger was planned when the lead follicle reaches 24 mm. For triggering, 100 patients were randomized to receive Recombinant HCG trigger and Triptorelin acetate trigger. Oocyte retrieval was done 36 hours after Recombinant hCG Trigger and 35 hours after Triptorelin acetate trigger. The oocyte maturity rate was assessed by the number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved.
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Atherogenic risk assessment of naive HIV-infected patients attending Infectious Diseases Service of Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Published on: 13th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8689021635

Background and aim: Metabolic abnormalities are common in HIV/AIDS. Increasingly, lipid ratios are used as screening tools for dyslipidaemia in these medical conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of 4 lipid ratios to predict cardiovascular risks. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and analytical study included 105 HIV+ patients followed in Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital (KUTH). Four indices [Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), Castelli Risk Index (CRI) I and II, Atherogenic coefficient (AC)] were compared. Statistical analyzis consisted of measuring frequencies and means, Student’s t-tests, ANOVA and Ficher’s exact test, and the calculation of the Kappa value. Results: Lipid ratios predicted respectively the risk in 62% (AIP), 28.6% (CRI-I) and 23.8% (CRI-II). CRI-I and II were elevated, especially in women. The AIP appeared to be a better predictor than CRI-I and II to assess dyslipidaemia in general and the high-risk frequency. The cholesterol detected risk in 66.7% (Low HDL-C), 50% (High LDL-C), 38.9% (High TC and/or TG). The atherogenic risk was higher with age, advanced WHO stage, HIV-TB, HBV-HCV co-infections, smoking and alcohol intake. Haemoglobin (Hb) and CD4 counts were low when the risk was high. Age ≥ 50 years, stage 4 (WHO), CD4s+ ≤ 200 cells/µL were independent factors associated with atherogenic risk. Conclusion: Lipid ratios can be used as reliable tools for assessing cardiovascular risk of naïve HIV-infected patients who received HAART.
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COVID-19 and taking care and protection of patients with intellectual disabilities, need special care and equity

Published on: 13th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8689018745

Since December 2019, entire world is facing problem of corona-virus pandemics and its impact on the people and their social life has been phenomenal. Each part of the world is ‘almost’ hit by COVID-19 infection. Most of the COVID-19 victims were aged people followed by consequence of high death ratios as shown in data [1]. Not only aged people but people with some secondary diseases or disorder were of major concern. A special case comes across which are patients with intellectual disabilities (ID) are the most vulnerable group. They also have extra multiple disorders including respiratory diseases, diabetes, obesity, These individuals face more complications and stand at high risk of because, such people are usually mentally lethargic and have almost no literacy in to follow proper health care and access health facilities
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Psychological distress in a social media content moderator: A case report

Published on: 12th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8683061313

The expansion of social media platforms has given birth to a specific professional category in charge of « sanitizing » social media and keeping it free of “inappropriate” content. These content moderators, as a result of being constantly exposed to potentially traumatic images, may be at risk of developing stress-related symptoms. Here we present the case of a social media content moderator who experienced intrusive images, anxiety symptoms and insomnia. Literature about this subject is very scarce, while the need is increasing to assess this phenomenon and set up strategies of monitoring, counseling and treating this category of workers. Key points The expansion of social media platforms has given birth to a specific professional category: content moderators. As a result of being constantly exposed to potentially traumatic images, content moderators may be at risk of developing stress-related symptoms. The need is increasing to assess this phenomenon and set up strategies of monitoring, counseling and treating this category of workers.
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COVID-19 pandemic, recurrent outbreaks and prospects for assimilation of hCoV-19 into the human genome

Published on: 12th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8683060462

