It is with interest and pleasure that I see notices of meetings and symposia, and articles, devoted to the theme Noncommunicable disease. I still live in the economic and geographical ‘South’ but the concern arises from the continued use of terminology that dulls the senses to the urgency of the problems involved. Since I wrote the letter (reference at end) the epidemic of the so called ‘non’ communicable disease has increased greatly; obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, accidental trauma, road deaths etc, and there is still less research and action about breaking the methods of spread than there is about the illnesses.
Background: Leiomyoma itself is not a rare disease, but it is rarely found intravascularly.
Case presentation: A 54-year old female sought medical help after noticing her leg being swelling. A diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was made and antithrombotic treatment was given after her initial imaging exam. Several days later, a contrast CT and sequential pathology revealed the real diagnosis was intravascular leiomyoma. The patient was discharged after a successful surgery.
Conclusion: Intravascular leiomyoma should not be confused with DVT.
Objectives: We analyzed the indications of cesarean section (CS) using Robson Ten-Group.
Classification Systems (RTGCS) and comparison between private and public health facilities in Addis Abeba hospitals, Ethiopia, 2017.
Methods: Facility-based retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out between January 1 and December 31, 2017, including 2411 mothers who delivered by CS were classified using the RTGCS. Data were entered into SPSS version 20 for cleaning and analyzing. Binary logistic regression and AOR with 95% CI were used to assess the determinants of the CS.
Results: The overall CS rate was 41% (34.8% and 66.8% in public & private respectively, p < .0001). The leading contributors for CS rate in the private were Robson groups 5,1,2,3 whereas in the public 5,1,3,2 on descending order. Robson group 1 (nulliparous, cephalic, term, spontaneous labor) and group 3 [Multiparous (excluding previous cesarean section), singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation& spontaneous labor], the CS rate was over two-fold higher in the private than the public sector. Women in Robson groups 1, 2, 5 & 9 are two and more times higher for the absolute contribution of CS in private than public. The top medical indications of CS were non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS, 39.1%) and repeat CS for previous CS scars (39.4%) in public and private respectively. Mothers who delivered by CS in private with history of previous CS scar (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.2), clinical indications of maternal request (AOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.1-27.98) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.6-10.7), induced labor (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) and pre-labored (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.0) were more likely to undergo CS than in public hospital.
Conclusion: The prevalence of CS was found to be high, and was significantly higher in private hospitals than in a public hospital. Having CS scar [having previous CS scar, Robson group 5(Previous CS, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation) and an indication of repeat CS for previous CS scar] is the likely factor that increased the CS rate in private when compared within the public hospital.
Recommendation: It is important that efforts to reduce the overall CS rate should focus on reducing the primary CS, encouraging vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). Policies should be directed at the private sector where CS indication seems not to be driven by medical reasons solely.
The association between intracranial large vessel occlusion (LVO) and concurrent steno-occlusive lesion of an ipsilateral extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is considered a tandem occlusion (TO) . In approximately half of TO, the first clinical manifestation are acute occlusions of the extracranial ICA associated with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), with additional occlusion of the intracranial ICA in up to 25% of these cases. This particular lesion subset is technically challenging for endovascular treatment (EVT) and is also characterized by lower success rates of intravenous thrombolysis , worse prognosis compared to intracranial occlusions alone, and higher rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage . The optimal approach regarding EVT of TO remains controversial, and reports in this regard are scarce. There are two proposed strategies according to the selection of the first lesion to be treated. The proximal approach comprises stenting of the proximal cervical ICA followed by mechanical thrombectomy (MT) of the intracranial vessel, whereas the distal approach involves MT followed by stenting of the cervical ICA [3–14].
Besides, there other clinically relevant unresolved aspects regarding the treatment of these patients, such as concomitant use of intravenous thrombolysis, the need for stenting compared to angioplasty alone, as well as the most adequate antiplatelet strategy after treatment. Accordingly, we aimed to report the procedural and clinical outcomes of a real-world experience in a comprehensive stroke center regarding EVT of anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke (AIS) associated with a TO.
