Tilmicosin (TMC) is a semi synthetic macrolide antibiotic of tylosin derivatives commonly used by veterinaries, has been shown to reveal beneficial pharmacological activities. In the current study, the potential wound healing activity, Anti-oxidant effect (ulcer and hepatoprotective) were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic (central and peripheral), hypnotic and antispasmodic activity were also screened. This study included adult both sexes of rats (200-250 gm), mice (20-25 gm) and adult rabbits. Experimental wound was induced on the anterior-dorsal side of each rat whereas, ulcer induced by ethanol causing mucosal damage in rats. The oral anti-inflammatory induced through formalin producing edema, antipyretic (Brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia) and analgesic (writhing test, hot plate method, tail immersion method) while hypnotic effects induced through thiopental sodium. Anti-spasmodic effect on isolated organs (intestinal and uterine muscles) using new method of Modular Single Chamber Organ Bath were carried out on experimental animals. Tilmicosin antibiotic at different two doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg b.wt., has an important role in treatment of ulcer (cytoprotective effect) and improvement the wound healing processes besides anti-inflammatory, analgesics, and anti-pyretic effects. Tilmicosin revealed also hypnotic and intestinal anti-spasmodic effects but showed Pharmacovigilence hepatotoxic effect through the histopathological studies which revealed sever hepatic damage especially at larger dose.
Background: Dysmenorrhea is menstrual disorder that affects about 40% - 90% of women worldwide, it is associated with oxidative stress. The current treatment of this condition is administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which when frequently used, may affect organs.
Objective: Assess the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity side effects related to dysmenorrhea and its treatment
Materials and methods: A survey (questionnaire) was designed and implemented on 689 female students of the University of Dschang. After this, and following the inclusion criteria, 191 blood samples were collected for assay of hepatotoxicity markers (transaminases, albumin), nephrotoxicity indicators (creatinine, urea, total protein) and the inflammation associated indicators. The measurements were performed on fully automated Olympus AU 400 Analyzer, using standard reagent kits.
Results: Subjects with untreated dymenorrhea lasting more than five years had a significantly high level (p < 0.05) of ALT (39.47 ± 15.74 IU/L) and AST (44.37 ± 13.74 IU/L). Transaminases levels were significantly associate (p < 0.01) and positively correlate (0.251 for ALT and 0. 223 for AST) with the disease duration. Dysmenorrheic individuals on medication for more than 9 years had significantly higher ALT (25.14 ± 7.85 IU/L) and AST (35.26 ± 0.70 IU/L) levels (p < 0.05) compared to those under treatment for less than 5 years (19.37 ± 8.27 UI/L and 27.68 ± 8.56 UI/L). The use of analgesics, regardless of the duration of treatment, had normal creatinine clearance (107.44 ± 30.86 ml/min), compared to those treated with either anti-inflammatory drugs (71.56 ± 26.44 ml/min), or a combination of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs (81.34 ± 31.97 ml/min), which was significantly reduced (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea duration, type and duration of treatment potentially expose participants to liver and kidney disorders.
Cissus quadrangularis a succulent vine belongs to Vitaceae family is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world and used frequently to various disorders. The plant has been reported to contain flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols, glycosides and rich source of calcium. This study aims to bring a systematic review of C. quadrangularis in various pharmacological mechanisms. Evidence from the previous studies suggested the efficacy of C. quadrangularis with antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, bone turnover, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective activities. In conclusion, Cissus quadrangularis appears worthy of pharmacological investigations for new drug formulations.
Artocarpus (Moraceae) is a deciduous tree with appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit and is widely used in folk medicines. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus heterophyllus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds. This review indents to compile various studies on A. heterophyllus and critically evaluates its ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological properties. Several pharmacological studies from A. heterophyllus have conclusively established their mode of action in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Based on the available data, it is concluded that Artocarpus as a promising source of useful products and opens up new avenues for novel therapeutics.
Background: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) effects can shift immune responses toward anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic phenotypes, potentially helping patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS).
