Alveolar

Hemoptysis after subclavian vein puncture for pacemaker implantation: A case report

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330425842

Background: Subclavian venous access for pacemaker lead insertion is a common procedure and is normally considered safe in the hands of an expert. However, subclavian venepuncture is not without complications, starting from mild subcutaneous hematoma to pneumothorax. We here present a case of hemoptysis occurring after difficult subclavian vein puncture, which subsequently improved on conservative management only. Case Summary: A 65-year-old gentleman, post aortic valve replacement had persistent high-grade AV block and was taken up for a dual chamber pacemaker implantation. Immediately following venous access, he had a bout of hemoptysis, which recovered on its own. Post procedure chest x-ray was suggestive of alveolar hemorrhage which cleared gradually in next three-four days. Discussion: Post subclavian venepuncture hemoptysis is known; but it is a rare complication, arising either because of lung parenchyma injury or arterial injury. This is mostly benign and improves on conservative management only; however rarely it may be massive and life threatening where transcatheter arterial embolization may be required.
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Corticotomy facilitated correction of skeletal class II malocclusion

Published on: 26th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7379412270

Selective alveolar decortication and periodontal augmentation with a bone graft were the two procedures used for the correction of the skeletal class II malocclusion in the case reported. A 25-year-old male patient presented with a skeletal class II malocclusion with increased bi-maxillary dento-alveolar protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite and imbricated and rotated mandibular incisors with bilateral presence of supernumerary teeth in the maxillary right and left premolar regions. Extraction of supernumerary in the maxillary right and left premolar region, and impacted UL5 was done. Pre-adjusted edgewise appliance, Roth’s prescription (0.022x0.028-inch slot), was bonded and a week later full thickness labial and lingual flaps were reflected in the maxillary and mandibular arches. Circumscribed corticotomy cuts was done and subsequently augmented with a bone graft. Orthodontic treatment was commenced immediately after surgery and orthodontic adjustments were performed every 2 weeks. The entire orthodontic treatment was completed in 9 months. Regional acceleratory phenomenon, triggered by the alveolar decortication, was responsible for the rapid correction of the malocclusion and the augmentation with the bone graft provided adequate bone volume for housing the teeth, thereby decreasing the possibility of subsequent relapse. 
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Premaxillary osteotomy in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate: Skeletal and dental changes

Published on: 16th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639114756

Purpose: To evaluate changes in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) who premaxillary osteotomy and secondary alveolar bone grafting as compared to children with BCLP who are not indicated for surgery, and to determine variables that differentiate patients who do or do not require osteotomy. Material and methods: Twenty-four children with BCLP were included in the study: 12 who underwent osteotomy (intervention group) and 12 who had no surgery (control group). Radiographic and model values of the intervention group were compared before (T1) and after (T2) premaxillary osteotomy, and measurements were compared with those from the control group at T1. Results: Convexity, ANB (point A-nasion-point B), and maxillary depth was more diminished at T2 in children in the intervention group. Point A, anterior nasal spine, and pogonion were retroposed after surgery, and the anterior spine was higher. At T2, the upper incisors were proinclinated and intruded, and overbite was improved. Models revealed increased intermolar intercanine width as well as intrusion of upper incisor after surgery. Premaxilla and upper molars were more extruded, had a higher total maxillary height and increased extrusion of upper incisor in children who underwent osteotomy. Conclusion: After surgery, children who undergo surgery have a premaxilla that is more normalized and more level with the occlusal plane, as well as improved dental inclination. Variables that differentiate children who require osteotomy from those who do not include more extrusion and protrusion of the premaxilla, and a greater extrusion of the upper incisors.
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Rhabdomyoblasts in Pediatric Tumors: A Review with Emphasis on their Diagnostic Utility

Published on: 9th March, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317653969

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue pediatric sarcoma composed of cells which show morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evidence of skeletal muscle differentiation. To date four major subtypes have been recognized: embryonal, alveolar, spindle cell/sclerosing and pleomorphic. All these subtypes are defined, at least in part, by the presence of rhabdomyoblasts, i.e. cells with variable shape, densely eosinophilic cytoplasm with occasional cytoplasmic cross-striations and eccentric round nuclei. It must be remembered, however, that several benign and malignant pediatric tumours other than rhabdomyosarcoma may exhibit rhabdomyoblaststic and skeletal muscle differentiation. This review focuses on the most common malignant pediatric neoplasm that may exhibit rhabdomyoblastic differentiation, with an emphasis on the most important clinicopathological and differential diagnostic considerations.
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Challenges in the diagnosis and management of severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a non-HIV-infected patient - A case report

