Drug addiction is one of the burning problems in the modern society. Annually there is a steady increase in the level of drug abuse. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime publishes “World Drugs Report 2018”, where it was reported that about 275 million people (almost 5.6% of the world population) aged 15-64 used drugs at least once in their lives, and opium production increased by 65% in 2016-2017 [1-3]. Therefore, the question of studying the influence of drugs on the structural organization of organs remains open and relevant [4,5].
23-year-old man had a 2-year history of ketamine abuse and presented intermittent abdominal pain, urinary urgency and dysuria for one year. Two weeks ago, laboratory analysis showed within normal limits. This time, he visited our emergency department due to hematuria and bilateral flank pain. CT scan and MRI revealed bilateral hydronephrosis, hydroureter, irregular thickened wall of urinary bladder, and fusiform common bile duct with distal stenosis
The widespread availability of non-traditional dietary supplements and pharmacologically active substances via the Internet continues to introduce mechanisms for inadvertent toxidromes not commonly seen. Consumers are virtually unrestricted in their ability to acquire products purporting augmentation of normal physiology for the purposes of enhancement, recreation, and/or potential abuse. The safety profiles at standard or toxic doses remain largely unknown for many agents that can be purchased electronically. We report a case of mixed toxicity related to phenibut and fosaracetam, both of which are readily available for consumer purchase from online retailers. Written and verbal consent was obtained for this case presentation.
The objective of this study is to determine prevalence of alcohol-substance use among university students, and to investigate the correlation between the childhood abuse, suicide probability and anger expression styles in students who have drinking problems. A survey was carried out among randomly selected students from the Faculty of Education in Baskent University in Turkey. Study sample consists of 399 university students. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Trait Anger and Anger Expressions Scales (T-Anger-Anger EX), and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) were used. The CAGE questionnaire was applied to identify the problems of alcohol use. Probable presence of an alcohol use disorder is indicated by a score of 1+, whereas a score of 2+ was taken as the cut-off point for assessing presence of clinically significant alcohol use problems. Data were analyzed using with t test and multiple binary logistic regression. Of the whole sample 36.9% reported that they had ever tried drinking alcohol. The overall prevalence of alcohol use problems according to CAGE 1+ was 14.4% and CAGE 2+ was 7.3%. Sexual abuse and Anger-In were predictors of CAGE 1+, suicide probability was predictor of CAGE2+. Childhood trauma experiences especially, sexual abuse, suicide probability, trait anger, the anger expressed inside and outside were main factors to identify alcohol use problems. Professionals and parents must pay attention to childhood traumatic experiences, suicide and anger expression styles in youths with alcohol use problems.
Alcohol abuse is a global health problem. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) ranges from mild to severe symptoms that can lead to fatal delirium tremens requiring ICU admission and incurring high health care cost as high as $20,000 a month. The latest published reports suggest that phenobarbital is a promising therapeutic option for management of AWS as evidenced by less ICU admissions, length of stay in hospital, use of adjunctive agents, health care costs and attention from the nursing staff than that of patients treated with commonly used benzodiazepines such as lorazepam, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital is beneficial for the treatment of AWS, both in the emergency and inpatient settings and both as monotherapy or in conjunction with benzodiazepines. It is safe for patients without severe hepatic impairment, has a better mechanism of action and longer half-life than benzodiazepines, and leads to less delirium and agitation. Powered randomized controlled trials with large populations are required, yet phenobarbital can be used to safely to treat AWS.
Background: There is a huge gap in the U.S. health care system when it comes to the prevention of substance abuse and addiction, specifically involving adolescents. It has been determined through literature review that parents in Utah are not informed about/knowledgeable of/aware of the current usage of alcohol/drugs in the adolescent population in this area or the inherent risks involved with consumption/use/misuse/abuse/addiction.
Aim: The overarching aim of the doctoral project was to prevent Utah County middle school students from harmful alcohol and drug consumption by involving parents in prevention efforts. The prevention goals of this project included: increased parental knowledge of the brain disease of addiction, warning signs of adolescent drug use, what to do if their child is already using, and increased parental self-efficacy on communicating with teens on this subject.
Design: For parents to be productively involved, barriers were broken down through education. The DNP student completed a 15-minute presentation at five separate parent meetings that took place annually during middle school registration at Lehi Jr High.
Population: The education was for parents, foster parents, guardians, etc. of first-year middle school students only; an estimated 420 participants were in attendance.