Background: In India, the genetic disease is a disregarded service element in the community health- protection system. This study aims to gauge the accessibility of services for treating genetic disorders and also to evaluate the practices on deterrence and management services in the district health system.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey of selected health amenities from 454 medical officers (MO’s), 94 accredited social health activist (ASHAs) workers, 86 multipurpose health assistant-female (MPHA-F), 34 multipurpose health assistant-male (MPHA-M), 14 multipurpose health supervisors-female (MPHS-F), 10 multipurpose health supervisors-male (MPHS-M), 6 multipurpose health extension officer/ community health officer (MPHEO/CHO), 10 public health nurse (PHN), 45 lab technicians (LT’s) working in the government health sector and 254 in the private health sector, 409 nursing staff working in the government health sector and 995 in the private health sector, 15 primary health centers (PHC’s), 4 community health centers (CHC’s), 1 district government hospital (DGH), 3 referral hospitals (RH’s). From the side of private health institutions 25 corporate hospitals (CH’s), 3 medical colleges (MC’s), and 25 diagnostic laboratories (DL’s) were conducted.
Results: The findings show that adequate staff was in place at more than 70% of health centers, but none of the staff have obtained any operative training on genetic disease management. The largest part of the DH’s had rudimentary infrastructural and diagnostic facilities. However, the greater part of the CHC’s and PHC’s had inadequate diagnostic facilities related to genetic disease management. Biochemical, molecular, and cytogenetic services were not available at PHC’s and CHC’s. DH’s, RH’s, and all selected medical colleges were found to have offered the basic Biochemical genetics units during the survey. In 24% of CH’s, the basic biochemical units are available and 32% (8 out of 25) of DL’s have the advanced biochemical genetics units by study. Molecular genetics units were found to be available in 28% (7 out of 25) of DL’s during the study. About 6 (24%) diagnostic centers of cytogenetic laboratories were located in the Visakhapatnam district under the private sector.
Conclusion: The district health care infrastructure in India has a shortage of basic services to be provided for the genetic disorder. With some policy resolutions and facility strengthening, it is possible to provide advanced services for a genetic disorder in the district health system.
Organizing pneumonia (OP), can be seen in association with lung injury, infection, drug intoxication, and connective tissue diseases. Patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are prone to develop interstitial lung disease (ILD), but the pulmonary involvement usually occurs several years after the joint manifestations. Only in about 10% cases of RA, the initial manifestation of the disease can be in the form of interstitial lung disease. OP as the initial manifestation of RA is extremely uncommon occurrence.
Here is presented a case of 52-year-old male who presented with OP as the initial manifestation of RA. On investigation, the RA factor and anti-CCP Antibodies were positive. Based on clinical, radiological and histopathological findings the diagnosis was established.
Einstein’s special and general relativity revolutionized physics. The predictions of general relativity are Strong Lensing, Weak Lensing, Microlensing, Black Holes, Relativistic Jets, A Gravitational Vortex, Gravitational Waves, The Sun Delaying Radio Signals, Proof from Orbiting Earth, Expansion of the universe. The density of the universe determines the geometry and fate of the universe. According to Freedman’s equations of general relativity published in 1922 and 1924, the geometry of the universe may be closed, open and flat. It all depends upon the curvature of the universe also. Various results of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and ESA’s Planck spacecraft probes found that our universe is flat within a margin of 0.4% error. In this short work, by applying the laws of quadratic equations, we attempt to show that OUR UNIVERSE IS FLAT.
Naturally, microorganisms decompose the organic material existing in nature, both in the presence or absence of oxygen. The majority of materials such as poisonous chemical compounds, heavy metals, would prevent the treatment process from taking place, lead to the entry of these contaminants into the environment results in the emergence of numerous diseases. In the present study, using the TOXChem4.1 simulation model, attempts were made to simulate a wastewater treatment plant and then assess the dispersions of contaminants including 1,2-Dimethylnaphthalene, 1,3-Dinitropyrene, 1,6-Dimethylnaphthalene, 1,6-Dinitropyrene, and 17a-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in concentrations of a common scenario. The results of computer simulations showed that the EE2 contaminant is of the highest percentage of decomposition among others, due to its wider chemical structure. Consequently, it is clear that such contaminant is of the highest mass in the sludge exiting the treatment plant. In addition, the results of the simulations demonstrated that the highest volumes of gaseous pollutants take place in the modulation and initial sedimentation units.
