We experienced a case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) caused by subacute infectious endocarditis (SIE). A 57-year-old male farmer complained of fatigue, lack of appetite and gross haematuria for a month; he had no cough, chest pain, or exertion dyspnea. After admission, lab tests showed mild proteinuria(1.04g/d) and heavy dysmorphic red blood cells(RBC) (543/HP), with serum creatinine(Scr) slightly elevated(1.46mg/dl) and anemia(hemoglobin Hb 85g/L). A renal biopsy revealed MPGN lesion with 16.6% cellular crescents. The echocardiogram test revealed mitra valve prolapse with perforation of the anterior lobe, vegetation, and severe regurgitation. He was diagnosed as SIE induced MPGN. Then he underwent mitral valve replacement after systemic antibiotic treatment without immunosuppressive agents. Follow-up showed that he dramatically regained normal kidney function in total 1 year after the operation. Thus, antibiotic administration and valve replacement may be efficient enough for some of SIE induced MPGN. We did a brief review of the literature on SIE induced MPGN, which was sometimes misdiagnosed due to its silent characteristics; some SIE patients may initially have other organs involved.
Background: Anemia is an accelerating problem among patients with heart failure (HF) and its presence is associated with more symptoms. In this study, we investigated whether anemia in heart failure was related to hepcidin concentration.
Methods: 50 patients with heart failure and 20 healthy subjects with no history of a chronic illness including heart failure as control group, were included in the study. Heart failure was verified by echocardiography in each subject and patients were defined as ones with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) if EF ≤ 40% and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) if EF 40% - 50%. Blood samples were taken from all patients after 10-12 hours fasting. Anemia assessment was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criterias.
Results: There was a positive correlation between hepcidin concentration and urea, ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrite, C-reactive protein (p < 0,05). Hepcidin concentrations of anemic heart failure patients were significantly lower than the non-anemic heart failure patients (p < 0,05).
Conclusion: We found that serum hepcidin concentration in anemic patients with heart failure was lower than in heart failure patients without anemia. We believe that iron defiency occurs as a result of inflammatory process in heart failure and therefore hepcidin concentrations decrease as a response. However, long-term follow up studies are needed.
Objective: Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease, usually develops because of erythropoietin deficiency. Maintaining target hemoglobin (Hb) with minimal variability is a challenge in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study is to compare the long- and short-acting erythropoietin erythropoietin stimulating agents such as Mircera and Eprex in achieving these targets.
Results: The response rate in the evaluation period was higher in patients treated with methoxypolyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera) than with epoetin (Eprex) alfa: 36 of 50 (72%) mean Hb concentration (10.51g/dl) versus 29 of 50 (58%) mean Hb concentration (9.81), with statistically significant p-value <0.0001.
Conclusion: Treatment with (Mircera) administered intravenously once monthly was superior to treatment with (Eprex) administered subcutaneously three times weekly for maintaining haemoglobin concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle weakness and cancer-related symptoms in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and solid tumors. We recruited hospitalized patients older than 20 years who were receiving chemotherapy. Patients were divided into a solid tumor (n=74) and hematological malignancy (n=80) group. Age, body mass index (BMI), strength and thickness of the quadriceps femoris muscle, serum albumin and C-reactive protein levels, blood hemoglobin concentration, fatigue, psychological distress and pain, and duration of hospitalization were assessed. Eight physical symptoms (fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea) were also evaluated. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors affecting muscle strength in each group. Muscle strength was associated with fatigue in the solid tumor group and with age, BMI, muscle thickness, albumin and hemoglobin in the hematological malignancy group. Therefore, factors contributing to muscle strength might differ between patients with solid tumors and those with hematological malignancies. In particular, fatigue was an important factor in patients with solid tumors, while anemia was an important factor in patients with hematological malignancies. We therefore suggest that different treatments for muscle weakness might be considered for patients with these cancer types.
Intravenous iron is used in combination with erythropoi esis-stimulating agents to treat the anemia of hemodialysis patients, however, there is variety in the dose and the frequency. So we compare bolus intravenous iron administration protocol vs an intermittent intravenous iron infusion protocol for 3 months in a single blinded design that was conducted on 30 patients randomized into 2 matching groups. Iron parameter, hemoglobin level, and CRP were monitored before and at the end of study. Patients with end stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis with iron deficiency anemia can be treated with intravenous iron administration either by the protocol of divided doses of IV iron through the sessions of hemodialysis or by giving the total dose of iron needed as a single large dose on only one session of hemodialysis, obtaining the same outcome in correction of iron parameters in treatment of iron deficiency anemia.
