Anxiety

Physical activity can change the physiological and psychological circumstances during COVID-19 pandemic: A narrative review

Published on: 26th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8906001902

Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity. Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise. Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine. Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
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An observational study of the occurrence of anxiety, depression and self-reported quality of life 2 years after myocardial infarction

Published on: 17th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7893782705

Background: Patients with myocardial infarction (MI) often experience anxiety, depression and poor quality of life (QoL) compared with a normative population. Mood disturbances and QoL have been extensively investigated, but only a few studies have examined the long-term effects of MI on these complex phenomena. Aims: To examine the levels and associated predictors of anxiety, depression, and QoL in patients 2 years after MI. Methods: This was a single center, observational study of patients with MI (n=377, 22% women, median age 66 years). Two years after MI (2012-2014), the patients were asked to answer the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaires. Results: Most patients experienced neither anxiety (87%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 83-90%) nor depression (94%, 95% CI: 92-97%) 2 years post-MI. Elderly patients experienced more depression than younger patients (p=0.003) and women had higher anxiety levels than men (p=0.009). Most patients had “no problems” with any of the EQ-5D-3L dimensions (72-98%), but 48% (95% CI: 43%-53%) self-reported at least “some problems” with pain/discomfort. In a multiple logistic regression model (EQ-5D-3L) higher age (p<0.001) and female sex (p<0.001) were associated with more pain/discomfort. Female sex (p=0.047) and prior MI (p=0.038) were associated with anxiety/depression. History of heart failure was associated with worse mobility (p=0.005) and problems with usual activities (p=0.006). The median total health status of the patients (EQ-VAS) was 78 (95% CI: 75-80)
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P wave dispersion in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Published on: 31st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192811430

Background: Growing evidence has revealed that fear and anxiety related situations could affect cardiac parameters. P wave dispersion (Pd) is an important index. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate Pd values in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Methods: The study was composed of twenty-five female patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder and same number of healthy controls. Pd, Pmin and Pmax values were determined by electrocardiogram (ECG) in the subjects. Results: It was found that patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder had considerably higher Pmax and Pmin values compared to those of healthy subjects. Pd was also significantly higher in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorders than that of healthy subjects. Conclusion: Study suggests that patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder seems to have increased Pd, as can be seen in anxiety and fear related clinical conditions, considering that this group of patients have an increased trend to cardiac abnormalities, particularly cardiac arrythmias. To access strong conclusion, it is required novel studies with larger samples.
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Clown language training in Dental education: Dental Student’s Perspective

Published on: 9th May, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286356938

Clowning is a form of humour. It is an art form that invites play, interaction, and laughter. Clown Care is a programme in hospitals and medical centres involving visits from specially trained hospital clowns. Clowning helps patients to focus on something other than their illness. Olsson et al. and Spitzer suggested that clown care could create a warm climate, promote good interpersonal relationships, and relieve feelings of frustration, anxiety, or hostility. Hospital clowns work worldwide as a health humanization resort, providing interplay with patients, family and staff creating a positive emotional state that fosters affirmative environmental conditions. This type of activity varies greatly in terms of professionalism, accountability and artistic methods. Promotion of emotional and psychosocial well-being of patients transcends opportunities for oral health promotion activities in hospitals, schools and community. Previous research reports on clown training reflects attitude-building potential for the healthcare students provided that it is performed in a deep, essential, strict and continuous fashion in a facultative manner rather than mandatory allowing the student to build his own artistic, professional and personal path. Thus, the prospect of introducing training curriculum of this underrated non-technical skill for dental students in Indian dental education system needs to be harnessed.
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Which women uses social Internet networks during pregnancy?