Background: The rapid spread of “Coronavirus Disease 2019’ (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) significantly impacted health care facilities all across the globe. To assess impact on urology practice in our country, we developed a questionnaire based on relevant questions in current scenario for information regarding challenges and changes urologists were facing in their practices.
Material and methods: We conducted an online survey to find out the impact of COVID-19 on urology practice in Indian scenario. The questionnaire comprised of total 18 questions, which were relevant to day to day practice.
Results: Total 310 urologists across the India participated and consented to being part of the study. The majority admits change in their practice due to the recent COVID-19 outbreak. The majority admitted to attend fixed numbers of patients per day with prior appointment and to keep detailed records. The majority responded in positive that attendees will not be allowed, opted to wear N-95 mask in OPD, opted to take the relevant history, opted for thermal screening, opted for patients to wear a mask before entering OPD room, opted for using the new prescription at new visit and opted to avoid physical examination unless very necessary. The majority wanted to take consent from the patients that they may get infected by COVID-19 in the hospital and agreed on performing COVID-19 testing for every patient posted for surgery. The majority agreed to assign a separate operation theatre to operate patients with positive COVID-19 test and also preferred open surgery over minimal invasive surgery.
Conclusion: Our survey revealed that the recent pandemic led to significant impacts on urology practice in our country. The urologists working in different setups are facing different challenges in this difficult condition. They have made certain changes in their practice to safely provide effective care to their patients.
Introduction: Sepsis remains a major cause of death in neonatal period. Although significant advances in diagnosis, therapeutic and prevention strategies have been noted, sepsis remains a common concern in clinical practice especially in low-resource countries. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of mortality in neonatal sepsis in Lubumbashi city (Democratic Republic of Congo).
Methods: The records of newborns with sepsis managed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units in two University Hospitals between November 2019 and October 2020 were studied. Binary and multiple logistic regressions have been used to observe the association between independent variables and dependent variable.
Results: A total of 162 cases of neonatal sepsis were reviewed. The mortality rate of neonatal sepsis was 21% of babies admitted. Very low birth weight (< 1500 grams) and primiparity were significantly associated with mortality in neonatal sepsis (AOR = 12.66; 95% CI 2.40 to 66.86; p = 0.003 and AOR = 3.35; 95% Cl 1.31 to 8.59; p = 0.012, respectively).
Conclusion: The mortality rate of neonatal sepsis was 21%. Very low birth weight and primiparity were significantly associated with mortality in neonatal sepsis.
Introduction: the perennial pandemic: There are serious challenges posed by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 as the disease. With the persistence of the pandemic over one and half year, it is being feared that the COVID-19 may have become the new reality associated with human existence world over and the mankind may have to live with it for years or even decades. Further, the grievous nature of the disease is evolving further with genomic changes in the virus in form of mutations and evolution of variants, with enhanced infectivity and probably virulence.
Acute and chronic phases of COVID-19: Epidemiologically, it is becoming clear that apart from the advanced age and pre-existing conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal diseases, certain constituent factors render some patients more vulnerable to more severe forms of the disease. These factors influence the COVID-19 manifestations, its course, and later the convalescence period as well as the newly defined ‘Long COVID phase. The substantial continuing morbidity after resolution of the infection indicates persisting multisystem effects of ‘Long Covid’.
Lung damage associated with COVID-19: COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease presenting with a broad spectrum of respiratory tract involvement ranging from mild upper airway affliction to progressive life-threatening viral pneumonia and respiratory failure. It affects the respiratory system in various ways across the spectrum of disease severity, depending on age, immune status, and comorbidities. The symptoms may be mild, such as cough, shortness of breath and fevers, to severe and critical disease, including respiratory failure, shock, cytokine crisis, and multi-organ failure.