Methods: We evaluated the effect of infusing allogeneic MSC intravenously in 9 patients with moderate BOS refractory to standard therapy who were not candidates for retransplant, dividing them into 3 dosing groups: Group 1, 1×106 MSC/kg (n=3); Group 2, 2×106 MSC/kg (n=3); and Group 3, 4×106 MSC/kg (n=3). We recorded pulmonary function tests, laboratory variables, and serum biomarkers pre- and post-MSC infusion.
Results: These patients had significant decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over 1 year pre-MSC infusion (mean ± SD) FVC, 3.11±0.98 L, and FEV1 1.99+0.64 L versus FVC 2.58±1.03 and FEV1 1.61±0.52 just before infusion (P<0.05); representing a mean loss of 530 mL in FVC and 374 mL in FEV1 over 12 months. One year post-MSC infusion, mean FVC and FEV1 increased to 2.66±1.01 L and 1.63±0.55 L, respectively (changes no longer significant compared to before MSC infusion). Patients in Group 1 showed elevation of tolerance-inducing T regulatory cells and increased levels of epidermal growth factor. Tolerance-inducing Th-2 cytokines increased in Groups 1 and 2. These changes were not significantly different in these small sub-groups.
Conclusion: MSC infusion appears to slow down or reverse the progressive decline in lung function in some patients with moderate BOS, possibly by inducing anti-inflammatory effects and promoting cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
We present below a mechanistic molecular approach for development of Anti-Inflammatory biomarkers of Probiotic Bacteria in Fermented Foods. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote human health by counteracting the noxious toxic gut microflora in human intestine, by modulating of the tight junctions, and by increasing mucin production, enforcing intestinal epithelial cell barrier function, modifying microbial community within the gut intestinal disorders, and improving immune responses associated with chronic inflammation in experimental animal models, collectively enhancing human health. Cytokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages are regulated by probiotics through key signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated kinases, resulting in alleviation of several disorders such as allergies, diabetes, obesity, heart diseases and cancer. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression by inhibiting gene translation. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches in cell lines and mice models to study effects of probiotic conditional media and heat-killed bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory effect to elucidate the mechanisms by which probiotics affect signaling pathways, and by using global cytokine and microRNA gene expression analyses arrroaches to develop biomarkers for studying different pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, and using statistical approaches to analyse the data, we show that cytokines and miRNAs have an essential role in regulation of cancerous and inflammatory bathways. This mechanistic approach will result in developing specific disease biomarkers for the early diagnosis of certain pathogenic states, as well as evaluating the effect of different dietary componenents on developed biomarkers in health states that will promote and enhance human health. Comparing the concordance of the in vitro to the in vivo research findings will confirm the correspondence of both approaches to each other. Moreover, this study will have a major public health relevance in elucidating the role of miRNAs and their targets in inflammation, paving the way to diagnosing and treating of pathogenic human disease stages.
Irvine-Gass syndrome, is one of the most common causes of painless decrease in vision following even uneventful cataract surgery. It usually responds well to medical therapy, but, there are no widely acceptedconsensus on the efficacy of various therapeutic options for the treatment of Irvine-Gass syndrome. The patient presenting in this case report, has systemic hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and he use oral anti-hypertension medication and inhaler steroid. He diagnosed as Irvine-Gass syndrome due to presence of decrease in visual acuity and macular edema with hyporeflective cystic intraretinal spaces in optical coherence tomography (OCT) since4th weekcontrol visitfollowing uneventful cataract surgery. After the responsiveness of several medications including topical steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF), intravitreal sustained-release dexamethasone implant was applied. The visual acuity improved to 0.00 logMAR at 1st month after intravitreal dexamethasone therapy and consecutive OCT images showed complete resolution of macular edema with a normalization of the foveal profile.The visual acuity and foveal architecture remained stable in 2-year follow-up period and additional treatment was not needed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reportthatmentions the increment of visual acuity after a single dexamethasone implant, even though it did not response anti-VEGF combined with topical steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Cystoid macular edema is a common cause for unexplained painless vision loss after cataract surgery. Even the pathogenesis of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) still remains undefined, it can most frequently occur in eyes with high vasoactive profile, had complicated cataract surgery such as posterior capsule rupture and risk of inflammation. Increased inflammation, ultimately leading to the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier and cystic accumulation of extracellular intraretinal fluid. The natural history of PCME is spontaneous resolution without any treatment in most of patient, but it may take weeks or months, in addition permanent visual morbidity may occur in some cases. Therefore there is lack of consensus regarding treatment approach for this common ocular condition.