Anemia due to gastrointestinal blood loss can occur due to many conditions and rarely to bowel structural anomalies. We report a 12 years old girl with anemia due to small bowel duplication cyst, posing diagnostic challenge intra operatively. Surgery offered cure without recurrence of bleeding. Common symptoms can be due to a rare surgical condition in practice.
Emerging evidence indicates that micronutrient deficiency could play a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of many chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, kidney disease, cancer, anemia and other cardio-metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases through the induction of Insulin resistance (IR). However, there are still gaps in our scientific knowledge regarding the links between micronutrient deficiencies, IR, and cardio metabolic disorders. This review provides current information on recent advances and a global perspective regarding the relationship between micronutrient deficiency, IR, and cardio metabolic disorders. Empirical evidence indicates that deficiencies in either micronutrients associated with insulin activity (such as Chromium, manganese, magnesium, and iron) or antioxidant enzyme cofactors (such as vitamin A, copper, zinc, and manganese) could impact several physiological processes leading to a cascade of metabolic and biochemical derangements such as B-cell apoptosis, loss of islet cell mass, defective tyrosine kinase activity, oxidative stress, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, reduction in lean body mass, defective insulin signaling mechanism, elevated protein kinase C activity, and excess intracellular calcium. Collaboratively, these states of metabolic malfunctioning are associated with IR, which triggers the onset of many cardio metabolic diseases. Undoubtedly, the prevention of micronutrient deficiency may indeed ameliorate the incidence of IR and cardio-metabolic disorders in those at risk and in the general population.
Background: In sickle cell anemia (SCA), compromise of the renal vasculature due to sickled red cells has been recognized.
Objectives: To assess the renal function and blood pressure pattern in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) presenting in a tertiary institution.
Method: A cross-sectional study of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) over six months involving the use of questionnaires, general physical examination, blood pressure, investigations for haemoglobin genotype, urinalysis, serum creatinine, screening for hepatitis B and HIV.
Results: 51 children with SCA were seen. The prevalence of impaired renal function as defined by reduced eGFR <90mL/min/1.73m2 in this study was 27.5%, previous hospital admission and blood transfusion were associated with reduction in eGFR but blood pressure did not have significant correlation with the eGFR. The overall mean age at diagnosis of SCA was 4.09 ± 3.33 (years).
Conclusion: Impaired renal function is a major comorbid condition in children with SCA. In countries/locations where there is no newborn screening for sickle cell disease, diagnosis is delayed, thus detecting impaired renal function may be delayed, therefore the need for early detection and management is imperative.Introduction
Background: Pure red cell aplasia is characterized by anemia, reticulocytopenia and diminished bone marrow erythroid precursors. It has multifactorial etiology and consequently several therapeutic interventions.
Case: In August 2017, a young patient was diagnosed to have pure red cell aplasia. She was given immunosuppressive therapy for approximately two months but this treatment was stopped due to intolerance. Later on she developed herpes zoster infection that was treated with valacyclovir. Subsequently, it was noted that the patient became blood transfusion independent due to normalization of her hemoglobin and regeneration of the erythroid precursors in the bone marrow.
Discussion: Varicella zoster virus behaves differently from other members of the herpes group of viruses such as cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. Two retrospective studies, performed in patients with malignant hematological disorders and bone marrow failure, have shown that infection with the virus may cause stimulation of the three cell lines in the bone marrow and superior overall survival.
Conclusion: The outcome of the patient presented confirms the findings of the two studies showing long-term beneficial effects of varicella zoster virus infections in immunocompromised individuals.
Background: Like other viruses, the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) appears to be responsible for several autoimmune complications. The occurrence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia has been described in several case reports. This AIHA was also noticeable by the important number of blood transfusions required for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients. By investigating RBC coating autoantibodies, this article attempts to clarify the autoimmune aspect of the anemia in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Results: A large population of COVID-19 patients selected at Saint-Luc University Hospital showed an average of 44% DAT positivity. In this population, the intensive care patients were more prone to DAT positivity than the general ward patients (statistically significant result). The positive DAT appeared « transmissible » to other RBCs via COVID-19 DAT-positive patient’s plasma.
Conclusion: The strongest hypothesis explaining this observation is the targeting of cryptic antigens by autoantibodies in COVID-19 patients.
Background: Leukemia is frequently associated with fundoscopic abnormalities. However, no organized effort has been made for analyzing leukemic retinopathy in our country. This study was done to observe the demographic profile and correlation between fundoscopic findings of retinal exudates and hematological parameters in leukemic patients.