Data collection and analysis: A pre-and post- combined self-efficacy and knowledge test was given to the attendees. Data was gathered from 117 appropriately completed tests and analyzed using a paired t-test. The results were studied to evaluate effectiveness of the program relating to parental self-efficacy and knowledge.
Findings: The presentation ultimately increased parental self-efficacy and knowledge (p-value <0.01) which in turn increases protective factors and decreases risk factors associated with adolescent substance abuse.
Conclusions: The DNP project was successful, and the results assisted in the refinement of the presentation for sharing on a mass level to all Jr. High schools in Utah County, Utah.
Background: The patient in this study experienced a childhood marked by conflicts within the family, physical abuse, frequent changes of school settings, truancy, and unspecified learning disabilities. After leaving school at age 17, she was chronically depressed, had anger attacks, lacked motivation, refused psychological assistance, and had problems finding work. At age 30, this culminated in an aggravated assault of a female in an urban public space, after which she was referred to the criminal courts. She was granted probation and hospitalized for psychiatric evaluation with follow-up, outpatient psychiatric treatment.
Aim: To present outcomes of longitudinal monitoring of methylphenidate effects on cognition and self-regulation during treatment of attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity and substance use.
Methods: During more than a year of treatment, psychiatric interviews and norm-referenced assessments of processing-speed and cognitive overhead monitored changes in cognition and substance use.
Results: At baseline, processing-speed measures of reactive and active attention were within the average-normal range, whereas cognitive overhead/shift cost was in the atypically high range, suggestive of ADHD symptomatology. The patient engaged in daily excessive use of cannabis, amphetamines, and other illegal substances. At the end of treatment, cognitive speed was increased and cognitive overhead normalized. With reductions in ADHD symptomatology, the patient used small amounts of cannabis during weekends and showed improved self-regulation, and legal restrictions were discontinued.
The study attempted to answer several questions: Does the cultural and social background of immigrant youth from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their use of addictive substances? Do these youth show distinctive patterns of drug and alcohol abuse? Do the addictive substances used by these teenagers share similar characteristics? Are the patterns of drug abuse and alcohol abuse different? Do students in different educational frameworks demonstrate different consumption patterns? Can “critical moments” explain the presence or absence of alcohol and drug abuse?
Child abuse remains a complex issue affecting individuals, families, groups and society, and one which WHO prevalence figures show as a significant ongoing problem. The nature of the abuse, be it physical, sexual, psychological, or neglect, places the child at high risk of experiencing the multiple sequelae of the trauma. Depending on the child’s country, the disclosure of abuse by the child or a third party will either be moved into criminal justice system or directed to the medico-psycho-social sector.
In 1985, in Belgium, specialist teams were established to evaluate and support situations involving child abuse. More than thirty years later, we considered it opportune to update the parameters that our team has developed based on four reflexive themes. The first discusses the transformation of our society, families and individuals, exploring how each influences the others. The second theme describes the diagnostic process, holding in mind the complexity of any situation. The third theme describes the reasoning behind these teams, considering this as a de-judicialisation of such situations. Finally, we describe the different treatments available. This paper describes the evolution of clinical practice including developments in several aspects that have arisen through handling situations of abuse.
Background: Alcohol and chat use during adolescence is associated with academic and health problems, including abuse or dependence in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and early initiation of alcohol and chat use among school-going adolescents.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 546 school-going adolescents. The ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) was used to assess ACEs, Alcohol and chat use was assessed by questions prepared by the authors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between overall ACE score and alcohol use and the potential moderating effects of confounders.
Results: prevalence of chat chewing behavior was 26.6% followed by alcohol use 20%. A total of 66.2% of participants reported at least one ACE, and 5.93% reported four or more ACEs. High/Multiple ACEs (ACEs=1-3 and above 3) were significantly associated with increased alcohol use behaviors (AOR=1.491(1.072-3.078) and (AOR=3.171(1.330-7.560) respectively and increased chat use behaviors by 4.92 times (AOR=4.92, 95%CI=2.640-8.432) and 11.022 times (AOR=11.022, 95%CI=1.230-25.560) respectively controlling other factors.
Conclusion: ACEs were significantly associated with risk behaviors, alcohol and chat use may lead to poor health, and educational outcomes among adolescent students and numbers of ACEs have graded association. Social support, sex, residence, parent educational status, and current level of depressive symptoms were significant modulating factors, which parents, school teachers, psychologists, and adolescent health care providers should give the concern to decrease the effect on school-going adolescents.