In this review treatment alternatives of PCME and its relation with underlying patho-physiologic mechanism are evaluated.
Understanding the obesity-related genes may provide future therapeutic strategies to modulate disease progression. UCP2 separates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) from ATP production in the inner mitochondria. Figure 1 shows the differences among UCP1, 2, 3. The main role of UCP2 is controlling the metabolism of energy in the cells [1-3]. Besides that, the expression of UCP2 is associated with chronic inflammation due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this regard, in injured cells and tissues, ROS could be decreased by reducing the proton motor force by the anti-inflammatory effect of UCP2 .
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death and its prevalence and incidence is also related to smoking behavior . COPD is still a chronic inflammatory and progressive disease caused by multifactorial agents including environmental pollutants . Besides that, it is emerging that endogenous epigenetic factors induced by lifestyle and environment  could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease .
In the last years, several authors suggested that low vitamin D levels seem to be related with the increase of COPD manifestations . Moreover, a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial documented that vitamin D supplementation protects against moderate or severe exacerbation of the disease, but not by upper respiratory infections . However, low levels of vitamin D can be extended to many other diseases, including multiple sclerosis, diabetes, colon rectal cancer, headache or drug use [7-11]. Moreover, it is also important to remember that Vitamin D deficiency is common in high latitude regions, such as northern Europe, New Zealand, northern USA, and Canada where weaker ultraviolet B rays is not able to produce enough vitamin D. Finally, methodological factors (using low sensitivity methods) could contribute to misleading evaluation of circulating vitamin D levels. In any case, here we shall remind that vitamin D has a fundamental role in immunity . In particular, it has been reported that vitamin D is able to shift the pro-inflammatory T-helper cell 1 to anti-inflammatory T-helper cell 2 . Therefore, benefits of vitamin D supplementation in chronic diseases which directly or indirectly affect immune system are obvious. Today, the burden of COPD in never smokers is higher than previously believed. Therefore, more research is needed to unravel the characteristics of non-smokers COPD . Notably, vitamin D levels are reported to be significantly lower in smoker’ssubjects than in non-smokers ones . Therefore, low plasma vitamin D levels in COPD seems to be more a causality than a correlation.
Background: Herbal essential oil contains pharmacological benefits for intervention treatment of various diseases. Studies have demonstrated its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effect involving in vitro cell culture and preclinical animal models. It has been also traditionally used to reduce anxiety and hypertension in human. However, scientific studies elucidating its mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, as well as its effectiveness and safety as phytotherapeutic compounds are still progressing. Recent studies showed its promising effect in depression-cardiovascular disease intervention. However, comprehensive evaluations to enlighten latest advancement and potential of herbal essential oil are still lacking.
Objective: In this systematic review, the depression-cardiovascular effects of herbal essential oil on lipid profile, biochemical and physiological parameters (e.g haemodynamic) are presented. The route of delivery and mechanism of action as well as main bioactive compounds present in respective essential oil are discussed.
Methods: Article searches are made using NCBI PubMed, PubMed Health, SCOPUS, Wiley Online, tandfonline, ScienceDirect and Espacenet for relevant studies and intellectual properties related to essential oil, depression and cardiovascular disease.
Results: In experimentation involving in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials, herbal essential oil showed its effectiveness in reducing coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries), heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias, heart failure, heart valve disease, congenital heart disease, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), pericardial disease, aorta disease, Marfan syndrome and vascular (blood vessel) disease.
