Alcohol

Anal cytology in immunocompetent patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II and CIN III)

Published on: 13th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550959427

Introduction: Anal cancer is directly related to the presence of high-grade HPV. Immunocompromised patients have defined conducts, something which is not observed in immunocompetent patients. Objective: To study the anal cytology of patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CINII and III) in order to propose a protocol to be followed by the Oncology Gynaecology Service at the Samuel Libânio Clinical Hospital (HCSL). Methods: Clinical, prospective, transversal and single-centered study. Sampling was by convenience within one year. A total of 150 patients were studied. Out of these, 76 were patients with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions diagnosed through histopathological examination of the uterine cervix (Study Group) and 74 without high-grade intraepithelial lesions and with cervical cytology negative for neoplasia (Control Group). The following variables were analyzed: age, sexarc, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, STD history (not HPV), menopause, Hormone Replacement Therapy, anal sex practice, parity, number of sexual partners and contraceptive use. Results: There was no significant difference between the number of cases in altered anal cancer oncology in the study group, in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: There were changes in the anal cytology of the study group and these should be evaluated due to the risk of dealing with pre-neoplastic anal lesion. Clinical Trials: NCT03241680.
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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders – What does it mean?

Published on: 17th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8566852662

Prenatal alcohol exposure is one of the most important causes of preventable cognitive impairment in the world. The developing neurological system is exquisitely sensitive to harm from alcohol and there is now also substantial evidence that alcohol-related harm can extend beyond the individual person, leading to epigenetic changes and intergenerational vulnerability and disadvantage [1].
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Receptor pharmacology and other relevant factors in lower urinary tract pathology under a functional and toxicological approach: Instrument to better manage antimicrobials therapy

Published on: 14th December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7964754521

In various patients conditions involved in lower urinary tract disease LUT (like overactive bladder, bladder neck sclerosis, dis –synergy (with our synenrgic contraction between bladder detrusor and bladder neck, BPH, recurrent cysytitis, interstitial cystitis, chronic prostatitis, uretral stenosys, loss of sfinteric coordination. Prostatic cancer, anatomic abnormalities and other the receptor status play relevant role to reduce effect of vicious clycle that can be responsible in progression of the pathologic process. In this work the complex receptorial status is analyzed to verify new therapeutic strategies. Starting from the observation that various irritant substanties produce irritant stimulus in Prostatic Patients or in bladder neck condition is interesting to deep understand the etio-patogenesys and Functional results. In Various prostatic, bladder neck or ureteral condition a reduced urinary fluss can produce infectious. Conditions like acute or chronic prostatitis. Irritants sustanties in diet (in example etilic alcohol drink, hot spices, crud meats, carbonate drinks, caffeine and other) can produce Painful stimulus in innervations of vecical trigonous, bladder neck and prostatic urethra. The same recurrent cystitis and Bph contribute in a complex situation. This stimulus produce ipertonus of bladder muscle involved in the expulsion of urine. The event related inflamation and edema (bladder, prostatic uretra, trigonus) contribute to the global effect. So conditions like bladder neck sclerosys IPB, recurrent prostatitis and cistitys in acts in a vicious circle. (Also immunomediated: Bph and cronic prostatitis with linfocite infiltration and tissue remodeling). The ormonal status check the systems (see 5-ARI efficacy in Bph). Simpatic, parasimpatic and other system are deeply involved. Also behavioral habits or diet can influence in example urinary flux in a complex system like LUT. (Bladder and prostatic irritants that can produce edema and acute inflamation). Other behavior habits are deeply involved as too much sedentary, water intake, coffee, pee modality and also psychological profile and stressing conditions. Some disease like diabetes produce high consequences in all this systems due to Bladder modification, oxidative stress, osmotic movens, and increase susceptibility of urinary infections. This article are verified this kind of movens that contribute in physio -pathology of some low urinary tract conditions. The anatomic abnormalities produces, obviously, physiological disfuntions. Recurrent urinary tract infections, inadequate antimicrobial therapy: Profile of resistance, duration of therapy, kind of antimicrobials, posology, Pk. Kinetics, associations, compliance, biofilms, micro calcifications (recurrent chronic prostatitis) contribute to a progression of the condition.
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Atherogenic risk assessment of naive HIV-infected patients attending Infectious Diseases Service of Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Published on: 13th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8689021635

