This study provides an update to a previous study exploring time to restoration of adjudicative competence within an Outpatient Competence Restoration Program (OCRP). Authors examined the probability of restoration for individuals referred for outpatient competence restoration in the U.S. capital, and revisited the requirements of American Law, taking a closer look at how programmatic changes improve restoration and encourage adherence. Competence to stand trial remains a critical screening function of the judicial system to ensure that defendants have a basic understanding of courtroom procedures. Competency restoration is therefore an attempt to protect both the integrity of the system and the rights of defendants. Aggregate data from the OCRP’s previous four years of competence restoration efforts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, restoration rates, and time to restoration. Poisson regression modeling identiﬁed probability diﬀerences in restoration between sequential restoration periods. Since our initial analysis, the DC OCRP has been successful in restoring 97 of 345 participants (28.1%), with referral rates increasing from year to year. 39.2% are now restored after the 3rd round of competency restoration. Poisson regression modeling of individuals attaining competence during six successive restoration periods showed that diﬀerences for the first five rounds of restoration were not statistically significant (p = 0.418). In the 6th round, however, the difference in percentage of restored participants was statistically significant compared to previous rounds (irr = 0.32; p = 0.0001). We discuss the policy implications, especially those that suggest that the DC OCRP has improved its ability to restore competence beyond the 1st round of restoration.
Death due to road traffic accident (RTA) was one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in India. In the present cross-sectional study, only the victim using two-wheelers, four-wheelers, and pedestrians were included for comparison to determine the pattern of injuries in these victims of the road traffic accident. There was a predominance of males in all three types of victims of RTA with a peak age of incidence seen in 21-30 years in two-wheeler victims, 41-50 years in four-wheeler victims, and 51-60 years in pedestrian victims. Four-wheeler (HMV/LMV) was the commonest type of offending vehicle involved in all types of victims with collision/ dash as the commonest manner of an accident. Head was the commonest region involved in pedestrian and two-wheeler victims as compared to the thorax in four-wheeler victims of accidents. Abrasion was the commonest surface injury in two-wheeler victims and pedestrians. The laceration was more common in two-wheeler victims as compared to crushed injury in pedestrian victims of road traffic accidents. The brain was the commonest organ involved in two-wheeler and pedestrian as compared to lungs in four-wheeler victims. The liver and spleen were more commonly involved in two-wheeler victims as compared to kidneys and bladder in pedestrian.
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial species that often causes infections in humans. Infections occur most frequently in hospitalised or immunocompromised patients and are treated with antimicrobials. In recent decades, K. pneumoniae has developed significant resistance to many antimicrobials.
Objective: The main goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance of isolated K. pneumoniae strains from urine samples of hospital patients and outpatients, and to find evidence of ESBL strains and their resistance to certain antibiotics.
Methods: During the study period, Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated from the urine samples of 430 patients. The procedure for processing of urine samples, identification, susceptibility toward antimicrobials and evidence of ESBL strains were carried out according to the recommended standards.
Results: Of the total K. pneumoniae isolates, 153 (35.6%) were isolated from hospital patients and 277 (64.4%) from outpatients. Strains isolated from hospital patients were resistant to each tested antibiotic. ESBL strains were detected in 169 (39.30%) samples, 92 (60.13%) from hospital patients and 77 (27.8%) from outpatients.
Conclusion: Strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from the urine of hospital patients and outpatients have developed significant resistance against all tested antibiotic substances. A higher occurrence of ESBL strains was observed in hospital patients than in outpatients. ESBL strains were resistant to all penicillins and almost all cephalosporins. Highly effective antimicrobials were amikacin, colistine, carbapenem and fosfomycin. The best therapeutic results were achieved when patients were treated with fosfomycin and imipenem.
By researching the factors related to exposure to indoor and outdoor allergens, such seasons, climate changes and particulate matter, allergists can screen the sensitization profile of individuals according to their exposures and conduct preventive treatment and individualized immunotherapy. Molecular allergology has improved aerobiological screening of allergenic components toward more specific results on allergic exposure, sensitization, and symptoms [1,2]. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a colorimetric enzyme immunoassay technique used to quantify soluble substances such as proteins, peptides, antibodies, and hormones. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity, ELISA can quantify substances at low concentrations, such as allergens .