Implications for the post-COVID care: Depending on the severity of respiratory inflammation and damage, as well as associated comorbidities, duration of injury and genetics, the progressive fibrosis leads to constriction and compression of lung tissues and damage to pulmonary microvasculature. Consequently, the COVID-19 patients with moderate/severe symptoms are likely to have a significant degree of long-term reduction in lung function. Depending on the severity of the disease, extensive and long-lasting damage to the lungs can occur, which may persist after resolution of the infection.
Managing the long COVID’s challenges: Given global scale of the pandemic, the healthcare needs for patients with sequelae of COVID-19, especially in those with lung affliction are bound to increase in the near future. The challenge can be tackled by harnessing the existing healthcare infrastructure, development of scalable healthcare models and integration across various disciplines with a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities. Following clinical and investigational assessment, the therapeutic strategy should depend on the disease manifestations, extent of damage in lungs and other organs, and associated complications.
Background: The plant Artemisia annua has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many years. Rich in bioactive molecules, the A. annua plant is used to extract the anti-malaria compound artemisinin (< 1%), which results in most of the plant being unutilized. One byproduct of artemisinin extraction is artemisia naphtha (AN), which has yet to be studied extensively.
Aims: Study the activity of a novel AN oil extract against microbes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and dermatological endpoints that are key for eczema and acne pathogenesis to determine if an effective A. annua extract for these skin conditions can be developed.
Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to determine the composition of AN oil. P. acnes, S. aureus, M. furfur, and C. albicans were cultured to determine minimal inhibitory concentration. in vitro studies utilizing keratinocytes and macrophages were treated with AN oil and gene expression measured by quantitative RT-PCR. A 13-subject clinical trial was performed with 1% AN oil Gel to assess its potential benefits for sensitive and acne prone skin.
Results: AN oil upregulates filaggrin gene expression and possesses antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting LPS, S. aureus and "Th2 induced" pro-inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, IL-8 and TSLP). Clinical assessment of 1% AN Gel shows it reduces acne blemishes and the appearance of redness.
Conclusion: Previously an underutilized and unpurified byproduct, AN is now the source to develop the first topical AN oil for cosmetic use with an activity profile that suggests it is effective for those with sensitive and/or acne prone skin.
Pigeonpea is one of the important legume crops with high protein content and nutritional traits. It has enormous potency for its widespread adoption by farming communities. It is affected by various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. In the context, of biotic stresses Sterility mosaic disease (SMD) is one of the severe diseases in pigeonpea which ultimately lead to the drastic yield loss. The virus belongs to the genus Emaravirus, family- Fimoviridae. SMD is associated with two diverse types of Emaravirus, Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus1 (PPSMV-1) and Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2). It is transmitted by the mite (Aceria cajani), mainly environmental contributing to the feasibility for the mites for the inoculation of the virus. The SMD is mainly governed by two genes SV1 that includes the dominant allele and serves as an inhibitory action on the resistance of the SV2. Methods for identification of the virus include RT-PCR, DIBA and ELISA using alkaline phosphatase or penicillinase. To control SMV disease farmers generally adopted intercropping methods. There are few potential drugs have been identified for the administration of the disease such as 0.1% Fenazaquin, Dicofol, Imidacloripid, Carbosulfan; Spiromesifin includes the inhibition of the mite inoculation on the pigeonpea plant. The present review describes compressive and systematic insights on SMV protein targets and potential drugs that could be utilized as the presumed drug targets for the finding of true drugs against the SMD in pigeonpea.
Introduction: It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation still remains to be a serious problem for large proportion of women in most sub-Saharan Africa countries including Sudan, with a high prevalence of 88%.
Objective: The main objective was to identify the factors associated with FGM among daughters of reproductive aged woman.
Materials and methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers, the total sample was collected in ACTH based on the number of reproductive age mothers with at least one daughter older than 5 years. A structured and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The data obtained was analyzed by the use of the SPSS software.
Results: Out of 200 mothers, 113 (56.5%) had at least one circumcised daughter. Knowledge about genital mutilation (AOR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.13-15.37), attitude (AOR = 48.53, 95% CI: 14.45-198.69) and mothers circumcision status (AOR = 14.03, 95% CI: 2.81- 95.45) were the most significantly associated with FGM. Furthermore, having good knowledge, positive attitude, high socio-economic status, being literate, being of Christian religion and living in urban area had lower odds of having a circumcised daughter.