Conclusion: This review gives a valuable insight on the potential of essential oil in the intervention of depression associated with cardiovascular diseases. Studies showed that herbal essential oil could act as vasodepressor, calcium channel blocker, antihyperlipidemia, anticoagulant, antiatherogenesis and antithrombotic. It can be proposed as an interventional therapy for depression-cardiovascular disease to reduce doses and long-term side-effect of current pharmacological approach.
Inflammation is a complex biological reaction induced by the alteration of tissue homeostasis, which occurs in response to the presence of a biological, chemical or physical agent in the body . The acute inflammatory response is composed of an elaborate cascade of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, and balance between these mediators often determines the outcome after injury . Generally during acute inflammation, cellular and molecular events and interactions reduce the risk of eventual injuries or infections. However, acute inflammation can become chronic, contributing to a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases . Major micro circulatory events that occur during the inflammatory process include changes in vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment and accumulation, and inflammatory mediator’s release .
The outbreak of new coronavirus acute respiratory disease (SARS-CoV-2) has been a major global challenge for the scientific community to save humanity. While, the unviability of the vaccine keeps most classes of society, especially African countries, suffer from the healthcare problem. Conventional medicine plants become the alternative method for the therapeutic because it contains valuable bioactive compounds. This brief review devoted the importance of medicinal plants such as Citrus, olive, garlic, ginger, green tea, woad, broad-leaf privet, Japanese torreya, and saffron crocus, by their antiviral effects (anti-SARS coronavirus, anti-HSV, and anti-HIV diseases) and their promising uses as probable boosters of the immune and anti-inflammatory response from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on scientific reports, bioactive compounds could inhibit 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease and human protein ACE2, where these facts can be attractive to develop effective drugs.
Ephedra, an ancient herb, is applied to treat common cold and influenza for such a long time in China. Pseudoephedrine is a main active ingredient from Ephedra which is used for relieving nasal congestion clinically. We previously reported that pseudoephedrine showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect other than sympathomimetic effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether pseudoephedrine could protect mice from the H1N1 virus infection. The mice were infected with a 20% LD50 influenza A virus (IAV) suspension via intranasal administration to establish a virus infection model. Further, the mice were orally administered pseudoephedrine or oseltamivir for 4 days from one day after infection. Our results showed that pseudoephedrine improved lung pathological damage during the IVA infection period, and it dramatically increased the survival rate and attenuated loss of body weight compared with the virus-infected control group. In addition, pseudoephedrine inhibited the cytokine storms and mRNAs expression of the TLR7 signaling pathway. Surprisingly, pseudoephedrine showed an inhibitory effect on the replication of IAV. These results give clear evidence that pseudoephedrine is a potential anti-influenza drug by blunting cytokine storms and inhibition of replication of IAV, and following these results, we speculate that it should be tested in the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19, a severe epidemic in China currently) in which the cytokine storms play a key role to damage bronchi and lung in the early stage.
Background: The development of COVID-19 having been set apart as the third presentation of an exceptionally pathogenic coronavirus into the human populace after the extreme intense SARS-COV and MERS-COV in the twenty-first century. The infection itself doesn’t make a crucial commitment to mortality, anyway “cytokine storm” created by the unreasonable invulnerable reaction activated by the virus can result in a hyperinflammatory response of lung tissues and deadly lung injury, and in this way increment death rate. In this manner, immunomodulatory medications ought to likewise be remembered for treatment of COVID-19.
Presentation of the hypothesis: the virus particles invade the respiratory mucosa firstly and infect other cells, triggering a series of immune responses and the production of cytokine storm in the body, which may be associated with the critical condition of COVID-19 patients. Once a cytokine storm is formed, the immune system may not be able to kill the virus, but it will certainly kill many normal cells in the lung, which will seriously damage the of lung function. Patients will have respiratory failure until they die of hypoxia. It is not yet clear what the death rate of Covid-19 will be, though the best estimate right now is that it is around 1 percent, 10 times more lethal than seasonal flu due to cytokines storm which trigger a violent attack by the immune system to the body, cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure, and finally lead to death in severe cases of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, inhibiting cytokine storm can significantly reduce inflammatory injury in lung tissues.