Published on: 31st March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9023198153

Internet has become an important part of our life, including during pregnancy where it is broadly used to find information (84%). The aims of this study were (1) to describe the proportion of women using Internet Social Networks (ISN) concerning their pregnancy, during pre or postpartum hospital stay, (2) to define how ISN users refer to their pregnancy and delivery on these social networks, (3) to compare anxiety level, social sustain level, sociodemographic characteristics of the both population (4) and to determine profiles of the ISN users with multiple correspondence analysis. Methods: 399 questionnaires were distributed in the postpartum wards of two academic hospitals in Paris, and 258 fully filled were retrieved. Tools: Anxiety scale (STAI- A and B), Cutrona Social Provisions Scale, sociodemographic and obstetrical questionnaire. Results: 76% (n = 195) were ISN users. We compared ISN users versus ISN non users women. Demographically, the two populations were comparable. Anxiety scores were similar in both groups, whereas social support scores showed a statistical difference in social integration. In the global population, 84% use Internet for information concerning pregnancy; this rate is higher for ISN users than ISN non users (tendency 0.058). ISN were used in priority for sharing with relatives, and 10% with other pregnant women. Concerning pregnancy, patients posted in priority the birth announcement (28%), the pregnancy announcement (23%), and the newborn’s pictures (12%). 6% posted their fetuses’ ultrasound pictures. Three clusters of ISN users were extracted with statistically different social support scores (p = 0.019) and comparable anxiety scores. The third one, with at risk profile, used ISN as social support. For all women, but specifically for younger and more socially fragile women, Internet gives to professional new perspectives to develop information and prevention tools during the perinatal period.
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Eating habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 lockdown: A comparative study (before and during isolation) on the 9 de Julio city (Buenos Aires, Argentina) population

Published on: 16th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872698108

Following the COVID-19 proliferation beyond China’s borders at the beginning of 2020, containment measures have been taken by different countries around the globe. Citizens were forced to stay at home. Specifically, on March 19th, the Argentine Government decided to implement the “Social, preventive and mandatory isolation”, strategy that unfortunately impacts on the lifestyle, the practise of physical activity and on the nutritional aspect of the population. The aim of this study was analize eating habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 lockdown on the 9 de Julio city, Bs. As., Argentina. The survey was conducted using Google Form. The questionnaire was divided into different sections: sociodemographic data, eating habits, physical activity and concepts and emotions associated with isolation. The research reached 287 responses with a medium socioeconomic level. During isolation, the frequency of purchases decreased. It was observed an increase in the consumption of pasta, bread and cakes. Concerning the physical activity, approximately 70% declared to train before the COVID-19 lockdown, decreased by 13% during the lockdown. Other activities conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown; the most mentioned were cleaning the house, cooking, watching television, series and movies. A percentage greater than 50% of the surveyed population associated the situation of lockdown with positive emotions (share with my family, stay at home); while only 24% associate it with negative emotions (anxiety, anguish, fear). It is expected that most habits will return to normal, however, it would be interesting to know which of those developed, adopted and implemented during lockdown will remain in the new normality.
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Palliative care approach to oncological patient – Main points

Published on: 31st March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8566861688