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a poorly-understood respiratory condition that affects millions of individuals. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment option being considered to address CFS as it is suggested to combat fatigue and increase oxygenation. HBOT provides two opportunities in advancing research of CFS: it may provide data on symptom amelioration and be utilized in the search for a biomarker. By either identifying biomarkers before using HBOT to compare epigenomes of patients before and after treatment or using HBOT to find epigenetic discrepancies between patients with and without treatment, matching epigenetic regulation with symptom amelioration may significantly advance the understanding of the etiology and treatment mechanism for CFS. EPAS1/HIF-2α is a leading candidate for an epigenetic biomarker as it responds differentially to hypoxic and normoxic conditions, which degrades more slowly in hypoxic conditions. Epigenetic regulation of EPAS1/HIF-2α in such differential conditions may be explored in HBOT experiments. In addition to HBOT as a promising treatment option for CFS symptoms, it may aid the identification of biomarkers in CFS. Further research into both outcomes is strongly encouraged.
Background: 188Re-liposome has been used for evaluating the theranostic efficacy on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at preclinical stages. Here we furthercompared the microRNA expressive profile in orthtopic HNSCC tumor model exposed to 188Re-liposome.
Methods: A single dose or dual doses of 188Re-liposome was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice followed by the Cerenkov luminescent imaging (CLI) for monitoring the accumulation of 188Re-liposome in tumors. The microRNA expressive profile was generated using the Taqman® OpenArray® Human MicroRNA Panel followed by the DIANA mirPath analysis, KEGG signaling pathways prediction, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for predicting the prognostic role of 188Re-liposome affected microRNAs.
Results: Dual doses of 188Re-liposome exhibited a better tumor suppression than a single dose of 188Re-liposome, including reduced tumor size, Ki-67 proliferative marker, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related factors. The microRNA expressive profiles showed that 22 microRNAs and 19 microRNAs were up-regulated and down-regulated by dual doses of 188Re-liposome, respectively. Concomitantly, these two groups of microRNAs were inversely regulated by a single dose of 188Re-liposome accordingly. These microRNAs influenced most downstream genes involved in cancer related signaling pathways. Further, miR-520e and miR-522-3p were down-regulated whereas miR-186-5p and miR-543 were up-regulated by dual doses of 188Re-liposome, and they separately affected most of genes involved in their corresponding pathways with high significance. Additionally, high expressions of miR-520e and miR-522-3p were associated with lower survival rate of HNSCC patients.
Conclusion: MicroRNA expression could be used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and regarded prognostic factors using different doses of 188Re-liposome.
Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the most serious diseases in the history of mankind. It has captured the entire world and solutions are yet to be discovered to fight this global crisis. The outcomes of COVID-19 are influenced by a variety of pre-existing factors. The secondary microbial infections are one of the prominent ones that are major contributors for Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) as they warrant the use of antimicrobial medications. The present review aimed at exploring the potential relationship between AMR under such circumstances and COVID-19 related outcomes. The published literature across the globe has delineated that the impact of COVID-19 may have worsened by a great degree due to the presence of secondary infections majorly bacterial ones. The consequences of COVID-19 have been fatal and a significant proportion can be a major attributor to AMR, either directly or indirectly. Although, there is a dearth of studies that can establish a very strong and direct relationship between AMR and negative COVID-19 outcomes so in-depth research on this topic is required to further explain this relationship in detail.
Acute severe Asthma is a common paediatric emergency managed according to the BTS and SIGN guidelines. They recommend that if initial β2 agonist treatment bears no response, frequent Ipratropium Bromide doses can be given every 20-30 minutes . We present a case of paradoxical bronchospasm to Ipratropium, an observed but rare side effect.
WHO defined leprosy elimination as reaching a prevalence < 1 case of leprosy per 10,000 inhabitants. Mali eliminated the disease since 2001 but in 2011, it recorded 226 new cases. This has a serious involvement in term of disease spreading. Therefore, we undertook a cross sectional study in Kenieba health district, still above the WHO recommended elimination threshold to better understand the disease epidemiology and its associated potential factors. The study took place from October 2013 to September 2014. All consenting villagers, living in one of the selected villages were included and clinically examined for leprosy signs.