Background and aim: Metabolic abnormalities are common in HIV/AIDS. Increasingly, lipid ratios are used as screening tools for dyslipidaemia in these medical conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of 4 lipid ratios to predict cardiovascular risks. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and analytical study included 105 HIV+ patients followed in Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital (KUTH). Four indices [Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), Castelli Risk Index (CRI) I and II, Atherogenic coefficient (AC)] were compared. Statistical analyzis consisted of measuring frequencies and means, Student’s t-tests, ANOVA and Ficher’s exact test, and the calculation of the Kappa value. Results: Lipid ratios predicted respectively the risk in 62% (AIP), 28.6% (CRI-I) and 23.8% (CRI-II). CRI-I and II were elevated, especially in women. The AIP appeared to be a better predictor than CRI-I and II to assess dyslipidaemia in general and the high-risk frequency. The cholesterol detected risk in 66.7% (Low HDL-C), 50% (High LDL-C), 38.9% (High TC and/or TG). The atherogenic risk was higher with age, advanced WHO stage, HIV-TB, HBV-HCV co-infections, smoking and alcohol intake. Haemoglobin (Hb) and CD4 counts were low when the risk was high. Age ≥ 50 years, stage 4 (WHO), CD4s+ ≤ 200 cells/µL were independent factors associated with atherogenic risk. Conclusion: Lipid ratios can be used as reliable tools for assessing cardiovascular risk of naïve HIV-infected patients who received HAART.
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Effect of ginger flour supplementation on fermented millet flour ‘ibyer’ anti-diabetic and biochemical properties

Published on: 29th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899338938

A mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease; COVID-19, has led to tremendous global health and economy damages. This virus could be dampened through home use of fermented bio food material. Fermented millet flour (ibyer) is an indigenous non-alcoholic gruel made from cereals either (maize, sorghum and millet). It is prepared by cooking reconstituted cereal flour or wet milled paste with water. In this study, fermented millet fl our supplemented with ginger powder blends were formulated in the ratio 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 for the production of gruel. The blends were subjected to feeding trial experiment using wistar albino rat. Results analysis revealed that Serum cholesterol was less than 200 mg/dl. The fasting blood glucose was also within the recommended range (67.7 - 125.0 mg/dl). The biochemical parameters were within recommended range, total serum protein ranged from 5.82-7.06 g/L, Alanine aminotransferase ranged from 28.53 to 41.13 iu/L, Aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 28.50 to 48.66 iu/L. The albino rats showed slight increase in body weight throughout the experimental period, ranging from 78.67 -103.80 g. The experiment shows that the diet did not have any adverse effect on the experimental animals and were within the recommended range hence a good anti diabetic blend and has excellent biochemical profile properties for homes use.
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Gaucher’s disease and liver involvement: A review and our experience

Published on: 27th November, 2019

Background: This article reviews current knowledge of Gaucher’s disease (GD) and liver involvement and reports our experience: how many patients with chronic liver disease of unknown origin could be affected by Gaucher’s disease. Patients and methods: Over 24 months, we tested 75 sine causa chronic liver disease patients (30 women and 45 men, mean age 55 years, range 15 to 77). Results: None of the 75 patients was affected by Gaucher’s disease. Conclusion: We believe that the chronic liver disease patient is unlikely to be affected by Gaucher’s disease. Probably this disease is to be found in cases of coexistence of hepatic disease and other symptoms of Gaucher’s disease (bone, neurological, bone marrow involvement).
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Clinico-epidemiological characteristics and survival outcome of patients with hypertensive crisis at Kassala Hospital, Eastern Sudan

Published on: 31st October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7923823434