The outbreaks and resurgence: The disease which reportedly began in the Chinese city Wuhan in November-December 2019, soon spread to various parts of the world, and was named and declared a pandemic disease by WHO. While the European countries were recovering from the epidemic, the disease took hold in the USA, the South American countries, Arabian countries, and South Asian countries, predominantly affecting Brazil, Peru, Iran, and India. Presently, many European countries are witnessing a resurgence and recurrent outbreaks of COVID-19. Spread and evolving new insights: Whereas there is workplace-related infection rise as people are returning to their offices, in other places the outbreaks are related to the people crowding and meeting care-freely and trying to resort back to their earlier way of life. The reopening of the educational facilities across the continents may make matters worse. Impact on health and healthcare: Most cases of COVID-19 infections go unnoticed and are followed by self-recovery. But what may appear good from the clinical perspective, appears to complicate epidemiological efforts to contain the outbreak. With the evolving information about the disease, there seem to be certain possible outcomes such as control and containment, or the persistence of the disease as global endemic accompanied with outbreaks and resurgent episodes. Gnetic factors linked to disease severity: With the COVID-19 pandemic, not all infected patients develop a severe respiratory illness. Further, there is a large variation in disease severity, which may be due to the genetic factors underlying the variable response to the virus. It is becoming clear that apart from the advanced age and pre-existing conditions, certain genetic constituent factors render some patients more vulnerable to the more severe forms of the diseases. Integration of virus into human genome: A significant part of the human genome is derived from viruses especially the RNA viruses. In fact, about 8 percent of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are viral gene sequences that have become a permanent part of the human lineage after they infected our ancient ancestors. With this background, a novel concept emerging that if COVID-19 persists for several generations, its genetic material is projected to be integrated or assimilated into human genome. The involved mechanisms are conceptualized through the transposons or transposable elements of the SARS-CoV-2.
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Anti COVID-19 immunity developed as assessed in a community-based oncological center

Published on: 7th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8861739910

Introduction: Serology (antibody) tests for the SARS-CoV-2 have been proposed as an instrument to inform health authorities about immunization during the COVID-19 pandemic. As there is a significant part of the population that may have some degree of immunity, it is of great interest to communicate the immunization results obtained in the first 500 healthcare workers (HCW), patients and relatives tested in a community-based Oncological Center. Materials and methods: Between April 9th, 2020 and May 8th, 2020, a group of healthcare workers (HCW), their families, and general public who had had the COVID-19 or had been in close contact with confirmed cases of COVID-19 were screened for IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The tests were carried out in a rigorous manner, strictly following the guidelines approved by the Spanish Ministry of Health (Ministerio de Sanidad). Results: The major objective of this study was to determine the proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals and those who had already secreted IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in our cancer treatment center or in the community of Barcelona. Patients were tested with PCR, Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 521 participants were tested, 206 with RDT and 315 with ELISA, 59 (11,32%) resulted positive to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: RDT and ELISA proved to be effective and sensible enough to determine the extent of SARS-CoV-2 immunization in a community-based oncological center. The degree of immunization reached is nowadays far away from what can be considered desirable for a herd immunization.
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The role of robotic segmentectomy for non-small cell lung cancer

Published on: 6th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8682303248

Segmentectomy may be applied to all segments; superior segmentectomies (lower lobe superior segments for both lungs), lingulectomies (two segments forming lingulas of upper left lobe) and basal segmentectomies (segments other than superior segment for both lungs). In lung segment resections; segmentectomy has an equivalent morbidity, recurrence and survival rate compared to lobectomy, in patients with stage I lung cancer, tumors smaller than 2 cm and within the segmental anatomical limits. Segmentectomy also contributes more to preserving lung function and exercise capacity than lobectomy. In tumor resection; especially in patients with advanced age, insufficient performance or insufficient cardiopulmonary reserve, 2 cm in diameter and acceptable segmental margins may be provided. Limited long-term results show oncological results of robotic approach similar to open and VATS approaches. Robotic approach facilitates surgery with more intuitive movements, greater flexibility and high definition, three-dimensional vision. However, high cost and lack of touch sense are main disadvantages of robotic surgery. New studies are needed to assess quality of life, morbidity, oncological results and cost effectiveness. However, considering development of technology in our age and fact that many surgical robot brands will be released in the near future, it is predicted that disadvantages of robotic surgery will be minimized in the near future. This article reviews experience of segmentectomy in non-small cell lung cancer and discusses benefits and limitations of robotic segmentectomy.
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Short-term responses to high-dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a fractional nitric oxide concentration over 35 parts per billion: A single-centre pre–post study