Conclusion: In this study, more than half of the mothers had at least one circumcised daughter. Mothers’ knowledge, attitude, circumcision status, socio-economic status, age, residence, educational level and religion were significantly associated with female genital mutilation.
Background: Meclizine is a commonly prescribed medication for patients discharged from the Emergency Department (ED) with a diagnosis of peripheral vertigo, however it is on the Beers list of medications to avoid in elderly patients.
Objectives: This study aims to determine the correlation between use of meclizine and return visits to the ED within 1 week in patients > 65 years old.
Methods: This is a retrospective observational study conducted at 2 urban tertiary care EDs over 5 years. Inclusion criteria included patients > 65 years who were given meclizine in the ED or discharged with a prescription. Charts were reviewed for diagnosis, prescriptions and return visits within 7 days.
Results: There were a total of 1608 patients over 65 years of age who met inclusion criteria, 669 patients identified as receiving meclizine in the ED and 962 who received no meclizine (ED or ED plus home prescription). Of the meclizine patients, 548 (84.8%) were given home prescriptions, of which there were 36 (6.6%) return visits within 7 days. Patients who were given meclizine while in the ED without home prescriptions (121) had 16 return visits (13.2%). Among the non-meclizine group, 102 patients (10.6%) had a return visit within 7 days.
Conclusion: There was no increase in return visits in elderly patients discharged from the ED with a prescription for meclizine after a diagnosis of benign dizziness. Meclizine prescriptions at discharge were associated with fewer return visits to the ED within 1 week. Ongoing dizziness was the most common reason for return visits; there were no documented chief complaints of weakness, syncope/falls, or hypotension.
Due to the urgent need for water in all parts of industrial or developing societies, water supply, and transmission facilities are suitable targets for biological risks. Given that even a short interruption in water supply and water supply operations has a great impact on daily activities in the community, the deliberate contamination of urban water resources has irreparable consequences in the field of public health, and the economy of society will follow. Unfortunately, most officials in the public health control departments in our country have received limited training in detecting accidental or intentional contamination of water resources and dealing with the spread of waterborne diseases both naturally and intentionally. For this reason, there is low preparedness in the responsible agencies to deal with waterborne diseases during biological risks. In the first step of this research, a review study has been conducted on water biological risks and operational strategies to deal with them. In the following, it has studied how Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria spread in aqueous media. In this regard, the kinetic model of the studied microorganism was analyzed based on the implementation of (Fick Law) in polar coordinates and the combination of (Dirac Distribution) with (Legendre polynomial) distribution. Finally, after studying the factors affecting the microbial pollutant emission coefficient, the effects of all three factors of linear velocity, linear motion time period, and angle of motion on the pollutant emission flux and biofilm diffusion time in the water supply network environment were investigated. Studies have shown that the linear velocity parameter of Escherichia coli with a nonlinear relationship has the greatest effects on the release of microbial contaminants.
Mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction accounts for a large group of inherited metabolic disorders most of which are due to a dysfunctional mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) leading to deficient energy production and defects in phagocytosis in endosomal-lysosomal pathway respectively. MRC function depends on the coordinated expression of both nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes. Thus, mitochondrial diseases can be caused by genetic defects in either the mitochondrial or the nuclear genome, or in the cross-talk between the two. The mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes (MDSs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance that have onset in infancy or early childhood and are characterized by a reduced number of copies of mtDNA in affected tissues and organs. In this review article, we summarized the spectrum of mtDNA depletion disorders along with minor learning of lysosomal storage diseases. This current article offers a perspective on the role of genetics in medical practice and how this role may evolve over the next several years.