Materials and Methods: The study was a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study among 50 leukemic patients in Medicine and Oncology departments of Bangladesh Medical College and Hospital (BMCH) from May, 2020 to October, 2020. Fundoscopic examination was done which was reviewed by an ophthalmologist. Collected data was analyzed statistically by using SPSS-17 (Chicago, Illinois).
Results: Among 50 leukemic patients’, the fundal lesion was detected in 32 patients (64%), retinal exudates are rare. Only 3 patients (6%) had exudates while others (29 patients, 58%) have retinal hemorrhages. Exudates did not show any statistically significant relationship with types of leukemia (p value = 0.53). There was no statistically significant association between fundal exudates and high white cell count (p = 0.56) or low hemoglobin level (p = 0.11) or low platelet level (p = 0.11).
Conclusion: This study has identified retinopathy occurring frequently in leukemic patients. Therefore, an adequate attention should be paid at fundoscopic evaluation while treating leukemic patients.
Background: The treatment of chronic lymphoid leukemia currently uses news drugs which are more expensive in our countries. Its why, the results of chemotherapy remains a challenge in our sector.
Aims: To evaluate the place of polychemotherapy in the treatment of chronic lymphoid leukemia in black Africa.
Methods: It was a prospective, descriptive, analytic and non-comparative study, concerning the records of patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia treated and followed at the department of clinical hematology in Abidjan.
Results: We included 56 patients. The average age was 62 years with extremes of 38 and 84 years. The sex ratio was 0.8 in favor of female. The clinical signs noted a tumor syndrome among which splenomegaly, classified stage III (46, 43%) and adenopathy (64, 29%). Biologically, we observed a blood lymphocytosis (50%), an anemia (39.29%) and a thrombocytopenia (62.50%). The majority of patients were classified stage A of BINET (51.79%). The COP protocol (44.64%) and the monochemotherapy with chlorambucil (39.29%) were the most used. The therapeutic response of polychemotherapy was low (12.5%) compared to 35, 71% for monochemotherapy (p = 0.0001) with overall survival significantly better in monochemotherapy. The outcome of patients used polychemotherapy were more adverse that of patients used chlorambucil alone (p = 0,003). The overall probability of survival at 12 months was 90, 9% for patients who used monochemotherapy and 63, 4% for polychemotherapy.
Conclusion: Polychemotherapy in chronic lymphoid leukemia of black African has an adverse therapeutic response hence the interest of using new therapeutic possibilities.
Background: Macitentan significantly improves pulmonary hemodynamics and survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Its beneficial effect, however, may be blunted due to the adverse impacts such as anemia and peripheral edema. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a significant consequence of congenital heart disease (CHD). Its presence and severity are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We tried to evaluate that the effectiveness of the macitentan in patients with late-onset pulmonary hypertension after atrial septal defect operation in our center.
Methods: The effect of a single dose of macitentan (10 mg) on pulmonary hemodynamics, functional capacity was examined in four patients with late-onset pulmonary hypertension after atrial septal defect operation.
Results: The macitentan significantly improved mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), cardiac output (CO), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), right ventricle systolic wave(RVS’), 6-minute walking test and NT-proBNP levels compared with before treatment.
Conclusions: Macitentan can be used in patients with late-onset pulmonary hypertension after shunt operation especially atrial septal defect.
In this article, we describe the case of a fifty-year-old patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) with constitutional symptoms, jaundice, unquantified fever and progressive dyspnea. The patient had history of smoking and Hepatitis A and following a physical exam she was found in a regular condition, icteric but with no other further signs. Her laboratory tests revealed hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 8.5 g/dL, an increase of total and indirect bilirubin, an elevated ferritin, a decreased transferrin and haptoglobin and a positive result for direct Coomb’s test. Considering this, an immune profile was ordered finding a negative result of ANAs and ENAs and a decrease of complement C3 and C4. The patient was diagnosed with AIHA and as an initial step a corticosteroid treatment was administrated however the patient showed no clinical nor chemical improvement. At her third day of hospitalization, she was unstable hemodynamically requiring transfer to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to optimize management. After 24 hours on ICU, due to persistence of deterioration of the patient, it was decided to manage with erythropoietin (EPO). In the following days, the patient showed a rise in her hemoglobin and an overall improvement made possible the transfer to hospitalization service. The AIHA is an uncommon disease and is not the first option that comes to mind with these symptoms, currently there are not controlled studies to the treatment due to its complexity and the heterogeneity of the results. We strongly support the use of EPO in refractory cases of this pathology.