Published on: 6th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8686101260

Introduction: There is currently no strategy for identifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients whose pulmonary function could benefit from inhaled corticosteroids. We investigated whether a 28-day regime of inhaled corticosteroids improved pulmonary function test results among COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion. Methods: This single-centre one-arm pre–post trial included COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion treated at our institution from September 2018 to August 2019. Patients were administered budesonide (200 μg, 8 puffs daily) for 28 days. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at baseline and after 28 days of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. Secondary outcomes included differences in COPD Assessment Test scores, %FEV1, and that between the percent forced vital capacity (%FVC) at baseline and after 28 days of treatment. Results: Twenty patients completed the 28-day inhaled corticosteroid regime. The mean difference in FEV1 between day 1 and day 28 was 340 mL (95% confidence interval: −100 to 770 mL; p = 0.122). The mean differences in secondary outcomes were: %FVC, −0.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: −2.84 to 2.53%; p = 0.905); %FEV1, 1.63% (95%CI: −4.56 to 7.81%; p = 0.589); COPD Assessment Test score, −2.50 (95%CI: −5.72 to 0.72; p = 0.121). Conclusion: The 28-day course of inhaled corticosteroids yielded no significant difference in FEV1 for COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion. Trial registration: University Hospital Medical Information Network Center, UMIN000034005. Registered 3 September 2018. https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000038557
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Percutaneous abdomino-pelvic abscess drainage in complicated Crohn’s disease

Published on: 5th October, 2020

Purpose: Percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) is the first-line approach for abscess in Crohn’s disease (CD) since it procrastinates or avoids surgery especially in postoperative abscesses [within 30 days post-operative (p.o.)]. We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness, complications and outcome after PAD in postoperative and spontaneous abscesses and factors influencing the outcomes. Methods: We performed PAD in 91 abscesses, 45 (49,5%) postoperative and 46 (50,5%) spontaneous. We defined the overall success (OS) as clinical (CS) and technical success (TS) when imaging documented the resolution of the abscess with no surgery within 30 days. Conversely, patients without abscess at the time of surgery, were considered as TS but clinical failure (CF). We also analyzed the overall failure (OF) defined as CF with or without technical failure (TF). Overall technical success (OTS) was OS plus TS. Complications were classified as major and minor according to the Interventional Radiology Criteria. Results: In postoperative abscesses we found 91% OS, 9% OF, no TF and 100% OTS. In spontaneous abscesses we found 33% OS, 67% OF, 6.4% TF, 95,6% OTS. A total abscess resolution was achieved in 97,8% of patients. No major complication occurred; only 1 case of minor complication. Factors statistically influencing the outcome were postoperative vs spontaneous collections (OF: 9% vs. 67%, p < 0.0001), multiloculated vs uniloculated collections (OF: 38% vs. 1%, p < 0.0001) and upper abdominal vs lower location (OF: 13% vs. 25%, p <0.05). Conclusion: Our data confirms the safety and effectiveness of PAD even in cases needing surgery within 30 days; most remarkable, PAD allows avoidance of early reoperation in almost all the patients with postoperative abscess.
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Knowledge and attitude of workers towards HIV post-exposure prophylaxis and exposure of staffs to sharp injuries in Dessie Referral Hospital: 2020; A cross sectional study

Published on: 5th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8681469728

Background: Post exposure chemoprophylaxis can prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in risk healthcare workers; however routine adoptions of these practices by the workers have been limited. Objective: To assess knowledge and attitude of health workers on HIV post-exposure prophylaxis and exposure to sharp injuries in Dessie referral hospital. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 422 health care workers of Dessie referral Hospital. The study subjects were selected by proportional allocation of each sample in its respective department/ward. Simple random sampling method was used to select study participants. The data was cleaned coded and analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23. Finally the result was presented by graphs, pie chart and statements. Results: A total of 422 study subjects were participated in the study. Among 422 participants 72.5% had good knowledge of post exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the rest 27.5% had poor knowledge of post exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Among 422 study participants 75.2% had positive attitude towards PEP. 283(67.1%) of them had exposure to sharp injuries. Conclusion: Generally most of health care workers had good knowledge about post exposure prophylaxis against HIV/AIDS. This study had shown that a significant number of individuals had a negative attitude with regard to post exposure prophylaxis. Therefore, formal training that aims to improve attitudes and support to improve PEP implementation and completion are needed. 
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Frequency of renal tubular acidosis in children with down syndrome

Published on: 2nd October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691889815