According to the World Health Organization definition, palliative care is an approach aimed at increasing the quality of life of patients and their relatives by addressing physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs and treating conditions early, such as pain while they are coming to terms with a life-threatening disease [1]. Palliative care services have started a rapid progress in developed countries such as Scandinavian countries, England and Canada since the beginning of 1990 [2]. Although palliative care cares for any patient who is in need of care, whether bed-bound or unable to look after themselves, one of the main area of interest is of course oncological patients and their relatives. Patients with advanced cancer, frequent sufferings from physical and psychological symptoms - primarily pain, reduced functional capacity, and reduced quality of life are in the scope of palliative care protocol [3]. The most common end-of-life symptoms and signs in palliative cancer patients are pain, anorexia, nausea, cachexia, weakness, dyspnea, ascites, anxiety, agitation, delirium, confusion and pressure sores. In order to achieve quality and continuous care in case management, a family doctor, specific branch specialist, nurse, dietician, psychologist, cleric, etc. should work together in a multidisciplinary approach and clinical guidelines and care protocols should be implemented [4]. However, it should be kept in mind that increasing the medication dose may not always be beneficial to the oncological patients in palliative services. The goal should always be maximum benefit with minimal tests and treatment. Palliative care does not aim to accelerate or postpone death; but it has many benefits in cancer patients and their relatives including the integration of the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of patient care into physical care, providing support for patients to live as active as possible until the last moment, improving the quality of life and the disease process, providing help and support in the grieving process [1,5]. Providing good care to advanced cancer patients requires that caregivers are educated and supported about their patients’ physical, psychological and social care needs. Balancing the physical and emotional needs of the caregivers will reduce the stress they experience, as well as increase the quality of life of their patients [6,7]. Professionalism in palliative care comes into play right at this point. There is no consensus in the medical world about by whom, when and to whom palliative care should be given. In this regard, the conflicts of opinion between specific branches such as anesthesia, internal medicine and neurology are inevitable. We think that the team leader should be a family physician or a palliative care specialist. The reason for this is the family medicine’s principles of core competencies including biopsycosocial, holistic, comprehensive approach and equal distance to specific branches. Of course when the palliative care specialist is the team leader the patient’s own family doctor still provides invaluable service because of his intimate and long-term knowledge about the patients. One key difference in some countries is that no distinction is being made between palliative and hospice care. Neither the insurance companies nor the state demands such classification because it doesn’t serve any practical purpose at the moment. However, in due time such distinction will be inevitable as one of the cost-cutting measure. Medical oncology will have to report about the expected survival of the cancer patients and it will further increase their workload given the exponential increase in cancer cases.
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Diseases of the mental sphere revealed by the psychiatrist at contingent of patients of the consultative outpatient admission

Published on: 9th July, 2019

Introduction: The problem of protecting and strengthening the mental health of the population is the most important task of ensuring the socio-economic well-being of the Komi Republic (RK) as an integral part of the Russian Federation (RF), since it is a key resource for the development of a subarctic region. The aim of the work: was to characterize diseases of the mental sphere revealed by the psychiatrist at contingent of patients of the consultative outpatient admission at the 1State Autonomous Health Agency of the Republic of Komi “Consultative and Diagnostic Center of the Republic of Komi” (SAHA RK “CDC”) of the subarctic territory. Materials and methods: The analysis of a continuous sample of 6255 patients of the psychiatrist of the consultative department in 2015-2017 was carried out. on the basis of medical records. Analysis methods included: analytical and statistical. The control group consisted of a continuous sample of 5,356 psychiatric patients in 2010–2012. The depth of the study was 8 years. Discussion: Trends in changes in demographic indicators, including gender and age, in the structure of patients of a psychiatrist in an outpatient consultative procedure are considered. Indicators of the identified pathology of the mental sphere, including the first identified and pathology in patients suffering from epilepsy in comparison with the control group are given. Attention is paid to the organizational and methodological work of an outpatient counseling psychiatrist on the targeted identification by internists of signs of mental pathology in patients referred to a diagnostic center with somatic diseases. Priorities for the improvement of specialized advisory (including psychiatric) assistance to the population of the RK and ensuring its quality were identified. Conclusions: 1. The psychiatrist of the advisory department in 2015-2017. 6255 people were accepted (889 more than in the control group of 2010-2012). The increase was 16.78%. Primary patients account for 64.38% of the total number of people who applied to a psychiatrist (4027 people). 2. In the structure of the psychiatric pathology of the outpatient psychiatric appointment, the proportion of organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00-F09) is 47.9±0.6%; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40-F49) - 39.6±0.6%; mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances (F10-F19) - 3.5±0.2%; mood disorders (affective disorders) (F30-F39) - 2.8±0.2%. 3. The most frequently detected pathologies in patients with epilepsy are: 1) Mild cognitive impairment; 2) Personality disorders; 3) Organic emotionally labile (asthenic) disorders. Their share annually accounts for 71.5%-75.8% of all types of nosological forms. The fourth and fifth ranking places are taken by: 4) Organic anxiety disorders; 5) Non-psychotic depressive disorders. Rarely diagnoses are established: “Organic Amnesia Syndrome” and “Dementia”. 4. Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders prevail in the structure of newly discovered mental disorders; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (up to 87.7%). Mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances and mood disorders (affective disorders) do not exceed 8.4%.
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Implications on mental health by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: The role of general practitioner