Introduction: Hypertensive crisis (HC) is recognized consequence of inadequate blood pressure (BP) control. A hypertensive crisis is further divided into hypertensive emergency (HT-E) and hypertensive urgency (HT-U). Method: Using a cross-sectional hospital-based study design, patients who had been diagnosed as having HC between January and October 2017 were consecutively recruited in the study. The criteria proposed by the Seventh Joint National Committee were used for the definition of HC. Result: A total of 81 (.81%) patients newly diagnosed as having HC were enrolled in the study. Of these patients, 50 (61.7 %) patients met criteria for HT-E, while 31 (38.3%) patients had HT-U. Renal impairment (16%), stroke (30.8%), acute coronary syndrome (13.6%) and heart failure (22.2%) were predominant complications associated with HT-E. Out of 81 study subjects, 13 (16%) patients died. Although there was no significant difference in residence, history of smoking, Diabetes mellitus and history of alcohol consumption between groups, old age (P=.o22), male gender(.046), history of hypertension(.007), history of non-governmental employee(.003), poor compliance (p=.002) and high case fatality rate (p=.041) were significantly associated with hypertensive emergency (HT-E). Conclusion: This study showed that HT-E has high case fatality rate among patients admitted with hypertensive crisis at kassala teaching Hospital. Therefore early detection of hypertension and appropriate management are the main stay for reducing morbidity and mortality among patients with hypertensive crisis.
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Predictive Psychological Factors of Problematic Alcohol use in University Students

Published on: 30th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317646409

The objective of this study is to determine prevalence of alcohol-substance use among university students, and to investigate the correlation between the childhood abuse, suicide probability and anger expression styles in students who have drinking problems. A survey was carried out among randomly selected students from the Faculty of Education in Baskent University in Turkey. Study sample consists of 399 university students. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Trait Anger and Anger Expressions Scales (T-Anger-Anger EX), and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) were used. The CAGE questionnaire was applied to identify the problems of alcohol use. Probable presence of an alcohol use disorder is indicated by a score of 1+, whereas a score of 2+ was taken as the cut-off point for assessing presence of clinically significant alcohol use problems. Data were analyzed using with t test and multiple binary logistic regression. Of the whole sample 36.9% reported that they had ever tried drinking alcohol. The overall prevalence of alcohol use problems according to CAGE 1+ was 14.4% and CAGE 2+ was 7.3%. Sexual abuse and Anger-In were predictors of CAGE 1+, suicide probability was predictor of CAGE2+. Childhood trauma experiences especially, sexual abuse, suicide probability, trait anger, the anger expressed inside and outside were main factors to identify alcohol use problems. Professionals and parents must pay attention to childhood traumatic experiences, suicide and anger expression styles in youths with alcohol use problems.
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The effects of alcohol taxation and pricing policies on vodka sales in Russia

Published on: 29th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317654733

Background: The majority of aggregate econometric studies indicate that higher taxes and real prices on alcohol significantly reduce the alcohol consumption. Objectives: To estimate the effects of recent alcohol taxation and pricing policies on vodka sales per capita in Russia. Methods: Trends in the affordability of vodka, excise tax rates on vodka, real and minimum price of vodka and per capita vodka sales between 2010 and 2015, were compared. Results: A Pearson’s correlation analysis suggests a positive and statistically significant association between the affordability of vodka and per capita vodka sales. The association between vodka sales and excise tax rates on vodka, the real price of vodka and minimum price of vodka was negative. Conclusions: These findings indicate that pricing policy has potential to reduce binge drinking of vodka in Russia.
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Update on Phenobarbital for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Intensive Care

Published on: 22nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8206683605

Alcohol abuse is a global health problem. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) ranges from mild to severe symptoms that can lead to fatal delirium tremens requiring ICU admission and incurring high health care cost as high as $20,000 a month. The latest published reports suggest that phenobarbital is a promising therapeutic option for management of AWS as evidenced by less ICU admissions, length of stay in hospital, use of adjunctive agents, health care costs and attention from the nursing staff than that of patients treated with commonly used benzodiazepines such as lorazepam, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital is beneficial for the treatment of AWS, both in the emergency and inpatient settings and both as monotherapy or in conjunction with benzodiazepines. It is safe for patients without severe hepatic impairment, has a better mechanism of action and longer half-life than benzodiazepines, and leads to less delirium and agitation. Powered randomized controlled trials with large populations are required, yet phenobarbital can be used to safely to treat AWS.
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Alcohol-related poisonings in Russia: Obfuscated facts