Pyridostigmine (PDG), cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is a neural mechanism that modulates inflammation through the release of acetylcholine (ACh), resulting in decreased synthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1. This finding emphasis, the nervous and immune systems work collaboratively during infection and inflammation.
Implications of the hypothesis: Administrations of Pyridostigmine (PDG) as cholinergic agonist inhibits the inflammatory response and lower the mortality of COVID-19 patients. Likewise, activation of the CAP during systemic inflammation down-regulates the production and release of inflammatory cytokines.
Background: Although illegal, Ghana has a long history of cannabis use. With changing perceptions, advocacy for legalization has increased globally. This study exams pharmacological evidence on the prospects and challenges of decriminalization and /or legalization of cannabis in Ghana.
Results: Cannabis and cannabinoids are a “pharmacological enigma” with unique ability to activate at least 3 of the 4 drug receptor super families. This include; inotropic Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), metabotropic Cannabinoid Receptors (CB) and nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptors (PPAR). Cannabinoid receptors also dimerize with other receptors creating distinctly new signaling pathways. Cannabis and cannabinoids show good anti- nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant anti-emetogenic activity and variable anticonvulsant activity. It can play important role in palliative care, some rare intractable epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cachexia and Opioid Use Disorder. Cannabis precipitates psychosis in individuals with underlying genetic susceptibility. Chronic cannabis use alter the neurobiology of adolescent brain, predisposing them to amotivational syndrome characterized by depersonalization and inhibited motivation for goal directed behavior. Cannabis is also a “gateway drug”; ushering users to “harder” substances of abuse and reinstating extinguished drug seeking behaviours. The recent tramadol abuse in Ghana may have been precipitated by previous and concurrent cannabis use. Furthermore, Ghana’s cannabis may have a higher propensity to induce detrimental effects because of preferential accumulation the psychotropic delta-9-Tetrathydrocannabinol as a result of the high tropical temperature and humidity.
Conclusion: There is not sufficient pharmacological evidence supporting criminalization of medical cannabis in Ghana. However, the same evidence does not support legalization of recreational cannabis.
Background: Combination of extracts from multiple plants are typically used in ethnomedicine to putatively offer more potent chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects than that of individual extracts from single plants. Aqueous extracts from two multipurpose plants Strophanthus hispidus (roots) and Aframomum meleguta (seeds) are topically co-administered in the nasal cavities for the ethnomedicinal management of chronic sinusitis.
Aim: This study assessed the potential phytochemical synergy between constituent extracts of Strophanthus hispidus (roots) and Aframomum meleguta (seeds) in its anti-inflammation, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant effects.
Methods and Materials: Broth dilution assay assessed anti-microbial activities. DPPH radical scavenging assay examined the scope of anti-oxidant activities and inhibition of carrageenan-induced 7-day old chick feet oedema revealed anti-inflammatory activities.
Results: Anti-microbial activities of individual plant extracts in broth dilution assay showed comparable potency to that of the co-extract mixture. Similarly, individual extracts showed levels of DPPH radical scavenging activities in anti-oxidant assay that was comparable to those found for the co-extract mixture. In contrast to these two effects, inhibition of carrageenan-induced 7-day old chick feet oedema revealed an anti-inflammatory activity evoked by co-extract mixtures that was greater than the sum of the individual potencies of the two extracts.
Conclusion: The potential phytochemical synergy of the two plants extracts in its anti-inflammatory response largely validates ethnomedicinal practice and generally confirms growing literature reports that ascribe the net pharmacological activities of herbal extracts to the combined multi-activities of unique phytochemical entities at multiple target sites.