Published on: 5th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588739409

Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic gives rise to a significant number of psychological consequences and health problems. The GP must recognize the feelings generated in their patients and address them. This task includes 4 areas: 1. Knowing and managing the epidemic of anxiety and fear in patients; 2. Assessing possible de-compensation of patients with previous mental problems; 3. Knowing and managing effects of quarantine and social distancing; and 4. Knowing and managing possible truncated mourning. The recommendations for GPs intervention are: 1) In the clinical interview (identify maladaptive thoughts and emotions; comprehensive health); 2) Health information (clear, evidence-based communication); 3) Health education (healthy behaviors); 4) Telecare (support, monitoring and attention over the phone, via WhatsApp or video calls); 5) Crisis interventions (psycho education, cognitive behavioral techniques or referral to specialist); 6) Bibliotherapy (free electronic copies for the public); 7) Special efforts directed at vulnerable populations (infected and sick patients, the elderly, with a compromised immune function and those living or receiving care in congregated settings and people with adverse medical, psychiatric or with substance use problems, their families and caregivers); 8) Psychosocial monitoring (stressors related to COVID-19: exposures to infected sources, infected family members, loss of loved ones and physical distancing, secondary adversities such as economic loss, psychosocial effects such as depression, anxiety, psychosomatic concerns, insomnia, increased use of substances and domestic violence, and vulnerability indicators such as pre-existing physical or psychological conditions); and 9) Follow-up of the “complicated” mourning (“accompaniment” and transmit compassion, love and affection).
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Psychological distress in a social media content moderator: A case report

Published on: 12th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8683061313

The expansion of social media platforms has given birth to a specific professional category in charge of « sanitizing » social media and keeping it free of “inappropriate” content. These content moderators, as a result of being constantly exposed to potentially traumatic images, may be at risk of developing stress-related symptoms. Here we present the case of a social media content moderator who experienced intrusive images, anxiety symptoms and insomnia. Literature about this subject is very scarce, while the need is increasing to assess this phenomenon and set up strategies of monitoring, counseling and treating this category of workers. Key points The expansion of social media platforms has given birth to a specific professional category: content moderators. As a result of being constantly exposed to potentially traumatic images, content moderators may be at risk of developing stress-related symptoms. The need is increasing to assess this phenomenon and set up strategies of monitoring, counseling and treating this category of workers.
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The relationship between IT consumption and anxiety in Pakistani youth

Published on: 3rd December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872658921

The present study was designed to measure the relationship between the consumption of Information Technology (IT) and anxiety among Pakistani youth. The inquiry included 200 conveniently selected Pakistani youth aged 16 to 24 years from 4 cities. The anxiety subscale of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale was administered along with a demographic information questionnaire. It was hypothesized that higher use of IT would be positively correlated with higher levels of anxiety among Pakistani youth. The results significantly supported the hypothesis, and it was established that the excessive use of IT is positively and significantly correlated with anxiety. The results are consistent with similar studies carried out in countries other than Pakistan.
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Fears of health catastrophe as Nepal reports increasing deaths from COVID-19

Published on: 1st January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873854252

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had affected both developed and developing countries too. The first case in Nepal was confirmed on 23 January 2020. It was also the first recorded case of COVID-19 in South Asia. Nepal reported its first COVID-19 death on May 16. At the end of October, the number of death stood 937 and 1126 on 9 November. In September and October, deaths doubled, and with winter setting in, fatalities may skyrocket. Among the total CP cases in Nepal nearly 50% are from the Capital Kathmandu. So, Kathmandy is the new epicenter of COVID-19 in Nepal. There are no proper community-based isolation centres and ICU beds are also still limited. Due to increasing trend of COVID-19 cases and death people have fear of psychological stress. A study shows at least one symptom of psychological distress whereas 32% suffered from two or more symptoms of psychological distress such as restlessness, fearfulness, anxiety and worry and sadness. Despite limited resources, the government’s major challenges are early diagnosis, management of confirmed cases, contact tracing, and implementing some public health measures to reduce the infection’s transmissibility.
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Colour keys to emotion in management of children and intellectual distraction using coloured games in dental environment for children