Published on: 25th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597135

The problem of the alcohol misuse in Russia is well known; but there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which seems to be used to disguise shortages of the healthcare and public assistance. In this way, responsibility for the relatively low life expectancy is shifted onto the patients, who are supposed to drink excessively. In parallel, there is a tendency to exaggerate successes of the anti-alcohol campaign (1985-1989) and to trivialize the harm caused by the campaign e.g. mass consumption of surrogates [1]. The bias can be illustrated with the example of papers by Yuri Razvodovsky [2-5]. Yuri asked me per e-mail to write a “friendly” letter to the Editor referring to his article. An excerpt from the correspondence is presented here as documentary evidence (Figure 1). In reply, I cited the phrase: “The official statistical data do not support the claims that the… аnti-alcohol campaign contributed to the dramatic growth in fatal poisonings by non-beverage alcohol surrogates” [4] and commented that I witnessed mass poisonings with window cleaner in 1988. Considering the large scale of the window cleaner sales, it was knowingly tolerated by authorities. Poisonings with methanol and organochlorides (used e.g. in dry cleaning) were known to occur as well. Yuri replied that “there are two realities: one, which we both witnessed, and another-official statistics” (Figure 1). Obviously, Razvodovsky should have discussed in his articles the “realities we both witnessed”, i.e. common knowledge and observations, otherwise his papers are misleading. 
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Parental Role in Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention

Published on: 28th August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7815112848

Background: There is a huge gap in the U.S. health care system when it comes to the prevention of substance abuse and addiction, specifically involving adolescents. It has been determined through literature review that parents in Utah are not informed about/knowledgeable of/aware of the current usage of alcohol/drugs in the adolescent population in this area or the inherent risks involved with consumption/use/misuse/abuse/addiction. Aim: The overarching aim of the doctoral project was to prevent Utah County middle school students from harmful alcohol and drug consumption by involving parents in prevention efforts. The prevention goals of this project included: increased parental knowledge of the brain disease of addiction, warning signs of adolescent drug use, what to do if their child is already using, and increased parental self-efficacy on communicating with teens on this subject. Design: For parents to be productively involved, barriers were broken down through education. The DNP student completed a 15-minute presentation at five separate parent meetings that took place annually during middle school registration at Lehi Jr High. Population: The education was for parents, foster parents, guardians, etc. of first-year middle school students only; an estimated 420 participants were in attendance. Data collection and analysis: A pre-and post- combined self-efficacy and knowledge test was given to the attendees. Data was gathered from 117 appropriately completed tests and analyzed using a paired t-test. The results were studied to evaluate effectiveness of the program relating to parental self-efficacy and knowledge. Findings: The presentation ultimately increased parental self-efficacy and knowledge (p-value <0.01) which in turn increases protective factors and decreases risk factors associated with adolescent substance abuse. Conclusions: The DNP project was successful, and the results assisted in the refinement of the presentation for sharing on a mass level to all Jr. High schools in Utah County, Utah.
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Factors affecting physical activity of recuperating alcoholics in Asumbi-Homabay rehabiliation center, Kenya

Published on: 24th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7923860537

Background: Alcoholism is a widespread problem in Kenya and is associated with severe impacts on health and quality of life of the individual. Physical activity is an affordable and sustainable adjunct treatment option for recuperating alcoholics; however its’ rarely used in rehabilitation of alcoholics in Kenya. Objective: This qualitative study sought to elicit facilitators and barriers that influence the practice of physical activity amongst recuperating alcoholics under rehabilitation. Methods: A focus group guide was utilized to gather views and perceptions of 15 alcoholics and 5 health professionals through focus group discussions. Constant comparative approach was used to analyze verbatim transcripts obtained from in-depth interviews. This analysis entailed three stages including open, axial and selective coding. Results: Recuperating alcoholics’ recognized various forms of physical activity to promote mental and physical health during their rehabilitation. Health professionals and significant others considerably supported the recuperating alcoholics to practice physical activity however physical activity facilities and facilitation was lacking in Asumbi rehabilitation center. Conclusions: The rehabilitation centres should have physical activity experts and facilities that can offer individualized physical activity services and support needed by the recuperating alcoholics.
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Prevalence of premarital sexual practice and associated factors among Goba town high school students, South East-Ethiopia