Published on: 17th October, 2018

A 64-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to progressive dypnoea for the past week, combined with fever and type 1 respiratory failure. White blood cell count and procalcitonin level were normal. The Chest X-ray showed bilateral disseminated pulmonary infiltrates. Within the next 24 hours the patient developed a severe ARDS. A first diagnostic work-up for typical and atypical pathogens as well as serological tests for CMV, RSV, HIV and HSV were negative. Analysis of a second bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed Pneumocystis jiroveci DNA. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and off label use with caspofungin. The cause of the infection was a six week treatment with dexamethasone. The patient developed a toxic epidermal necrolysis during further course, but completely recovered. Pneumonia with Pneumocystis jirovecii must also be taken into account in non-HIV patients, whenever there are any indications that cellular immunity may be depressed.
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Bifid Mandibular Canals: A case report and mini review

Published on: 3rd April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875582681

he presence of bifid mandibu¬lar canals is an unusual but not rare occurrence. The mandibular canal containing the inferior alveolar artery, vein, and nerve, originates from the mandibular foramen and terminates at mental foramen [1-4]. In radiology, mandibular canal’s appearance has been described as “a radiolucent dark ribbon between two white lines”[5]. White and Pharoah defined it as “dark linear shadow with thin radiopaque superior and inferior borders cast by the lamella of bone that bounds the canal” [6]. Understanding of its anatomic variations is very important due to its clinical implications in various oral and maxillofacial treatments like removal of wisdom teeth [7], mandibular implant placement [8], in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedures and during fixation of mandibular fractures. Presence of bifid or multiple mandibular canals forces the clinician to change the treatment plan. Ignoring this variation can cause several complications intra or postoperatively or even result in failure of treatment. For instance a bifid canal if ignored during surgical removal of third molar or dental implant placement can cause prolonged pain even after administering local anesthesia and also severe bleeding if the accessory canal is encroached [2]. Bifid mandibular canals may originate from the mandibular foramen independently or might bifurcate from a single canal during its course inside the mandible [8]. Bifid mandibular canals have been by classified by multiple authors according to anatomical location and configuration, on panoramic radiographs and computerized tomography. According to Carter and Keen [1], inferior alveolar nerve can be arranged as- Type I: single large bony canal, Type II: canal is lower down in the mandible and Type III: canal separates posteriorly into two large branches. Nortje, et al. [9] gave patterns of duplication as- Type I: duplicate canals from a single mandibular foramen which can be of same size/ lower canal smaller/ upper canal smaller. Type II: short upper canal up to the second molar areas. Type III: two canals from separate foramina, joining at molar area and Type IV: supplemental canals joining the main canals in the retromolar areas. This report describes a case of a bilateral Bifid Mandibular Canal suspected by a panoramic radiograph and confirmed by a CBCT prior to a dental treatment.
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Avoiding confusion in high flow oxygen therapy concepts

Published on: 31st May, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317646410