Background: Down syndrome (DS) is associated with various congenital diseases and malformations, including those of the kidneys and urinary tract. It has been thought that renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is more frequent in this population. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of RTA and, secondarily, of other renal and urological disorders in persons with DS. Method: An observational, ambispective, descriptive and cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with RTA, or suspected kidney or urological disorders, was carried out from July 2016 to September 2017 at the Down syndrome clinic of the Mexican National Institute of Paediatrics. Urinalysis was performed, along with analyses of venous blood gas, sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, albumin and creatinine. Those with any abnormal values were referred to nephrology for diagnostic evaluation. Results: Of a total of 700 patients seen at the clinic, 47 met the selection criteria. Of these, 32 had no RTA or other renal or urological alterations. The remaining 15 continued to the second phase of the study, where 6 were diagnosed with nephropathy or uropathy (RTA, systemic arterial hypertension, monosymptomatic familial haematuria, mild renal failure secondary to reflux nephropathy, urinary tract infection or right ureteropelvic stenosis). Four had mild metabolic acidosis without meeting the criteria for diagnosis of RTA. Conclusion: RTA is not more common in children with Down syndrome. Nephropathies and uropathies should be investigated in the evaluation of DS patients.
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Antibiotic induced changes to mitochondria result in potential contributions to carcinogenesis, heart pathologies, other medical conditions and ecosystem risks

Published on: 2nd October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8689024240

With the discovery by Calghatgi (2013) that three common antibiotics (Abs) increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen (ROS) and lipid peroxide (LP) and depleted their natural absorbant glutathione led me to investigate further the potential impacts of these genotoxic substances on carcinogenesis. The range of impacts on mitochondria and cellular DNA varied by antibiotic to those consistent with known prior contributions to carcinogenesis. Specific cancers probably increased by these changes were HCC, RCC (KCC), CRC, cancer of the esophagus. Tumor suppressor gene mutations resulting from LP were noteworthy in this regard and mutations induced in CRC were consistent with those found in carcinogenesis of CRC. In addition depression of short chain fatty acids in microbiomes were found which depress the immune system increasing risk of all cancers. Many cancers were increased according to epidemiological studies linking Abs with elevated odds ratios, with one concern in particular, fatal breast cancer. The impact of loss of functionality of the mitochondria was also linked to depression of the citric acid cycle and therefore ATP which deflected metabolism to glycolysis, the Warburg mechanism also increasing risk of all cancers, favoured by cancer cells. In conclusion, some portion of many cancer types are probably increased in likelihood by number, type and frequency of Abs treatment and chronic residue exposure which varies from individual to individual. This led me to propose a three pronged carcinogenesis mechanism for Abs. 1. Cancer critical mutations 2. Immune depression 3. loss of mitochondrial functionality leading to Warburg effects. Damage to mitochondria were also noted by common pesticides tested in China and cancer associations were also found for many pesticides supporting a similar contributory etiology. Heart health concerns were raised by these findings because of the myriad mitochondria in the heart and because of long term reliability needs. Studies suggesting hearts were affected by Abs and pesticide exposure were presented. Because of their geographical ubiquitousness and the huge range of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, antibiotics and pesticides and bacteriocidal biocides are of concern for biodiversity and life in general. I propose research steps to evaluate Abs safety and suggest directions for further research and make suggestions on ways to ameliorate Abs toxicity.
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Identification and resolution of drug therapy problems among hypertensive patients receiving care in a Nigerian Hospital - A pilot study

Published on: 1st October, 2020

Background: An event involving drug therapy that actually or potentially interfers with the desired health outcomes is known as drug therapy problem. Objective: The study aimed to identify and resolve potential drug related problems encountered among adult hypertensive patients receiving care in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. Methods: This was a prospective cross sectional study. The data were collected from the patients’ medical records using the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) Classification tool Version 6.2 (PCNE, 2010). For each of the 171 medical records, the DTPs experienced within the study period were identified. Data were analyzed using the IBM Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) for Windows, Version 21.0 (IBM Corp, Version 21.0, and Armonk, NY, USA). Results: Majority of the patients were above 65years of age 64(37.4%), while about half of the patients were females. A total of 644 drug therapy problems were identified. The major cause of DTP was prescribing error 189(29.3). Other causes of drug therapy problem identified in this study were inappropriate drug selection 122(18.9), no indication for drugs 52(8.1), inappropriate drug combination 87(13.6), new indication presented 61(9.5), dose too high 62(9.6), dose too low 44(6.8), wrong drug taken/administered 27(4.2). Majority of the interventions made were accepted 586(91.0%) while only 3(0.5%) of the interventions made were not accepted. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that a pharmacist, with adequate training and support can play a vital role in identifying and resolving drug therapy problems. Also, there is a need for an educational intervention among prescribing physicians to update them regularly on hypertension guidelines.
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