Published on: 12th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553234584

Background: Premarital sexual practice significantly attributes for increase adolescent’s risk of unintended pregnancy, early marriage, abortion and STIs. In Ethiopia adolescents were intended to engage at early initiation to sexual intercourse without having proper protection has been one of the concerns. Study aimed to assess the prevalence of premarital sexual practice and associated factors among high school students. Method: A facilities based study design was employed. Data were collected from 291 randomly selected Negade and Finca Bamo high school students using structured questionnaire from June 1-30, 2018. Bi-variate logistic regression used to identify variables that crudely associated and variables with p - value < = 0.05 fitted to multiple logistic regression. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was estimated using multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of premarital sex. Result: Among high school students, 31.2% reported had experienced premarital sexual practices. This shows that premarital sexual practices among high school adolescent’s students were high. Drinking alcohol [AOR = 4.06, 95%CI, (2.06 - 7.99)]. Watching pornographic video [AOR: 2.78, 95%CI, (1.45 - 5.3)] and educational status of mothers [AOR: 0.33; 95% CI (0.13, -0.84)] were significantly associated factors. Conclusion: Drinking alcohol, watching pornography and mother education were predominantly significantly associated. Therefore, an integrated effort needs to be highlighted to deter the health behavioral problems of school adolescents at the early stages. 
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Chlorhexidine and oral cancer: A short review

Published on: 18th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8535180883

Owing to the ever westernizing lifestyles in developing countries like India, the escalation of oral cancer patients are in need of urgent plan of action. With tobacco being the commonest cause for causation of oral cancer, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2016-17 revealed that almost 28% of whole population of India is consuming tobacco in either smoking or smokeless form. With these increasing numbers, the expected death toll to be expected to touch 1-2 million mark by the year 2035 [1]. Although, the current Onco-medicine fraternity excels in rendering care to oral cancer patients in the form of surgeries, chemotherapy and radiation-therapy. Often, these treatment modalities impart some unwanted adverse effects like, docetaxel (DCT) is known for its hepatotoxicity [2,3] whereas, one of the commonly used cisplatin (CIS) presents with nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression and vomiting [4,5]. Literature suggests of many non conventional medicaments being tested in past for their anti onco-genic effect, where few being effective and others being questionable ones. Chlorhexidine being one among them showing some how promising anti onco-genic activity with feeble amount of studies being conducted in past. Chlorhexidine, one of the most commonly prescribed mouthrinse in the field of dentistry, with varying concentrations of 0.12% and 0.2% concentrations. Although, apart from being broad spectrum antibiotic, its capability to dismantle the protein – protein bond between anti – apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bcl-xL and its pro – apoptotic binding partners [6]. The current study was conducted on three cell lines of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-4, SCC-9, SCC -15) and two pharynx carcinoma cell lines (FaDu and Detroit 562). The compounds induced apoptosis through mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway in oral tumour cell lines. Another study conducted to assess the similar anti – oncogenic activites of chlorhexidine mouthrinse along with cranberry [7]. It was evident from results that, with increasing concentrations of chlorhexidine mouthrinse, there was increase in mean percent growth inhibition. The authors concluded saying, chlorhexidine has showed both anti cancerous as well as anti bacterial activity required to tackle common oral infections, part of common anti cancer therapy. Fernando Martínez-Pérez et al (2019) conducted study, where antitumor activity of Lipophilic Bismuth Nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) and chlorhexidine on human squamous cell carcinoma was assessed using energy dispersive X – ray spectroscopy in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (EDS-SEM). Study revealed, BisBAL NPs and chlorhexidine both showed cell growth inhibition on both cancer cell line (CAL-27) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Although, chlorhexidine showed non specific cytotoxicity for both tumoral and non tumoral control cells. The suggestive mechanism of action might be loss of cell membrane integrity [8]. Although Eliot MN (2013) conducted study, to assess the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma secondary to use of alcohol containing and non alcoholic mouthwashes including chlorhexidine. The study was concluded with an assumption based on chlorhexidine mouthwash alters the oral flora [9], thus resulting in increasing risk exponentially through diverse change in oral bacteria and altered immune response with contribution towards genesis or promotion of cancer [10]. On the contrary, alcohol consumption and smoking are predisposing factors towards upper digestive tract cancer. The main causative factor being the first metabolite of alcohol, acetaldehyde. And much higher levels are derived from oral bacteria and thus, same can be altered in favour through usage of chlorhexidine mouthwash, to avoid excessive production of acetaldehyde intra orally. In conclusion, chlorhexidine mouthwash has been into dental practice since long and the role it plays in either ways has to be assessed by a multi dimensional study with cell lines including that of control to derive better compared conclusions.
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Estimation of the level of alcohol consumption in Russia: A literature review