Oxygen therapy is the main supportive treatment in hypoxemic respiratory failure and has traditionally been delivered using low and high flow devices. However, the maximal flow rates that these devices can deliver are limited because of the insufficient heat and humidity provided to the gas administered. Low flow devices such as the nasal cannula, conventional face mask and reservoir bag deliver a flow rate of up to 15 L/min by administering more variable oxygen fractions (FiO2), depending on the patient’s respiratory pattern, peak inspiratory flow and characteristics of the devices. Conventional high flow devices, such as venturi type masks, utilize a constant flow of oxygen through precisely sized ports, entraining the ambient air, using the Bernoulli principle, providing a more constant inspired oxygen fraction. However, they are less tolerated than nasal cannulas because they are less comfortable and the insufficient humidification and heating of the gas delivered [1]. In the last two decades, new devices have been developed to administer high humidified and heated flow through a nasal cannula (HFNC) that also allows the delivery of oxygen with a known FiO2 up to 100%. In the literature, this technique has also been called mini CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), transnasal insufflation, high nasal flow ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy, and high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy [2]. It is considered that high flow nasal cannula has certain benefits compared to those of oxygen therapy previously detailed. HFNC manages a flow of more than 30 L/min, which is able to surpass the peak inspiratory flow of the patient, being able to reach values ​​between 60-80 L/min depending on the flow used. The gas source, which may be delivered by an air/oxygen blender, fans, or a flow generating turbine, is connected by an active humidifier to a nasal cannula and the FiO2 can be adjusted independently of the flow. From a clinical point of view, there is some confusion between venturi and high flow nasal cannula devices. In the literature, both have been considered as high flow oxygen therapy devices. In our opinion this is not appropriate because the high nasal cannula flow is much more than a simple system for administering oxygen therapy [3]. Venturi-type masks provide the patient with a gas mixture with a controlled FiO2, but do not exert additional benefits on the ventilator mechanics of the patient. Nevertheless, HFNC allows the delivery of a high flow, which can also add oxygen therapy, providing a series of physiological effects that imply an active treatment to respiratory failure. Effects related to HFNC include the following: 1. Delivery of higher and more stable FiO2 values, ​​because the flow delivered is greater than the patient’s inspiratory demand. 2. The anatomical dead space decreases by washing the nasopharynx, consequently increases alveolar ventilation. This improves the thoracoabdominal synchrony. 3. Respiratory work decreases because it acts as a mechanical stent in the airway and markedly attenuates inspiratory resistance. 4. The gas administered is warmed and humidified, improving mucociliar clearance, reducing the risk of atelectasis, improving ventilation perfusion and oxygenation ratio. 5. There is a CPAP-like effect. The dynamic positive espiratory airway pressure generated by HFNC reaches a value between 6-8cmH2o depending on the flow and the size of the cannula. This positive pressure distends the lungs and ensures their recruitment. 6. Pulmonary end-expiratory volume is higher with HFCN than with conventional high-flow oxygen therapy. 7. In addition, the technique is considered easy and simple for the medical staff and nurses, and can be used in different areas (emergency, hospitalization, critical care unit, weaning centers) and even at home [4]. Currently available evidence has demonstrated that HFNC therapy is an alternative for the treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, hypercapnic respiratory failure, acute heart failure, as rescue therapy preventive therapy in post-extubation respiratory failure and in specific conditions such as bronchoscopy [5]. We believe that high-flow nasal cannula treatment should not be confused with high flow oxygen therapy of venturi masks. According to detailed mechanisms of action, HFNC is not limited to being only an oxygen therapy system but also behaves as a true treatment that can be used in different clinical scenarios, generating physiological benefits that result in the reduction of respiratory work. In addition, in venturi type masks, the air is not humidified and complications such as dryness and nasal pain are common, generating a poor tolerance to oxygen therapy. The benefits of proper humidification and heating of the gas delivered with HFNC therapy allow better comfort and tolerance of the patient with easy adherence to the treatment. All this contributes to making HFNC be considered a technique of choice in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure. The growth in its use associated with easy acceptance for patients and the expansion in its application show us that HFNC is a promising therapy.
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A Case series on Asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is independent from other chronic obstructive diseases (COPD and Asthma)

Published on: 30th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9157820954

As we know that, Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are well characterized diseases, they can co-exist as asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). The co-existence of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap (ACO) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is often unrecognized. In patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD or Asthma, the identification of ACO has got implication for better prognosis and treatment. Such patients experience frequent exacerbations, poor quality of life, rapid decline in lung function and high mortality than COPD or Asthma alone. Inhalational steroids provide significant alleviation of symptoms in such patients and some studies suggest that the most severe patients may respond to biological agents indicated for severe asthma. Patients who have asthma with a COPD component tend to present with severe hypoxia because of Irreversible/fixed airway obstruction and impairment of the alveolar diffusion capacity by emphysematous changes. In contrast, patients with COPD who have an asthma component not only have exertional dyspnoea but also develop paroxysmal wheezing or dyspnoea at night or in the early morning. The criteria to diagnose asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) include positive bronchodilator response, sputum eosinophilia or previous diagnosis of asthma, high IgE and/or history of atopy. There is scarcity of literature available in country like India. We highlight the importance of identification of Asthma COPD overlap as different phenotype from COPD or asthma alone as it is challenging to diagnose ACO in India. We report 3 cases having both the features of asthma and COPD, later diagnosed with Asthma-COPD overlap.
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“Fatty Lungs”: An uncommon case of Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

Published on: 5th August, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9157841457

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by excessive accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in alveoli and terminal airways. It is caused by impaired GM-CSF signaling [1]. Surfactant is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II epithelial cells, and removed by uptake and catabolism by these cells, and the alveolar macrophages. Patients with PAP usually describe gradual onset of progressive exertional dyspnea and non-productive cough. However, an asymptomatic presentation is observed in up to 25% of cases, even in the presence of diffuse radiographic changes. Three recognized subtypes exist. Autoimmune PAP is associated with neutralizing GM-CSF autoantibodies and accounts about 90% of cases. Secondary PAP may occur in the context of any disease that reduces the abundance or functionality of alveolar macrophages, resulting in impaired surfactant clearance. Congenital PAP is the result of genetic mutations that disrupt GM-CSF signaling, including mutations in the α- or β-chains of the GM-CSF receptor [1-3].
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Intentıonal reımplantatıon of hopeless teeth: Cases serıes