The story of Nuremberg code in human experiments was evolved by a 70-year old historical link, aiming to provide an alert message for scientists in case of non-provisional disaster caused by immoral human experiment. It played a safeguard role standing on the front line .
We really can see something what authors feared in this article. We fully agree with the authors about the general concepts, but we feel something is missing on current problems: the illegal abuse of medical materials and the underground human experiments. What we should do is to enrich its new implications of Nuremberg code and then put it embedded in human brain.
Urinary bladder distension is traditionally regarded as a sign of intoxication at autopsy, however, to date there is very little literature available to support this hypothesis. The purposes of our study were to correlate alcohol and/or toxicological analysis with calculated urinary bladder volumes and its sensitivity as well as to test the validity by using the radiologically calculated urinary bladder volumes (UBVs) from CT images. The study population was all the postmortem cases involving with blood and/or urine samples sent for alcohol and/or toxicology analysis in 2016 at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital. Out of that 485 cases, there were 127 postmortem cases retrieved with positive alcohol and/or toxicology results Positive toxicology results in this study was referring to drug of abuse (DoA) including amphetamine type stimulants, opiates, cannabis and ketamine. Urinary bladder volume (UBV) was calculated based on the equation used in ultrasonographic volumetry, V=axbxcx 0.5. These 3 parameters correlated well with the UBV and having a strong positive relationship. There was a significant positive correlation at low strength between alcohol concentrations with calculated UBV. There was statistical significant correlation between urinary bladder distension on postmortem CT and cases of intoxication especially more corresponding for positive alcohol detection. The average sensitivity was 35.65% whereby it was slightly lower than those reported in Rohner C, et al. In this study we have deduced that diuretics effect of alcohol was the main reason causing bigger urinary bladder or UBV and was more prominent than the influence of drug of abuse on the urinary bladder sphincter. The distension of urinary bladder should raise suspicion of intoxication, but would not provide information on the quantity of the intoxicating agent due to its significant but poor correlation. It was important to note that intoxication may also be present in cases with low urinary bladder volume. In conclusion, it is vital to consider circumstantial evidence, as well as the presence of additional findings on imaging before suggesting the diagnosis of intoxication based on urinary bladder distension on imaging. Currently, the use of CT bladder imaging should serve as a strong indication that the individual may be intoxicated but should be confirmed by a complete autopsy and a detailed toxicological analysis.
Child neglect is a global problem that involves large costs for both the individual and for society. This article is based on published reviews and meta-analyses in the field of child neglect between 1980 and 2018. Of a total of 433 articles, 13 was included, main Data bases has been PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Psych Info, ERIC, CINAHL. The prevalence in the normal population was found to be between 16% and 26%, while the prevalence in clinical groups seem to be significantly higher. For example, was the prevalence of neglect 50% among patients with eating disorder. It is especially important to know who is reporting neglect. Research shows that neglect is strongly associated with among other things, depression, one of the most common illnesses among the general public. The theoretical models that are used are ecological. Risk factors can be found at all levels when using ecological models. Research shows that factors involving the relationship parent-child are among the most important. Neglect is more common in low-income countries than in high income countries.
Most studies point to the importance of prevention. Existing preventive programs are most often of family and parental character.
More research is needed, especially as concerns the development of preventive programs that can identify specific types of neglect and present suitable preventive measures, both at the societal and family level.
1. Neglect is a global problem.
2. Prevalence depends on the measurement method and can vary between about 16% and 76%.
3. Prevalence is higher when negligence is self-reported than when reported by professionals.
4. The most common and most serious risk factors are present in the microsystem. Parenting and interactions between child and parent are considered important.
5. There is a link between neglect and, above all, depression, but also anxiety, self-harm and eating disorders.
Background: Although illegal, Ghana has a long history of cannabis use. With changing perceptions, advocacy for legalization has increased globally. This study exams pharmacological evidence on the prospects and challenges of decriminalization and /or legalization of cannabis in Ghana.