The demand on non- fumigant nematicides was strongly increased in the last few years, and this interesting in nematicides are due to farmers are needed for safer pesticides and increasing of the regulatory pressure on many of the traditional nematicides. The control of plant parasitic nematodes with synthetic nematicides is the most widespread and preferred method, but not always effective enough. The most of synthetic nematicides especially non-fumigants are high toxic to non-target organisms. Thus, Novel non-fumigant nematicides were appeared as alternatives.
The group of trifluoromethyl contains both fluensulfone and fluopyram which are different in mode of action than traditional nematicides as organophosphate and carbamate. Meanwhile, results indicated that fluensulfone and fluopyram are promising nematicides. These new nematicides are very different from traditional nematicides; they are more selective, less toxic and safer to use.
The fact that general practitioner (GP) or psychiatrist understands the psychosocial effects of prescribing on the doctor-patient relationship is as important, if not more so, than knowing pharmacology. Any prescription of drugs modifies the doctor-patient relationship. Drugs, especially psychotropic drugs, act on symptoms and change thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; they can create both physical and psychological dependency; they can discourage a deep search for real solutions, both on the part of the doctor and the patient; they can affect the doctor’s access to the patient and the problem will be out of their reach. Psychotropic drugs can make the effect of the doctor in himself as a drug more difficult, favor an insignificant or problematic or little human relational context, where the GP/psychiatrist does not delve into the true meaning of the symptoms, and the patient tends not to get involved, to make an emotional withdrawal, to be passive before the prescribed drug, and can result in the chronification and structuring of functional symptoms that become organic, with lack of cooperation of the doctor and the patient, and paradoxically with over-compliance or therapeutic discontinuity and the lack of pharmacological adherence, absences to appointments or delays or cancellations of visits, and the denial of responsibility of both the doctor and the patient.
Global drug use has reached epidemic levels, with approximately 269 million drug users worldwide . Problematic drug use may lead to serious physical, social, and mental health problems. An estimated 167,000 deaths attributed to drug-related disorders worldwide in 2017 . The rising global drug use and its severe adverse consequences make the drug treatment/rehabilitation a top priority for policymakers. In modern China, illicit drug use has raised great concern from both the academia and the public. Nearly 2.15 million Chinese were registered as drug users in 2019 . Drug-related crimes and deaths are also increasing . The current drug treatment programs in China are mainly compulsory, addressing coercion and discipline. However, the effectiveness was found to be low . Situated in the fields of social work, public health, and psychology, Chinese scholars and practitioners have conducted some empirical tests for these drug treatment/rehabilitation programs and already found several effective preventive factors in the programs. However, the existing research on the design and evaluation of Chinese drug treatment/rehabilitation programs rarely investigate the theoretical rationales behind these programs. This study would address three criminological theories that have been applied to explain drug treatment and rehabilitation in Western societies: Differential Association Theory, Social Bonding Theory, and Labeling Theory. Similar theoretical rationales could be learnt and adopted by Chinese programs.
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a hallmark of persistent asthma measured using direct or indirect airway bronchial challenge testing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the putative relationships between type 2 inflammatory biomarkers, airway geometry (FEV1 and FEF25-75) and specific IgE (RAST or skin prick) to AHR. We performed a retrospective analysis of our database (n = 131) of patients with asthma. Of these subjects, 75 had a histamine challenge and 56 had a mannitol challenge. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) but not blood eosinophils were significantly higher in patients with AHR to either histamine or mannitol. FEV1 % and FEF25 - 75 % were significantly lower in patients with AHR. Elevated Type 2 biomarkers including FeNO and specific IgE but not blood eosinophils were associated with AHR.
Highlights: FeNO and specific IgE but not blood eosinophils are raised in patients with airway hyperresponsiveness.
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common subtype of thyroid cancer and a highly curable malignancy . However, despite its excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node metastases (CLNMs) are present in a significant percentage of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) (upto 50% - 60%) .
Introduction - the perennial pandemic: It is being increasingly realised that the COVID-19 may have become the new reality associated with human existence world over and the mankind may have to live with it for years or even decades. Further, the grievous nature of the disease is evolving further with the genomic changes in the virus in form of mutations and evolution of variants, with enhanced infectivity and probably virulence. There are serious challenges posed by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 as the disease.