Published on: 30th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8882673885

Background: the level of alcohol consumption per capita is an important indicator of the alcohol-related problems. However, it is difficult to estimate the real level of alcohol consumption, since part of the consumption comes from illegal sources. Aim: an overview of studies estimating the overall level of alcohol consumption in Russia. Methods: in this review, 9 articles were analyzed estimating the overall level of alcohol consumption in Russia. Results: in the period from 1956 to 2015 the overall level of alcohol consumption was subject to significant fluctuations: it grew almost linearly in the period from 1965 to 1979; decreased markedly in 1981; declined sharply between 1984 and 1987; rose sharply between 1991 and 1994; decreased significantly between 1995 and 1998; then increased significantly in the period from 1999 to 2003, after which it began to decline. The lowest estimate of the level of alcohol consumption for the entire period under consideration was obtained using the method proposed by Razvodovsky (7.25 litres - 1987), and the highest - using the method proposed by Norstrom (19.64 litres - 1994). Conclusion: despite a significant decrease in the level of alcohol consumption in Russia over the past decade, this level remains high.
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Patterns of drugs and alcohol abuse among youth

Published on: 19th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9038789451

The study attempted to answer several questions: Does the cultural and social background of immigrant youth from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their use of addictive substances? Do these youth show distinctive patterns of drug and alcohol abuse? Do the addictive substances used by these teenagers share similar characteristics? Are the patterns of drug abuse and alcohol abuse different? Do students in different educational frameworks demonstrate different consumption patterns? Can “critical moments” explain the presence or absence of alcohol and drug abuse?
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Ocular changes and disorders associated with Obesity

Published on: 27th July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7795938194

Obesity is a chronic and metabolic disease with a high increasing prevalence worldwide. It has multifactorial pathogenesis including genetic and behavioral factors [1-5]. Overweight and obesity have been defined and classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) [2,3]. A person with a normal weight has Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9. A person with a BMI under 18.5 is called underweight. An adult having a BMI of 25-29.9 is overweight and pre-obese. Class 1 obesity is defined as a BMI between 30.00-34.99. Class 2 (Severe) Obesity is to have a BMI between 35.00-39.99. Morbid (Extreme, Class 3) obesity is to have a BMI over 40 [1-5]. Obesity is significantly associated with enhanced morbidity and mortality rates. It has also various economic, medical and psychological effects and causes health problems including many systemic diseases, economic costs and burdens, social and occupational stigmatization and discrimination and productivity loss [4-6]. Obesity carries the increased risk of development of many systemic and chronic diseases, including sleep apnea, depression, insulin resistance, Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes, Gout and related arthritis, degenerative arthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, heart disease such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or coronary artery disease, polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive disorders, Pickwickian syndrome (obesity, red face and hypoventilation), metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholecystitis, cerebrovascular accident, colonic and renal cancer, rectal and prostatic cancer in males, and gallbladder, uterus and breast cancer in females [6-12]. In recent years, some publications reported that obesity has been strongly associated with some ocular diseases including age-related cataract and maculopathy, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy [13-16]. The recent reports demonstrated that the central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure were increased while as mean thickness of RNFL and retinal ganglion cell and choroidal thickness (CT) were decreased in the morbidly obese subjects [17-19]. However, another study has reported that CT increased in obese children [20]. On the other hand, a recent study reported that all values of the specific tests used to evaluate the ocular surface were within the normal range [21]. In some experimental studies, it has been demonstrated that obesity may cause retinal degeneration [22,23]. Additionally, in a past meeting presentation, it has been speculated that keratoconus is associated with severe obesity [24]. Teorically, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and papilledema may also be associated with obesity [25]. Obesity may be also a cause of mechanical eyelid abnormalities such as entropion [26]. However, further investigations are needed to detect the significant relationship between these diseases and obesity. On the other hand, the ocular surgeries of obese patients are difficult compared to normal weight-subjects. The posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss may easily develop during cataract surgery of these patients because obese patients have an elevated vitreous pressure and operating table cannot often be lowered or surgeon’s chair cannot be elevated sufficiently to provide the clear viewing of the operating area and tissues. So, some different surgical manipulations such as standing phacoemulsification technique and reverse Trendelenburg position have been developed. Additionally, the standing vitrectomy technique has been used for vitreoretinal interventions in morbidly obese patients [27,28]. In conclusion, all obese subjects should be subjected to a completed ophthalmological examination and to relevant clinics for the detection of possible comorbidities and diseases
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Adverse childhood experiences and their Alcohol, and chat Consumption among school-going adolescents, Ethiopia: Cross-sectional study