Results: Cannabis and cannabinoids are a “pharmacological enigma” with unique ability to activate at least 3 of the 4 drug receptor super families. This include; inotropic Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), metabotropic Cannabinoid Receptors (CB) and nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptors (PPAR). Cannabinoid receptors also dimerize with other receptors creating distinctly new signaling pathways. Cannabis and cannabinoids show good anti- nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant anti-emetogenic activity and variable anticonvulsant activity. It can play important role in palliative care, some rare intractable epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cachexia and Opioid Use Disorder. Cannabis precipitates psychosis in individuals with underlying genetic susceptibility. Chronic cannabis use alter the neurobiology of adolescent brain, predisposing them to amotivational syndrome characterized by depersonalization and inhibited motivation for goal directed behavior. Cannabis is also a “gateway drug”; ushering users to “harder” substances of abuse and reinstating extinguished drug seeking behaviours. The recent tramadol abuse in Ghana may have been precipitated by previous and concurrent cannabis use. Furthermore, Ghana’s cannabis may have a higher propensity to induce detrimental effects because of preferential accumulation the psychotropic delta-9-Tetrathydrocannabinol as a result of the high tropical temperature and humidity.
Conclusion: There is not sufficient pharmacological evidence supporting criminalization of medical cannabis in Ghana. However, the same evidence does not support legalization of recreational cannabis.
The Federal and State governments have declared the presence of an opioid addiction pandemic in the United States claiming the lives of more than 55,000 in 2015 (Rudd RA, Seth P, David F and Scholl L. 2016). The pharmaceutical manufacturers of the numerous FDA-approved opioid drugs are raking in more than $5 billion per year with about 2 million chronic pain sufferers addicted. The irony of this narcotic use and abuse conundrum is the existence of evidence-based technology for drug-free pain management which is not covered for reimbursement among public and private third-party payers. Therefore, this paper is presented to propose a pilot study to demonstrate the efficacy of resolving the chronic inflammation, edema and ischemia that causes non-malignant chronic pain with PEMF therapy, a non-invasive, non-thermal radio transmission of electrical impulses, thereby invalidating the legitimacy of prescribing opioid analgesics in such cases.
Introduction: There is increasing published evidence confirming the long-term adult mental and physical health impact of childhood exposure to adverse events including different forms of abuse and family dysfunction. Looked-after Children and young people (LACYP) living in public care are known to be a highly vulnerable group, who have often experienced several pre-care poor socio-economic and family circumstances with subsequent placement instability, as well as inadequate compensatory care within the social care system. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the adverse socio-emotional risk factors experienced by a cohort of LACYP and their emotional, behavioural and physical health needs within a South-West England Local Authority between Jan and Dec 2018.
Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of the medical records of all looked-after children and young people (LACYP) within one year (Jan to Dec 2018) at the North Somerset Local Authority (NSLA). This was an audit project of the LAC Health team completed as part of the Clinical Governance strategies of the NSLA.
Results: 93% (89/96) of the LACYP experienced at least one or more socio-emotional adverse risk factors. The commonest socio-emotional risk factors recorded were parent-related including poor mental health (67%), neglectful parenting (59%), drugs/alcohol abuse (45%) and domestic violence (47%). Forty-six (48%) of the LACYP had at least one or more emotional problems, 48 (50%) had neurodevelopmental conditions, while 63 (66%) had at least one or more physical problems. The most common emotional needs were behavioural problems (35%), anxiety/ depression (17%), nicotine/substance misuse (10%) and self-harm (6%).
Conclusion: High levels of physical, emotional, behavioral, developmental and neurodisability disorders are prevalent among LACYP due to their high vulnerabilities to adverse life experiences and trauma while living within their biological families. Present and future clinical implications of the socio-emotional risk factors and the need for more integrated multi-agency services for addressing the diverse health needs of the LACYP were discussed.
What is known?
• There is increasing awareness of the relationship between childhood exposure to adverse events and long-term adult mental and physical health
• Looked after children and young people (LACYP) are highly vulnerable to early traumatic and poor socio-economic circumstances exposure
What this study adds:
• Over 90% of LACYP experienced at least one ACE which disproportionately affected the youngest age-group
• Parental factors such as childhood abuse, alcohol/substance abuse and mental health problems were the most common adverse factors experienced by the LACYP
Objective: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of the homeless population and report the social impact on healthcare services provided by a voluntary initiative during one-year of follow-up.
Method: This is an investigational study, carried out in an important capital-city of southern Brazil, which included 509 individuals in 2019. Findings were divided into three segments: sociodemographic, substance use/abuse and impact on healthcare.
Results: The sociodemographic profile found was predominantly male, white, single, heterosexual, educated in elementary or high school, in regular use of legal and/or illegal substances, and living as homeless for less than a year. The impact of assistance provided on the perception of individuals who returned in subsequent actions was evident.