COVID-19 as acute and chronic disease: On exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, not all patients develop a disease. Further, for those who develop the disease, there is a large variation in disease severity. The known factors including the constituent factors and several still unknown factors influence the disease manifestations, its course, and later the convalescent phase as well. In fact, substantial continuing morbidity after resolution of the infection indicates persisting multisystem effects of COVID-19.
The ‘long COVID-19’ or ‘long haulers’: The patients who continue to suffer with persisting symptoms have been described as long haulers and the clinical condition has been called post-COVID-19 or ‘long COVID-19’. The diagnosis should be entertained if various symptoms and signs linger well beyond the period of convalescence in COVID-19. With the chronicity, there occur inflammatory changes and damage in various organs, and the extent of organ damage determines the long-term effects.
Management of ‘long COVID’ syndrome: The ‘long COVID’ syndrome has multi-system involvement, variable presentation, and unpredictable course. Following clinical and investigational assessment, the patients should be managed as per clinical manifestations, extent of organ damage and associated complications. The findings from various studies indicate that preventing further organ damage in ‘long COVID’ is crucial.
The long COVID’s prognostic challenges: As apparent, the ‘long COVID’ afflictions are more common than realized earlier. The symptoms can escalate in patients with co-morbid conditions. The persistent symptoms among COVID-19 survivors pose new challenges to the healthcare providers and may be suitably managed with a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, and holistic healthcare.
Before actual COVID-19 pandemia coronavirus was not so dangerous like now.
In December 2019 - January 2020 in Wuhan first and then in other places this coronavirus was responsible of a first wave of severe pulmonitis responsible of many deaths.
Wuhan and other region involved first was high level air polluted and industrial area.
New COVID-19 variant in last part of 2020 and in first month of 2021 was responsible of great diffusion of this pandemic disease.
UK, South Africa and brasilian new variant show higher diffusion then the first wave of COVID-19.
Aim of this work is to analyze relationship with air pollution and the possibility that mutagen substantia inside of this microenvironment can produce new variant trough an genetic pressure process.
RNA viruses are normally subjected by natural mutation but some phenomena can contribute to accelerate this process and their airborne – aeresols microenvironment is relevant.
Some air pollutants are recognized as mutagen factors by literature.
Radiofrequency ablation is one of the most commonly used therapies for potentially curative small hepatocellular carcinoma. Although radiofrequency is usually a safe procedure, severe and potentially fatal complications can happen. This is a case of a 72 years old woman with cirrhosis secondary to Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD), who presented recurrent hydrothorax after treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and in which diaphragmatic perforation was subsequently diagnosed. We reviewed the differential diagnosis and management in a pleural effusion after a radiofrequency procedure. Although diaphragmatic perforation is an uncommon complication after RFA procedure, this case aims to help clinicians being aware of non-habitual complications.
Objective: The FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type) principle is an effective foundation in EP. However, the CORRECT components; C–Combination of interventions, O–Order of the Interventions, R–Repetitions, R–Rest period between sets and between sessions, E–Exercise at home, C–Cognitive domain, T–Total dose and re-evaluation plans, should be considered. The purpose of this paper was to describe the updated dynamic and evidence based FITT-CORRECT principle of EP and demonstrates its application using a case study.
Results: Literatures, related to EP, clinical reasoning and clinical decision-making, were critically reviewed. Established evidence is summarized to describe an updated dynamic and evidence-based principle of EP. The gaps within the FITT and other related principles of EP are addressed. The FITT-CORRECT principle was introduced and an effective outcome of the updated principle was demonstrated using a case study. The FITT-CORRECT principle integrates many components that are missing in the FITT and other related EP principles. Based on the reported case study, the FITT-CORRECT principle of EP should optimize patients’ intervention outcomes. Physiotherapists can potentially improve their EP by utilizing the FITT-CORRECT in clinical practice.
Introduction: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and it was first reported in China. The aim of this study was to compare clinical features, chest CT findings and laboratory examinations of suspected COVID-19 inpatients according to RT-PCR analysis.
Methods: Demographics, comorbidites, symptoms and signs, laboratory results and chest CT findings were compared between positive and negative groups. The study included 292 patients (134 females, 158 males) suspected of COVID-19. All statistical calculations were performed with SPSS 23.0.