Burns injuries induce a state of immunodepression that predisposes to a bacterial infectious complication that leads to several comorbid diseases and high mortality rate. Previous studies about anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Aloe vera (L.) Burm., Calendula officinalis L.and Matricaria recutita L. are acknowledge by antimicrobial effects.
Previous studies about anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Aloe vera (L.) Burm., Calendula officinalis L. and Matricaria recutita L. are knowledge by antimicrobial effects. Bacterial cellulose membrane (nature BCM) is a potential carrier as a drug delivery system in the wound and burn treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts of A. vera, C. officinalis, and M. recutita incorporated in BCM against bacterial strains commonly present in wound and burns. The agar-dilution susceptibility testing was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The standardized extracts of A. vera, M. recutita, and C. officinalis were, respectively, used at 3.25% of total polysaccharides, 1% of apigenin 7-O-glucoside and 0.084% of total flavonoids expressed in quercetin. The BCM incorporated with A. vera extract was efficient to prevent the growth of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. BCM loaded with C. officinalis inhibited the growth of S. aureus. The BCM loaded with A. vera and C. officinalis extract showed better antibacterial activities against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and, consequently, properties to prevent infectious disease in the wound or burn caused by these bacteria.
Lemongrass is a culinary herb with a lemony aroma.it is mostly cultivated in Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and India. It is conventionally used for relieving anxiety, stress and pain. Because of the presence of limonene and citral, lemongrass extracts exhibits antimicrobial, antidandruff and anti-inflammatory effects. However Tea tree extracts are mostly employed in the treatment of dermal, inflammatory and microbial infections.
Zinc induced pediatric preventing respiratory 2019-nCoV is required that supplementation with zinc gluconate 20 mg in Zn deficient children resulted in a nearly twofold reduction of acute lower respiratory infections as well as the time to recovery. Zinc supplementation in children is associated with a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of pneumonia. Preventing 2019-nCoV pneumonia is required that zinc supplementation alone (10 to 20 mg) for more than 3 months significantly reduces in the rate of pneumonia. zinc pediatric intake may be required to be effective range 10～20 mg/d for 2019-CoV prevention, 10～30 mg/d for reduction of COVID-19 bronchitis, and 20～30 mg/d for recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia, in which Zn2+ could bind with viral surface proteins by Zn2+ions-centered tetrahedrally coordination pattern.
On the other hand, for aults, the zinc-homeostatic immune concentration may provide a protective role against the COVID-19 pandemic, likely by improving the host’s resistance against viral infection. 50 mg of zinc per day might provide an additional shield against the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly by increasing the host resistance to viral infection to minimize the burden of the disease. In order to prevent that an outbreak of respiratory sickness caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a serious public threat and disrupted many lives,assessing the efficacy of FDA-approved Zn-ejector drugs such as disulfiram combined with interferon to treat COVID-19 infected patients has been proposed. The key strategies for preventing lung damages include avoiding direct lung infection, altering host-virus interactions, promoting immune responses, diluting virus concentrations in lung tissues by promoting viral migration to the rest of the body, maintaining waste removal balance, protecting heart function and renal function, avoiding other infections, reducing allergic reactions and anti-inflammatory. The interactions had been found on the binding specificity by Zn2+ ions-centered tetrahedral geometric coordination of the inhibitors against 3C and 3C-like proteases. In addition, transient zinc chelation TPEN and EPDTC have been noted as preventing virus replication.
Zinc-induced ROS production in COVID-19 respiratory ailment and pneumonia occurs both in children and adults. In children.
ROS production in zinc (Ⅱ)-immune pediatric patient with COVID-19 bronchitis and pneumonia cannot be elucidated yet. In adults, zinc induced ROS generation in pulmonary COVID-19 infected cells is that alterations of ROS-producing and scavenging pathways that are caused by respiratory viral infections are implicated in inﬂammation, lung epithelial disruption, and tissue damage, and, in some cases, even pulmonary ﬁbrosis. The involvement of oxidative stress in cell deaths caused during RNA virus infection and ROS production is correlated with host cell death.
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