Conclusion: The significant increase in the number of homeless people in large urban centers can benefit from the support of non-profit organizations to address the deficiencies faced in accessing basic health services. Based on this, we seek to advance in the development of new policies that improve local healthcare for the vulnerable population, to be more assertive to their needs.
The purpose of this study is to highlight the drug abuse hazards and preventive aspects. From a public health perspective, substance abuse has long been a source of major concern, both for the individual’s health and for wider society as a whole. The UK has the highest rates of recorded illegal drug misuse in the western world. In particular, it has comparatively high rates of heroin and crack cocaine use. Substances that are considered harmful are strictly regulated according to a classification system that takes into account the harms and risks of taking each drug. The adverse effects of drug abuse can be thought of in three parts that together determine the overall harm in taking it. Some addictive substances are more damaging to the skeletal system along with the others. In this review article, an effort has been taken to elaborate the effects of addictive drugs on human highlighting these most problematic substances for bones and also the promising potential prevention aspects of drug abuse.
According to raising teenage parents though their abusing and neglecting children at a rural community with the ethnographic qualitative research method was surveyed. All children have protected on violence, abuse, neglect and exploitation from their teenage parents. To investigate and emphasize the consequences of violence ranged from immediate to the impact of their development on physical injury, learning ability, and local child care performance to long-term harm that caregivers carry into adult life is affected for raising children. Administration to the 89-households’ families and household memberships, 10 house stakeholders, 8 community leaders, 36 children, 65 caregivers, teenage parents and grandparents, and 3 mentors. Using the ethnographic qualitative research participatory with observation, natural conversation and in-depth interviews were randomized in rural Northeastern Region, Thailand. There are 52% of children being sexually, physically, or psychologically abused, neglected per day. Most of the teenagers’ education is poor learning skills, low academic learning achievements, and independent freedom of their sexual behaviors. These sexual intercourses between their groups are normal. Adding gambling habits among friends and adult groups are amputated without parents to dissuade. Either lifestyles as freely with sexually and gambling and the basic education are stopped, experiences’ living skills are poorly. Teenage women are changed to pregnant and young mothers. The teenage men must be searched for the job without a lack of worker’s skills to look for children with whom they are conflicted family relationships to take care.
Introduction: The tendency to impulsive behaviors and/or violence is exacerbated after alcohol consumption. Still, the relation between alcohol/violent deaths reported in the literature is not accurate, and in general, alcohol is only seen as a trigger to aggressive actions. The relationship of the victims with their blood alcohol is less studied. They were especially concerned about the role of alcohol as a risk factor for victims of unnatural death. Thus, our goal is to check the influence of alcohol in victims of violent deaths as homicides, suicides, and accidents.
Materials and methods: Retrospectively the medical records of 805 autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine (IML) of Franco da Rocha, in the period 2001 to 2017 were reviewed. The variables studied were sex, age, types of violent death rates, and alcohol - these were considered positive when above 0.3 mg/ml.
The dosage of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was performed using samples of 10 ml of blood collected at necropsy, is preferably taken from the cardiac chambers or of the right femoral vein. Dosages of alcohol in blood samples were done in the Forensic Toxicology Center of the IML by gas chromatography, using the technique of separation “headspace” and double column.
Results: Drug testing for alcohol was available for 488 (79.1%) of 617 necropsies. Of the 617 subjects studied, 532 (85.7%) were male, and 85 (13.8%) were females (with high rates of adolescents). The vast majority (n = 230) were killed, and 40.5% of victims had BAC above 0.3 mg/ml of blood. Traffic accidents came next, accounting for 181 deaths, with 41% of victims presenting positive BAC.
Discussion: High blood alcohol levels of the victims were associated mainly with the genesis of accidents (drowning, falls, traffic, aspiration/ smothering) and murder (with impaired ability to resist or by causing the release of impulses to engage in violent situations), about 40% of cases.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that alcohol abuse is a risk factor for victims of violent death. In these cases, alcohol has two types of action. Direct: contributes to accidents of various kinds - from traffic by decreasing powers of concentration, attention, and loss of reflexes, to other types of accidents such as drowning, falls, swallowing disorders causing airway obstruction, and mechanical asphyxia. And they were indirect, making it easier for individuals to engage in conflict (and thus become victims of crimes).
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