Results: 158 (54.1%) of the cases were male and 134 (45.9%) were female. Their ages ranged from 17 to 95 years, with an average of 50.46 ± 20.87. A symptom or sign was detected in 86.3% of all patients. The chest CT images of 278 patients were analyzed. Chest CT was negative in 59.2% of patients with positive RT-PCR and 43.9% of patients with negative RT-PCR results. Chest CT findings were atypical or indeterminate in 22.4% of patients with positive RT-PCR results and 20% of patients with negative RT-PCR analysis. ALP, bilirubine, CRP, eosinophil count, glucose, CK-MB mass and lactate were significantly lower in patients with positive RT-PCR test. LDH, lipase, MCV, monocyte, neutrophil count, NLR, platelet, pO2, pro-BNP, procalcitonin, INR, prothrombin time, sodium, troponin T, urea, WBC were significantly lower in patients with positive RT-PCR test results.
Conclusion: The diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on history of patient, typical symptoms or clinical findings. Chest CT, RT-PCR and laboratory abnormalities make the diagnosis of disease stronger.
Background: Epidemiological studies in smokers indicate a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the risk of developing certain smoking related diseases. The alkaloid nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco.
Objective: To estimate the cotinine level excretion in urine among smoked and smokeless tobacco users and nonsmokers among the Indian population.
Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of 250 subjects who were apparently healthy, asymptomatic and not using any drug. The study sample was divided into smoked tobacco users (bidi and cigarette), smokeless tobacco users, both smoked and smokeless tobacco users and controls (non-users of tobacco in the past or present).
Results: The mean Cotinine level in urine was significantly (p – value < 0.05) more among smoked tobacco users in comparison to smokeless tobacco users and non-users of tobacco. Whereas, the mean Cotinine level in urine was significantly (p – value < 0.05) more among smokeless tobacco users in comparison to non-users of tobacco.
Introduction: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is the most frequent supraventricular tachycardia, commonly manifesting as autolimited paroxysmal episodes of rapid regular palpitations that exceed 150 beats per minute (bpm), dizziness and pounding neck sensation.
Case presentation: We present a case of a male patient, 70 years old, with ischemic heart disease and slow-fast AVNRT treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in March 2019, with regular 6-months follow-ups. He was readmitted in our department in November 2020 for rest dyspnea and incessant fluttering sensation in the neck, without palpitations. The event electrocardiogram (ECG) was initially interpreted by general cardiologist as accelerated junctional rhythm, 75 bpm. Due to the persistence of symptoms and ECG findings, a differential diagnosis between reentry and focal automaticity was imposed. The response to vagal maneuvers and Holter ECG monitoring characteristics provided valuable information. We suspected recurrent slow ventricular rate typical AVNRT, which was confirmed by electrophysiological study and we successfully performed the RFCA of the slow intranodal pathway.
Conclusion: AV nodal reentry tachycardia may have an unusual presentation, occurring in elder male patients with structural heart disease. Antiarrhythmic drugs can promote reentry in this kind of patients. In cases of slow ventricular rate, vagal maneuvers and Holter ECG monitoring can help with the differential diagnosis. The arrhythmia can be successfully treated with RFCA with special caution regarding the risk of AV block.
31 year old female presented with abdominal pain and respiratory distress in the third trimester of her second pregnancy. Her blood workup revealed a lipemic sample (Figure 1) due to markedly elevated serum triglycerides of 8178 mg/dl (Glycerol Phosphate Oxidase method). Total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein were elevated at 1701 mg/dl and 788 mg/dl respectively. There was no family history of lipid disorders. Diagnosis was consistent with gestational hypertriglyceridemia with acute pancreatitis (Serum Amylase-50 U/L, Serum Lipase- 96 U/L), though genetic tests to rule out pre-existing primary hypertriglyceridemia was not feasible. In view of the life threatening condition, she was initiated on Insulin-Dextrose infusion and offered one session of Plasma Exchange. Figures 2,3 depict membrane plasma separation with the obtained effluent as lipemic plasma. Her serum triglycerides showed a declining trend and was discharged in good health (serum triglycerides at discharge-651 mg/dl).
Purpose: To evaluate the levels of salusin-beta (β-SAL) in the serum in patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).