Published on: 31st October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872657975

Intentional replantation is an alternative for the treatment of advanced periodontal destruction of the anterior teeth. Systemically healthy three female patient was referred to our clinic with functional complaints. Diagnosis were chronic periodontitis and class III mobility was noted at the mandibular incisors with complete periodontal attachment loss. After phase I periodontal treatment periodontally involved teeth were extracted, endodontic treatment accomplished, the teeth were replanted and fixed to its place with fiber reinforced composite splint. At the end of 2 years tooth was in function with alveolar bone gain. Intentional replantation provided long-term maintenance of patient’s own teeth.
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Identifying patterns in COVID-19: Morbidity, recovery and the aftermath

Published on: 25th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8600329092

The infectivity and pathogenesis: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of Covid-19, involves Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on type II alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells in lungs. Apart from, the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the disease affects the gastrointestinal system prominently, as evidenced by the significant GI symptoms, early in the course of the disease. In addition, the virus infects ACE2-bearing cells in other organs including the heart and blood vessels, brain, and kidneys. Clinical features and morbidity: The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies from asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic presentation to moderate to severe states characterized by respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation and ICU support and those manifesting critical clinical condition with complications like sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction failure. The CT chest is an important tool for early identification of COVID-19 pneumonia as well as for prognostic purposes. The recovery and residual damage: The recovery and other outcomes vary depending on age and other aspects including sex, comorbidities, and genetic factors. The outlook for older adults, who account for a disproportionate share of critical disease, is unfavorable, and most of those who survive are unlikely to return to their previous level of functioning. The disease affects their long-term health and quality of life as well as brings in propensity for truncated post-disease survival. COVID-19 aftermath and follow up: The patients discharged from hospital following severe COVID-19, continue to suffer with lingering impact of the disease as well as that of the emergency treatments that saved their life. The post-infection reduced exercise tolerance and other subtle factors, like post viral fatigue syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, impaired concentration, delirium, and disturbed sleep-wake cycle often underly the functional impairment. In fact, there is need of step-down care and later a multidisciplinary support involving regular clinical assessment, respiratory review, physiotherapy, nutritional advice, and psychiatric support. Conclusion: The life after COVID-19: After recovery from the disease, the virus SARS-CoV-2, may persist for uncertain period. In addition, the chance of reinfection cannot be ruled out. The vitamin D supplementation may be helpful. In general, the quality of life (QOL) in ICU survivors improves but remains lower than general population levels, but most of the patients adapt well to their level of self-sufficiency and QOL. Also, the debility due to co-morbidities may further compromise the activity of daily living and QOL issues. The Age and severity of illness appear to be the major predictors of post-discharge physical functioning.
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Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage: Unusual presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus

Published on: 22nd April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026719858

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and carries a high mortality. It was first described by Osler in 1904 as the most devastating pulmonary complication of SLE. We describe a case of a 23-year-old girl recently diagnosed with SLE associated by a class III nephritis treated with oral corticoids and mycophenolate mofetil who developed a Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage DAH a few days later. The early diagnosis and the aggressive therapy allowed us to have a favorable outcome.
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Role of orthodontist in cleft lip and palate

Published on: 11th October, 2021

Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies occurring round the world varying with the race, ethnicity and geography. Cleft lip and/or palate problems tends to worsen as the individual grows older. Although it occurs as a different entity in itself but its presence can hamper aesthetics as well as functions by effecting growth, dentition, speech, hearing and overall appearance resulting in social and psychological problems for the child as well as the parents. Cleft lip and palate is of a multifactorial origin such as inheritance, teratogenic drugs, and nutritional deficiencies and can also occur as syndromic or non-syndromic cleft. Treatment of Cleft Lip and Palate comprises of different specialists having an individual insight in a particular case ultimately reaching to a consensus for a successful culmination of the treatment. Although appropriate timing and method of each intervention is still arguable. An orthodontist plays a role in pre surgical maxillary orthopaedics, in aligning the maxillary segments and dentition, in preparation for secondary alveolar bone grafting and finally in obtaining ideal dental relation and preparing the dentition for prosthetic rehabilitation or orthognathic surgery if required. Therefore, for efficient treatment outcome and refinement of individual techniques or variations of the treatment protocol a highly able team of specialists from different specialities is a must, preferably on a multicentre basis.
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