Published on: 20th August, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8220437574

Aim and objective: Dentistry for children is not difficult but is different from what is practiced for adults. The children reacts to differently to people and places around them. Anxiety is an emotional state that helps normal individual defend themselves against a variety of threats and Dental anxiety refers to patients specific response towards dental suitation-associated stress. so the aim is to evaluate the anxiety related management of the children using intellectual mind game of the individual Study design: The background of the study is to evaluate and study the effectiveness of anxiety control of children using colour distraction between 5 and 12 yrs of age group as one part and the intellectual distraction of children between the same age group using buchanan facial imaging scale and intellectual coloured game chart Results and conclusion: lowering of anxiety was noticed in the children obtained the favorite colours in the dental environment and easy distraction can be achieved using intellectual gamings.
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Burnout and Related Factors in Caregivers of outpatients with Schizophrenia

Published on: 9th March, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317652087

Objectives: Care of a person with schizophrenia involves multiple problems, possibly leading to burnout which is a culturally influenced phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate burnout and related factors in caregivers of outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods: Subjects included in the study were 40 primary caregivers of outpatients with schizophrenia (15 males, 25 females) whom were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Patients were also administered the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). Also, sociodemographic information about patients and their caregivers were taken. The significance of differences between two groups was determined by Mann-Whitney U-test. The relationships between the variables were evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis. Results: No significant difference was found in the MBI subscale scores in terms of caregivers gender, marital status, and education, being a family member, having enough information about the illness and taking support during caregiving. Emotional Exhaustion and Personal Accomplishment subscale scores of the caregivers were significantly different in terms of patients’ adaptation to treatment or not (respectively; p=0.010, p=0.030). The MBI-Emotional Exhaustion scores revealed significant positive correlations with the BDI and BAI total scores. Also, the MBI- Depersonalization scores and the BAI scores were positively correlated. Conclusions: Burnout levels in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia were lower when compared with other cultures. Only treatment compliance predicted burnout, while other factors were excluded. Therefore, professionals have to help to patients primarily adapt to their treatment.
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Anxiety and depression as an effect of birth order or being an only child: Results of an internet survey in Poland and Germany

Published on: 14th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317595908

Background: Various studies examined the effect of birth order. First born children show usually better cognitive performance than their later born siblings. Studies on emotional aspects yield heterogeneous results, sometimes in favour of first born, sometimes in favour of later born children. Studies comparing only-children with children with siblings are rare. Method: An internet survey was performed in 508 Polish and 500 German subjects. Only-children, first born, middle born and latest born children were compared regarding body mass index, depression, anxiety and partnership. Results: No differences among first born, middle born and latest born children were detected. Only-children reported significantly less symptoms of social phobia than first born children (z=0.50, p< 0.01). Conclusions: Except for suicidality, the results of this study question the sense of further investment in studying effects of birth order. In contrast, examining differences between only-children vs. children having siblings seems to have the potential to yield interesting and new results. Optimally, such research would combine self-report measures with reports from others, such as parents, teachers or clinicians.
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Vestibular-limbic relationships: Brain mapping

Published on: 16th March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7666356622

Vestibular disorders and anxiety are closely related, probably because they share some neuronal pathways. Ageing and patient comorbidities are important facilitating factors, and multiple vascular risk factors could contribute to the onset of a vestibular syndrome called vascular vertigo. White matter lesions (WML) are often seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly people and are related to various geriatric disorders, including dizziness. The cause of this correlation could be the disruption of neuronal networks that mediate higher vestibular cortical function. Numerous neuronal pathways link the vestibular network with limbic structures and the prefrontal cortex modulates anxiety through its connections to amygdala. The aim of the present work was to investigate the correlation between WML, amygdala and cognitive functions.
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Responding to Disasters: More than economic and infrastructure interventions

Published on: 24th April, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 1051150494