Published on: 5th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8698222388

Background: Alcohol and chat use during adolescence is associated with academic and health problems, including abuse or dependence in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and early initiation of alcohol and chat use among school-going adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 546 school-going adolescents. The ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) was used to assess ACEs, Alcohol and chat use was assessed by questions prepared by the authors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between overall ACE score and alcohol use and the potential moderating effects of confounders. Results: prevalence of chat chewing behavior was 26.6% followed by alcohol use 20%. A total of 66.2% of participants reported at least one ACE, and 5.93% reported four or more ACEs. High/Multiple ACEs (ACEs=1-3 and above 3) were significantly associated with increased alcohol use behaviors (AOR=1.491(1.072-3.078) and (AOR=3.171(1.330-7.560) respectively and increased chat use behaviors by 4.92 times (AOR=4.92, 95%CI=2.640-8.432) and 11.022 times (AOR=11.022, 95%CI=1.230-25.560) respectively controlling other factors. Conclusion: ACEs were significantly associated with risk behaviors, alcohol and chat use may lead to poor health, and educational outcomes among adolescent students and numbers of ACEs have graded association. Social support, sex, residence, parent educational status, and current level of depressive symptoms were significant modulating factors, which parents, school teachers, psychologists, and adolescent health care providers should give the concern to decrease the effect on school-going adolescents. 
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Clinical significance of Urinary Amylase in Acute Pancreatitis

Published on: 27th June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317596310

Acute pancreatitis forms a major bulk of our inpatient admission due to gall stone disease. Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis remains a challenge even now. Serum amylase remains the most commonly used biochemical marker for its diagnosis but its sensitivity can be reduced by late presentation, hyper-triglyceridemia and chronic alcoholism. We conducted a study to determine the levels of serum and urinary amylase in patients with acute pancreatitis and compared their sensitivity and correlation with CT findings vis-à-vis the severity of the disease. The study was taken as a post graduate research model in the Post graduate Department of General and Minimal Access Surgery, Govt. Medical College Srinagar, J&K, India 2014-2016 and submitted for the award of masters in General Surgery. A total number of 150 patients were enrolled in the studies which were admitted in our unit as acute pancreatitis. 73 (48.7%) belonged to the age group of 30-44 years, 15(10%) patients aged >60 years with 86 (57.3%) males and 64 (42.7%) females. We had 81 (54%) patients with biliary tract diseases, followed by 21 (14%) patients with worm induced, 20 (13.3%) had hyperlipidaemia and only 4 (2.7%) patients had post ERCP etiology. Tenderness in epigastrium was the presenting sign in 111 (74%), followed by chest signs in 25 (16.7%) patients, diffuse tenderness in 19 (12.7%), icterus in 11 (7.3%), low grade fever in 9 (6%) patients, shock in 5 (3.3%). Diabetes mellitus as a comorbidity was observed in 48 (32%) patients followed by hypothyroidism 37 (24.7%) patients. Hypertension was seen in 31 (20.7%) patients, COPD in 19 (12.7%) patients and obesity in 13 (8.7%) patients. Twenty two (14.7%) needed ICU admission; while as 128 (85.3%) were managed in the general ward. All the enrolled patients in our study were managed conservatively. Out of a total of 150 patients, 148 (98.7%) survived while as only 2 (1.3%) of our patients expired. At the time of admission in the hospital, 120 (80%) patients had serum amylase level of >450 U/L, 19 (12.7%) patients had 150-450 U/L levels while as 11 (7.3%) patients had <150 U/L serum amylase levels. CT has been shown to yield an early overall detection rate of 90% with close to 100% sensitivity after 4 days for pancreatic gland necrosis. The correlation of urinary amylase with the CECT Severity Scoring in a patient of acute pancreatitis is still ambiguous.
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