Background: The measures are being put in place for the management of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Hargeisa, Somaliland among pregnant women remain the most vulnerable to develop chronic hepatitis. Routine screening in pregnant women is therefore necessary for effective control. However, the performance of the commonly used the HBsAg sero test strips has been available. Also, identifying the risk factors of transmission in pregnant women is importance for the implementation of preventive measures. Hence, the goal of this study was to determining seroprevalence and associated risk factors with HBV infection among pregnant women.
Material & Methods: The study area was carried out at Hargeisa group hospital in Somaliland from May 2018 up to December 2018. The researcher was collected research pregnancy woman data through questionnaire & used diagnostics methods such as Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test, antibodies test (HBsAb) by used anti-card test and ELIZA system. In order to find specific full information’s about patients & relationship the associated risk factors with hepatitis B in pregnancy. Data processed and analyzed by used both words and SPSS package. The sample size investigated was 80 patients. Of these, 28 were excluded; among the reasons for exclusion were prior HBV vaccination and known HBsAg sero-positive status.
Aims of Study: The study was designed & aimed to determine seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women. To assess and establish if there is significant relationship between blood transfusion and hepatitis B virus at Hargeisa group hospital (HGH).
Results and Discussion: The results in the current study shown that the pregnancy with hepatitis BV and it relation with appeared some symptoms in our study was 24(46.15%) of patients appeared they have cirrhosis symptom, 12(23.08%) of patients answered they have liver failure, while 9(17.31%) of patients appeared yellowish of eyes & skin and 5(9.62%) showed hepatic cancer.
Overall, HBV prevalence: HBsAg was detected in fifteen 15(31.3%) of the participants while all fifteen (100%) had total HBcAb (both IgM and IgG). Of the HBsAg sero-positive women, 26(42.7%) were positive for HBeAg; eight (13.3%) were positive for HBeAb and four 4(9%) were negative for both HBeAg and HBeAb which was close similar with other previous studies. On the other hand, We found identify statistically significant p-values < 0.05 and high relationship between HBV and some demographic and clinical risk factors such as blood transfusions, levels of knowledge about HBV infection in addition to age and marital status.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the seroprevalence of HBV infections in pregnant women and it relationship with blood transfusion in Hargeisa Group Hospital, Hargeisa, Somaliland is high. However, further studies are needed to assess the role of other demographic and clinical risk. Urgent action is required to improve hepatitis B infection control measures to reduce dependence on blood transfusions and make new policies for treatment of anemia in HGH
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) carries high morbidity and mortality. Advances in endovascular techniques in the last two decades allow for minimally invasive approach for repair of these aneurysms. A succinct but comprehensive pre-operative is essential for delivery of a safe anesthetic for the patient with rAAA. Placement of proximal occlusion balloon in the descending aorta using the rapid control technique can be life-saving. Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) can be performed under monitored anesthesia care using local anesthetic and IV sedation, and with fewer invasive lines. However, rapid conversion to general endotracheal anesthesia should be expected. Anesthesiologists should be familiar with the hemodynamic management of rAAA and be ready to provide resuscitation to correct for anemia, coagulopathy, and acidemia. In addition, the anesthesiologist should be aware of the common complications related to EVAR, including abdominal compartment syndrome, distal ischemia, and local vessel injury.
Background: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired hematologic condition which could be revealed by deep venous thrombosis. It could be fatal unless correctly treated.
Case report: We report here the case of a 28 year-old male with no medical history who was admitted to the emergency room for severe abdominal pain. Computerized Tomography angiography (CT) scan revealed portal vein thrombosis. Laboratory findings showed pancytopenia with severe regenerative normocytic anemia resulting in PNH. Because of the lack of Eculizumab, treatment was first based on curative anticoagulation until bone marrow transplant, with no success.
Conclusion: PNH remains a severe disease with bad prognosis unless treated with Eculizumab.