Methods: Our study was designed as a controlled comparative clinical study. The β-SAL levels in serums of age and sex-matched 20 healthy volunteers as controls (Group 1), 20 patients with dry-age related macular degeneration (d-ARMD) (Group 2) and 20 patients with wet-age related macular degeneration (w-ARMD) (Group 3) were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.
Results: In our study, it was found that age and gender didn’t show a statistically significant difference among the study groups (p > 0. 05). The mean serum β-SAL levels in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 1372,17 ± 1126.69 pg/mL; 1423,71 ± 1196.84 pg/mL and 940,57 ± 1092.05 pg/mL, respectively. Although the meanβ-SAL levels in w-ARMD seem numerically lower than both the control and d-ARMD groups, this difference among the study groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Our study suggests that β-SAL levels in the patients with ARMD and healthy controls were not different than each other. Further studies with large numbers may reveal possible relationships between β-SAL and ARMD.
Objective: In primary care, during treatments, nurses may need to wear surgical masks, namely for control of infection contamination, or to minimize unpleasant odors. The goal of this study is to inspect the effect of nurses wearing the mask on patient perception of the nurse-patient relation.
Methods: A pre-post-test, control-experimental group design was employed with 60 patients treated in family health units. Patients responded to the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire III (PSQ-III) regarding nurses’ communication, interpersonal manner, technical quality, as well regarding general satisfaction with the encounter. An additional question asked both patients and nurses how long they felt that the visit lasted.
Results: Results show that nurses wearing the surgical mask had significantly negative effects in all dimensions of PSQ-III and increased the perceived visit duration among both nurses and patients.
Conclusion: When a previous relationship exists, nurses wearing the surgical mask in primary care in Portugal negatively affects patient satisfaction with both the patient-nurse relation and the nurses’ technical quality.
Practice implications: Is important the nurse understand this impact to discuss with the colleagues the best strategy to minimize the negative impact to the patient- family nurse relation and manager this situation in the best way to the patient.
The complicated process of cancer triggers many physiological systems like vascular endothelial functions and hemostasis, which signifies the increased risk of thrombosis, which triggers thromboembolic events resulting in increased mortality and morbidity [1-3]. Tumorigenesis contributes by activation of coagulation around the perivascular region .
Hypogastric artery aneurysms are an uncommon entity. When the diameter achieves > 30-35 mm, they should be treated. Endovascular repair may be considered as first line therapy. One therapeutic option for internal iliac artery aneurysm exclusion is its embolization with or without covering the ostium with a covered stent. They may be some complications when it is not, as a distal coil migration that may produce ischemic symptoms.
We are presenting a 73-years-old male admitted to hospital with an acute right lower limb ischemia caused by a coil migration. He recently underwent a right hypogastric artery aneurysm endovascular treatment by coil embolization without covering the hypogastric ostium with a covered stent. The patient underwent an emergency surgery to remove the coil by a transfemoral surgical approach with posterior thrombectomy of the secondary thrombus. Actually, he remains asymptomatic and with right posterior tibial pulse.
Covered stent placement at the common iliac artery and external iliac artery could be the best option to avoid the risk of aneurysm rupture caused by endotension and the risk of distal coil migration.
Background: Even if pain and psychological symptoms experienced by university students are common, the prognosis of these symptoms is unknown.
Objective: To examine the incidence and the outcome of frequent musculoskeletal and psychological symptoms in a 4-year follow-up of first-year university students.
Methods: In 2008, a national random sample (N=2750) of Finnish university students completed a questionnaire concerning pain and psychological symptoms. Of the 416 first-year students, 123 responded to the same questionnaire also in their fourth study year in 2012.
Results: Of the first-year university students with frequent pain or psychological symptoms, one half (47% - 65%) reported frequent symptoms also four years later. Almost all (78% – 95%) of the symptom-free first-year students were symptom-free also in their fourth study year.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that pain and psychological symptoms in university students are rather persistent during the first four study years. On the other hand, as half of those with frequent symptoms become symptomless and as the prognosis of symptom-free students is favourable, there is still need for further cohort studies on this issue.
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is a rare benign inflammatory disease of gallbladder that may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma of the gallbladder intraoperative or in pre-operative imaging. Intramural accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages and acute and chronic inflammatory cells is the hallmark of the disease. The xanthogranulomatous inflammation can be very severe and can spill over to the neighboring structures like liver, bowel and stomach resulting in dense adhesions, abscess formation, perforation, and fistulous communication with adjacent bowel [1-3]. Cholecysto-colic fistula is a rare and late complication of gallstones roughly found 1 in every 1,000 cholecystectomies.
Clinical featuresThe clinical features are variable and non-specific. Patients with cholecysto-colonic fistula often present with symptoms of acute cholecystitis and preoperative diagnostic tools often fail to show the fistula. Hence most cases it is an on table diagnosis.
ManagementTreatment involves closing the fistula and performing an open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Disruptions in Maternal-infant Bonding are shown to be the mediating variable between maternal distress and the subsequent expression of childhood asthma. When the mothers’ bonding is repaired, their children’s asthmatic symptoms diminish or remit. This study evaluated 16 asthmatic children before and after their mothers were treated with Bonding Therapy. Fourteen improved on 11 measures, including reduction in the STEP classification system and medication use. Thirteen children were able to stop all medications. Surprisingly, all mothers scores on the Beck Depression Inventory improved through Bonding Therapy, suggesting that impaired bonding can lead to maternal depression or even Postpartum Depression. The link between bonding disruptions and airway inflammation are discussed. Bonding Therapy is described.
Coffee is one of the most essential crops that generate income for Ethiopian economic growth. However, its production faced with many factors primarily biotic entities. Among these, the fungal pathogen /Colletotrichum kahawae/ that induce coffee berry disease (CBD) is the main constraint of coffee production in the country. The pathogen is a very specialized and infects the green berries/fiscal par/which diminishes the income gained from it and disturbs the country’s economy in general and the producers in particular. Regarding to the disease level and related factors, little information is available in Western Ethiopia. Hence, this study was initiated to assess the magnitude of CBD in coffee fields, to characterize and evaluate the virulence of C. kahawae isolates from the study areas of Gidami district. Assessment was done in 9 selected kebeles of 45 total farms starting from July 2017. The results indicated that CBD was prevalence in all assessed areas with the range of 66% to 86% and 16% to 50% disease incidence and severity index (SI), respectively. The highest CBD intensity was observed in higher altitude with a significant positive correlation between disease incidence (r = 0.61) and severity (r = 0.55). Macro and microscopic characterization results revealed isolates diversity in terms of colony color, density, mycelia growth rate and conidial production. Moreover, mycelia growth rate differs significantly (p < 0.001) in the range between 2.2 to 4.3 mm/24 hrs. Similarly, the sporulation capacity widely ranged from 186.1 to 572.3 spores/ml. This were strongly agreed with the virulence test that revealed significant variation (p < 0.001) among isolates and infection percentage also ranged between 34.8% and 88.7%. In all, the study was not only showed the CBD is very important disease of coffee in the study area but also determines the virulence disparity among isolates. To be honest, the diversity/identity of C. kahawae isolates should be confirmed using more other reliable methods thru including additional sample areas as well.
In recent years polyolefin nanocomposites are of great interest because of their high potential as materials with novel properties [1,2]. The properties of the nanocomposites are not only influenced by the kind of fillers but also by the microstructure of the polyolefin, the distribution of the fillers, and the preparation process. Nanocomposites prepared by extrusion moulding of mixed polyolefin and nanoparticles show often less stability by agglomeration of the nanoparticles. A better distribution is obtained if the polymerization catalyst is absorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles. After adding an olefin a growing film of the polyolefin is covering every nanoparticle (in situ polymerization).
During the last few decades painstaking efforts have been made to eliminate iodine deficiency throughout the world. Todays in regions where dietary iodine intake is adequate or borderline, the main focus is increasing dietary iodine supply in the target population during pregnancy and the first years of life.
Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain longitudinal data on urinary iodine excretion and the changes of maternal thyroid parameters in two groups of healthy women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency and iodine sufficiency residing in an iodine replete area of Tehran capital city of IR Iran, for more than one decade.
Research designs and methods: The present study is part of a cohort study, investigating the relative influences of iodine intake on thyroid size and function of mothers and their infants during and after pregnancy. A total of 500 pregnant women enrolled from two mother-child health care centers and was divided into group I, with median urinary iodine excretion (MUIE) < 150 µg/L, and group II with MUIE ≥ 150 µg/L. Sonographic thyroid volume measurement, urinary iodine excretion and thyroid function tests were measured sequentially in all pregnant women during the three trimesters (T) of pregnancy.