During the 2018 season, superficial dry and firm black spots, where sometimes an aerial mycelium developed, appeared on the rind of easy peeler mandarins causing high economic losses in fresh citrus exports from Perú. In this work, we have identified the causal agent, a species of Cladosporium not previously reported as a citrus pathogen. The pathogen was isolated from rind lesions of affected fruit and was identified by sequencing as Cladosporium ramotenellum; and fulfilment of Koch postulates was proven. This species was present on the surface of immature fruit in the groves, indicating that the infection is likely initiated before harvest. Cladosporium ramotenellum is resistant to the postharvest fungicides imazalil, pyrimethanil, and thiabendazole, but sensitive to propiconazole, prochloraz, and ortho-phenylphenol. We designed a postharvest industrial treatment to decrease the Cladosporium sp. load on the fruit surface that limited the incidence of infection and reduced the postharvest losses caused by the fungus. Although this species is quite ubiquitous, this is the first description of C. ramotenellum causing decay of citrus fruit, being the symptoms of this disease similar to the ones described previously and caused by Cladosporium cladosporoides in cv. Satsuma mandarins from Japan.
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common health problem in the world and Africa including Ethiopia. Its complication is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of people due to improper self-care practice.
Objective: To assess self-care practices and associated factors among type 2 adult diabetic patients on follow-up clinic of Dessie referral hospital, Ethiopia.
Method: Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted. Total of 278 type 2 diabetic patients was selected by systematic random sampling technique and data was collected by interviewer administered pretested questionnaire. Epidata 3.1 and SPSS version 23 software were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. In bivariate analysis, variables having a p - value of < 0.2 were entered to multivariate analysis model and statistical significance was declared at p - value of < 0.05 and 95% confidence interval.
Results: The response rate was 269 (96.76%) of the total 278 participants. Among the respondents 150(55.8%) had good diabetic self-care practice. This study showed that primary school education level (AOR=2.592, 95%CI=1.104-6.087, p = 0.029), secondary school education level (AOR=3.873, 95%CI=1.325-11.323, p = 0.013), college/university graduate (AOR=3.030, 95%CI=1.276-7.197, 0.012), attended diabetic education regularly (AOR=2.981, 95%CI=1.050-8.462, p = 0.040), member of diabetic association (AOR=3.496, 95%CI=1.440-8.483, p = 0.006) and having glucometer at home (AOR=2.634, 95%CI=1.357-5.111, p = 0.004) were significantly associated with diabetes self-care practice.
Conclusion: Nearly half of diabetic patients had poor self care practice. Hence, there is a need to improve diabetic self-care practice. Attention should be given by policy makers, Dessie referral hospital, health care professionals, diabetic associations and researchers.
Background: Leukemia is frequently associated with fundoscopic abnormalities. However, no organized effort has been made for analyzing leukemic retinopathy in our country. This study was done to observe the demographic profile and correlation between fundoscopic findings of retinal exudates and hematological parameters in leukemic patients.
Materials and Methods: The study was a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study among 50 leukemic patients in Medicine and Oncology departments of Bangladesh Medical College and Hospital (BMCH) from May, 2020 to October, 2020. Fundoscopic examination was done which was reviewed by an ophthalmologist. Collected data was analyzed statistically by using SPSS-17 (Chicago, Illinois).
Results: Among 50 leukemic patients’, the fundal lesion was detected in 32 patients (64%), retinal exudates are rare. Only 3 patients (6%) had exudates while others (29 patients, 58%) have retinal hemorrhages. Exudates did not show any statistically significant relationship with types of leukemia (p value = 0.53). There was no statistically significant association between fundal exudates and high white cell count (p = 0.56) or low hemoglobin level (p = 0.11) or low platelet level (p = 0.11).
Conclusion: This study has identified retinopathy occurring frequently in leukemic patients. Therefore, an adequate attention should be paid at fundoscopic evaluation while treating leukemic patients.
Medical benefits of cannabis and related compounds is widely known. Discovery of psychotropic plant cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have urged researchers to study more about the cannabinoid system and related therapeutics in the field of neurology and medicine. Where activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) yielded in unwanted and serious side effects, discovery of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) and its ligands gave a new hope. Till now there is limited success in this field because of complex expanded endocannabinoid system comprising of receptors, ligands and enzymes. In this review we will update about the role of endocannabinoidome relevant to neurological disorders.
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University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
Dr. Elizabeth A Awoyesuku
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Dr. Shuaib Kayode Aremu
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