Jan Jacques Michiels*, King H Lam, Fibo Ten Kate, Dong-Wook Kim, Myungshin Kim, Vasily Shuvaev, Francisca Valster, Vincent Potters, Wilfried Schroyens, Mihaela Andreescu, Adrian Trifa, Achille Pich and Hendrik De Raeve
The Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) of trilinear polycythemia vera (PV) and megakaryocytic leukemia (ML = primary megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation: PMGM) and Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) in the studies of Dameshek and Michiels are caused by the MPN driver mutations JAK2V617F, JAK2exon12, CALR and MPL515 discovered by Constantinescu-Vainchenker, Green and Kralovics. The JAK2V617F mutated trilinear myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) include a broad spectrum of clinical laboratory and bone marrow features in essential thrombocythemia (ET), prodromal PV and erythrocythemic PV, classical PV and advanced stages of masked PV and PV complicated by splenomegaly and secondary myelofibrosis (MF). Heterozygous JAK2V617F mutated ET is associated with low JAK2 allele and MPN disease burden and normal life expectance. In combined heterozygous and homozygous or homozygous JAK2V617F mutated trilinear PV, the JAK2 mutation load increases from less than 50% in prodromal PV and classical PV to above 50% up to 100% in hypercellular PV, advanced PV and PV with MF. Bone marrow histology show diagnostic features of eryhrocytic, megakaryocytic and granulocytic (EMG) myeloproliferation in JAK2V617F mutated trilinear MPN, which clearly differs from monolinear megakaryocytic (M) myelproliferation in MPL and CALR thrombocythemia and dual megakaryocytic granulocytic (MG) myeloproliferation in CALR mutated thrombocythemia. The morphology of clustered large pleomorphic megakaryocytes with hyperlobulated nuclei are similar in JAK2V617F thrombocythemia, prodromal PV and classical PV patients. Monolinear megakaryocytic (M) myeloproliferation of large to giant megakaryocytes with hyperlobulated staghorn-like nuclei is the hallmark of MPL515 mutated normocellular thrombocythemia. CALR mutated thrombocythemia usually presents with high platelet count around 1000x109/l and normocellular megakaryocytic (M) proliferation of immature megakaryocytes with cloud-like hyperchromatic nuclei followed by dual megakaryocytic granulocytic (MG) myeloproliferation followed by various degrees of bone marrow fibrosis. Natural history and life expectancy of MPN patients are related to the response to treatment and the degree of anemia, splenomegaly, myelofibrosis and constitutional symptoms. The acquisition of epigenetic mutations at increasing age on top of MPN disease burden independently predict unfavorable outcome in JAK2V617F, MPL515 and CALR mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs, which mutually exclude each other).
Background:Patients with end-stage renal disease are suspected to have significant volume shifts and thereby cardiovascular strain as a result to interdialytic weight gain, chronic fluid overload and fluid removal during dialysis. In long-term hemodialysis patients, higher IDWG (interdialytic weight gain) could be associated with poor survival. Patients with the lowest interdialytic weight gain have the greatest survival. Certain laboratory and imaging modalities could help to assess and monitor the appropriate fluid balance for hemodialysis patients.
FGF -23 might be associated with cardiovascular morbidity in ESRD patients.
Objective: To evaluate correlation between hypervolemia and left ventricular hypertrophy and FGF-23 in hemodialysis patients.
Patients and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 60 prevalent hemodialysis patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to interdialytic weight gain (IDWG): Group I (low IDWG): Patients with absolute weight gain < 3 kg. Group II (high IDWG): patients with weight gain ≥ 3 kg. FGF 23, routine laboratory tests and echocardiography were done for both groups.
Results: high IDWG group has higher systolic blood pressure and LVMI than low IDWG group. In all patients group, FGF-23 had a positive correlation with (weight gain, Na, PO4, PTH, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, LV wall septal and posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass index) and had a negative correlation with Hb level.
Conclusion: FGF-23 could be a marker of volume overload and LVH in ESRD patients, which affect morbidity and mortality in these patients.
FGF- 23 might be a marker of anemia in ESRD as it has a negative correlation with HB.
Anas Diab*, Parravani Anthony, Hollie Berryman and Kareem Diab
Published on: 14th July, 2021
Atheroembolic disease (AED), or Cholesterol Crystals Embolism, is a systemic disease presented as a complication of severe atherosclerosis , where older age, male sex, diabetes hypercholesterolemia, smoking and hypertension , are the main risk factors for the development of Atherosclerosis, it is known that spontaneous atherosclerotic renal disease is rare in the absence of any vascular intervention , and in the absence of anticoagulant , or the absence of calcified aorta, with the most common presentation of the disease is subacute kidney injury progress into renal dysfunction occurs in like a staircase pattern and the renal dysfunction is usually observed several weeks after a possible intervention, caused by dislodging the micro cholesterol plaques from a major artery, and start showering multiple organs causing micro and macro embolic phenomena.
In our case, we report acute kidney injury on a previously stable kidney disease in a female with diabetes mellitus type 2 presented with severe anemia, dyspnea, massive fluid overload with bilateral pleural effusion, patient had a history of multiple IV contrast exposures, with peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD), required amputation of right below the knee amputation, presented during the COVID-19 pandemic, found with nephrotic syndrome, a kidney biopsy has shown cholesterol crystal embolization compatible with Athero-embolic Disease with severe Diabetic Nephropathy.
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