Results: The mean ± SD age of the participants was 25.1 ± 5.1 years. The MUIE in group I and II in the first, second and third trimester were 123 and 250 µg/L, 127 and 166 µg/L, 120 and 150 µg/L, respectively. The MUIE in the third trimester of pregnancy in group I did not differ significantly from the values in the first and second trimesters (p = 0.67), but it did decline significantly in group II (p < 0.001). The median thyroid volume of subjects, in the first, second and third trimesters were 7.8, 8.2 and 8.1 ml in group I and 7.5, 8.0 and 8.4 ml in group II, respectively. No difference in thyroid volume was found between two groups in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy (p > 0.05). The mean (± SD) TSH concentration of subjects in first, second and third trimester was 2.3(± 2.6), 2.1(± 1.8), 2.3(± 1.7) mIU/L in group I and 2.1(± 3.1), 2.1(± 1.8) and 2.0(± 1.3) mIU/L in group II, respectively. The trend of TSH rising in group I was 26.7% and in group II it was 13.3%. The mean TSH value in three trimesters did not differ significantly in either groups (p > 0.05). The mean (± SD) total T4 concentrations of subjects in first, second and third trimesters were 13.2(± 3.4), 13.8(± 3.3), 13.0(± 2.9) µg/dl in group I and 13.1(± 3.2), 13.7(± 2.9), 13.4(± 3.2) µg/dl in group II, respectively. The mean total T4 value in three trimesters did not differ significantly in either groups (p > 0.05). There was no correlation between the thyroid volume and three observed parameters (UIE, total T4 and TSH) during the pregnancy in either groups.
Conclusion: Even in areas with well-established universal salt iodization program, pregnancy could be a risk of having iodine deficiency and systematic dietary fortification needs to be implemented in this vulnerable group.
Capsicum (pepper) species have high economic values as vegetable crops and medicinal plants. Most of the Capsicum is known to be recalcitrant to plant regeneration in vitro, and to genetic transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, genetic improvement against pathogens requires discovering new pest resistance genes and revealing their functions and mechanism in vitro. The development of improved transformation methods serves this purpose, which needs a binary vector technology carrying the gene of interest to be transferred into the host plants. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation serves as a useful alternative way for the Capsicum transformation. The A. rhizogenes transformation compared to the A. tumefaciens transformation has the advantage that the method needs no regeneration step in vitro.
Our goal is to obtain a highly efficient transformation system that can be used to study the functions of different genes in Capsicum annuum varieties. Our study’s further goal is to validate and describe the candidate gene (Me1) involved in resistance against root-knot nematode species.
Regináčová K*, Kubecová M, Vránová J and Šejdová M
Published on: 1st February, 2021
We evaluated a total of 115 patients diagnosed with anal cancer, who were treated at our clinic from 1995 to 2012. Their average age was 61 years, most often were diagnosed in stages II and III, in most cases it was a squamous cell carcinoma located in the anal canal. The mean follow-up was 83 months (minimum 1 month and maximum 240 months). We combined external radiotherapy with boost of brachytherapy or boost of external radiotherapy and possibly a combination of both boosts. Half of the patients received concomitant chemotherapy. We specifically evaluated local tumor regression, overall survival and the impact to therapeutic effect of the chosen irradiation technique. Complete regression was achieved in 92 patients, partial regression in 21 patients. Overall survival, regardless of stage, was 80% 3-year, 74% 5-year and 67% 10-year. The age of patients, the size of their own primary tumor and the therapeutic method used had a statistically significant effect on survival - especially the importance of brachytherapy was irreplaceable.
COVID-19 created a public health crisis shutting down many normal day-to-day activities and adversely affecting life, as we know it. Not only did this affect vulnerable, senior populations and people with poorly managed diabetes and hypertension [1-4], it displaced nursing students from clinical experiences putting them at risk of not graduating. Given the projected shortages of RNs in 2030, in California alone of 44,500 FTEs , this delay would have added a ripple effect increasing already dire predictions. This displacement created an emergency and with the aid of the Board of Registered Nursing, Assembly Bill 2288  passed allowing student nurse clinical experience requirements to be revised to help meet graduation requirements.
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