Objectives: Natural disasters confront individuals, communities and governments with the challenge of rebuilding and addressing psychosocial sequelae. With the increasing number of natural disasters it is timely to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and strategies to address the mental health needs of individuals and the community. Method: An evaluation of literature related to the psychological impact of natural disasters, treatment efficacy and government strategies to confront the social and psychological impact of natural disasters for the period 1983-2016 was undertaken. Results: Epidemiological studies following natural disasters despite the use of differing psychological measures demonstrate significant psychological morbidity - anxiety (7-42%), complicated grief (28-41%), depression (6.5-38%), post-traumatic stress disorder (11-89%) and substance misuse (1.3-24%). Intervention studies post-disaster demonstrate efficacy variability. Conclusions: The increase in the number and impact of meteorological and hydrological events since the 1980s and the psychological, social and economic consequences of these events has resulted in the development and implementation of government policies to confront the immediate and long-term adverse outcomes. The focus is typically on resources and infrastructure redevelopment with less focus on social and mental health interventions with long-term evaluation of interventions uncommon. The consequence of natural disasters emphasizes the importance developing strategies to ensure effective evaluated psychosocial interventions are available across at-risk communities.
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Anti-anxiety effects in mice following acute administration of Ficus Thonningii (wild fig)

Published on: 11th September, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7856121803

The effect of acute administration of ethanol extract of F. thoningii on anxiety and fear in Swiss white mice was studied. 30 adult Swiss white mice of both sexes were randomly divided in to three groups of 10 mice each. Group1 served as the control and was administered normal saline only. Group 2 (low dose group) was administered 10mg/kg ethanol extract of the F. thoningii, while group 3 (high dose group) was given 20mg/kg of the same extract. All animals were allowed food and water ad libitum. Neurobehavioral parameter was assessed using the light/dark transition box. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for variability within and among groups. Results were expressed as Mean ±SEM (standard error of the mean) and probability level p<0.05 was accepted as significant. The result showed that the frequency of transition in the light/dark transition box was significantly increased in the test groups (p<0.05; p<0.01).Similarly, the Light Box Duration was also significantly increased (p<0.01) in the low and high dose groups respectively. However, the Dark box duration was significantly decreased (p<0.05; p<0.01) in the low and high dose groups compared to control. This index showed a decreased level of anxiety and fear in the test groups. This was followed by a corresponding trend of decreased frequency of stretch attend posture and duration of freezing in the light/dark transition box (p<0.01; p<0.001) compared to the control. Summarily, acute administration of ethanol extract of F. thonningii causes calmness and sedation in moderate and high doses. It is therefore likely that it reduces aggression. If the result from this finding is extrapolated to humans, F. thoningii could be used to reduce anxiety disorders.
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Translation, adaptation and validation of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in Urdu

Published on: 25th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8541455755

The current study was carried out to translate, adapt and validate Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in Urdu language and in Pakistani culture. The current translation was aimed to produce a more user friendly and clinically applied version of DASS. The systematic procedure involved in translation focused on maximizing levels of semantic and conceptual equivalence. A test re-test pilot study was conducted on 30 participants to analyze the translated version initially, the results of which determined a significant positive correlation between original and translated versions. The main study involved 300 conveniently selected Pakistanis. The findings revealed that the translated version titled U-DASS-42 was highly reliable and valid in Pakistani culture. The newly developed U-DASS-42 is attached with this paper for the convenience of Pakistani researchers.
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Depression as a civilization-deformed adaptation and defence mechanism

Published on: 2nd March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8544395440

Depression is currently one of the main barriers to further civilizational development. Despite intensive efforts, it is a growing health, social and economic problem. We still lack clarity regarding the ethology of depression and treatment is still mainly symptomatic. The authors postulate that depression has similarities with anxiety and from an evolutionary perspective is an archaic defence mechanism. Formerly, through the agency of complex psychological, biological and social mechanisms, healing was facilitated in conditions of an intense, short-term nature. Adverse civilizational and environmental changes have caused pathological changes in both the mechanism of depression and corresponding defence mechanisms such as the induction of an anxiety state. Related to depression is the mechanism of thanatosis, concerning chronic biological and psychosocial dysfunctions. It is a mechanism for activating self-eliminating processes to free the community from the burden of a dysfunctional individual.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat