Asthma

A proposed Habilitation program to improve some functional parameters using Aqua-aerobic Exercises to reduce the intensity and severity of Asthma attacks among children in Algeria

Published on: 29th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8022266556

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and affects people of all ages. But having an asthma patient with a good overall fitness level helps reduce the chances of getting a seizure. Aqua-aerobic exercises is appropriate programs for the treatment of asthma. The aim of this study was to propose a rehabilitation program using aqua-aerobic exercises and to determine its effect on some functional parameters (forced Expiratory Volume in first Second Fev1, Peak Expiratory Flow PEF, and the Forced Vital Capacity FVC), and improve the respiratory functions to reduce the intensity and severity of asthma attacks for asthmatic children.
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Endogenous sensitizer of beta-adrenergic receptors (ESBAR) and its analogs (review)

Published on: 29th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929276791

The results of the 20 years studies of the presence in blood serum and other body fluids of endogenous modulators of adrenergic and M-cholinergic impact as a component of humoral link of autonomic nervous system. The article is devoted to the endogenous sensitizer of beta-adrenergic receptor (ESBAR) - water-soluble low molecular weight substances, analogs of which are histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine, mildronat and preductal. It is shown, that separate dilutions of human serum and animal (as a source of ESBAR) and analogs of ESBAR ways to enhance the effectiveness of activation of beta-adrenoceptors (AR) of smooth muscle (uterus, coronary and renal arteries, trachea, stomach), myocardium, erythrocytes and platelets (respectively influenced of histidine and tryptophan). It is reported that content of ESBAR in human serum (according to the titers of its dilution) depends on the sex and the presence of somatic diseases, and at women are also on the stage of reproduction and obstetric complications It is discussed possible mechanisms of ESBAR action, its physiological role, including as a component of beta-adrenoceptor inhibitory mechanism for myometrium, as well as the prospect of the use of analogs of ESBAR, including for the prevention of preterm labor, and for the treatment of bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, hypertension and heart failure.
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The effects of early low dose exposures to the Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A on the Development of Childhood Asthma

Published on: 10th July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317601907

Exposure to environmental chemicals is a potential cause for the rapid increase in the prevalence of allergic asthma over the last few decades. The production of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A, the monomer of polycarbonate plastics, has increased rapidly over the last 50 years, such that bisphenol A is one of the most highly produced chemicals. It is detectable in the urine of the vast majority of the human population. While the relationship between the increase of bisphenol A in our environment and the prevalence of asthma does not prove a cause and effect relationship, it provides a strong rationale for experiments that have tested the hypothesis. Because of its small molecular size and hydrophobicity, bisphenol A is easily transferred from the mother to the fetus, via the placenta and in breast milk. We have reviewed all the publications available on medline on the human epidemiological studies of the early bisphenol A exposure on the development of allergic asthma and experimental studies using mouse model of the effects of early bisphenol A exposure on the development of asthma. There are eight human epidemiological studies and five mouse model studies currently published. The human studies suggest that bisphenol A exposure in early life enhances the likelihood of developing asthma on at least one of the study groups. The effects of early bisphenol A exposure were observed as an enhanced development of asthma before adolescent in the animal model.
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Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction/Vocal Cord Dysfunction and the Role It Plays in Refractory Asthma

Published on: 23rd August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317595610

Chronic asthma accounts for a significant amount of unscheduled office and emergency department (ED) visits. According to the latest World Health Organization statistics, asthma worldwide affects 300 million individuals and creates a substantial health burden by restricting the patient’s lifetime activities. Data estimate that asthma causes a loss of disability-adjusted life years over 150,000/year [1]. While most individuals with asthma can be controlled with current therapies, 5-10% of patients have difficult-to-control/refractory asthma. Severe or refractory asthma places a significant burden on the patient and often requires treatment with systemic glucocorticoids, which have significant side effects. The American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society define refractory asthma as asthma that requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) plus a second controller and/or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming ‘‘uncontrolled’’ or asthma that remains ‘‘uncontrolled’’ despite this aggressive therapy. To fully meet this definition the diagnosis of asthma needs to be confirmed and comorbidities addressed as well. The above are considered major criteria for severe asthma and only one needs to be present for considering the diagnosis of refractory asthma [2]. For these reasons, clinicians must learn to identify and formulate additional diagnoses of “asthma imitators” [3]. One of the more common disorders associated with difficult-to-control asthma is vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) [4]. This disorder is known by many names, but current nomenclature endorsed by European and American societies correctly refers it as “Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction” (ILO) [5]. The following case demonstrates the importance of recognizing the clinical and spirometric features of ILO when asthma remains “refractory” to multiple therapies.
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Chemo-cytokines network is main target for control of Allergic asthma

Published on: 25th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347023872

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease which characterized by recurrent airflow obstruction, wheezing, chest tightness and coughing. Management of allergic asthma especially in children, is main problem for industrial world. Immunological factors have critical role in pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Cytokines as major controller of immune system, are important in this reaction. Allergic asthma is a disease with symptoms: eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hyper secretion, airway obstruction, airways hyperresponsivness, IgE high level production, smooth muscle spasm. Cytokines have main and complicated role in pathophysiology of allergic asthma.
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Role of Serum Magnesium levels in Asthmatic with children

Published on: 23rd February, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347025914

Objective: To determine the association between serum magnesium level and asthma, by establishing the difference in serum magnesium level between children with asthma and controls. Method: Serum magnesium levels of 44 children with acute asthma and 44 controls of the age group of 6-16 years was determined and statistically compared. Lung function tests (FEV1%) were done and correlated with serum magnesium levels using Pearson’s comparison coefficient. Results: The mean serum magnesium value of cases (1.9136±0.44) is lower than the controls (2.0042±0.26), with 32 cases showing a deficiency of serum magnesium. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, reveals positive correlation between FEV1% with serum magnesium levels, r=0.819, P<0.001. Conclusions: This study reveals that the serum magnesium levels, even if in normal range, are statistically lower amongst asthmatics. It also brings out the relationship between magnesium levels and lung function tests, showing an improvement in the latter with increase in the former.
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Interplay between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease: A controversial issue

Published on: 5th March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7493556916

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a quite common disease caused by the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus and manifested by heartburn and acid regurgitation. Apart from the esophageal manifestations, GERD is implicated in extraesophageal manifestations including pulmonary manifestations i.e. asthma, chronic cough, pneumonia, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, otolaryngological manifestations i.e. laryngitis, otitis, polyps, cancer of the larynx, chest pain [1,2]. The relationship between GERD and pulmonary manifestations is quite challenging and ongoing research efforts have focused on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of GERD induced asthma. 
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Diagnosis of Asthma in Childhood Age

Published on: 13th September, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7878010008

Background: Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disorder in childhood. Asthmatic attacks are described and classified according to the type of wheezing to Non –atopic and Atopic asthma (IgE mediated wheezing). The aim of this review is to determine the onset of clinical diagnosis in relation to clinical presentation of asthma in children and obstacles related to delay of Asthma diagnosis. Methods: This review highlights the results of studies done regarding clinical diagnosis in relation to clinical presentation and of asthma in children. An extensive search has been conducted for researches about asthma in children. This search based on the publications posted on the National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed or by Google Scholar. Key words used for the research: Asthma, clinical diagnosis, children. Results and Conclusion: Diagnosing asthma in young children is difficult because children often cough and wheeze with colds and chest infections, but this is not necessarily asthma. Miss diagnosis of asthma in children occurs when physicians diagnose patients with asthma from the clinical diagnosis in the first attack without excluding other asthma mimickers which can be any other respiratory problem. There is over-diagnosis of asthma due to the symptoms which mimic other respiratory infections. First episodes of cough, runny nose and fever that happen in cold/flu season- fall/winter/early spring is likely not asthma. If the child has several more episodes of wheeze and cough, it is likely to be asthma. Since there is no diagnostic test available for children younger than 6 years of age, making a diagnosis in this age group is more difficult than in older children. Over the age of about 6 years it is possible for a child to have a spirometer test
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Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema: serious complications of asthma

Published on: 21st December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7964862526

Bronchial asthma, is a quite common disease characterized by the chronic inflammation of the airways. It is due to the interaction of genetic with environmental factors. Currently, bronchial asthma is regarded as a public health problem, since its prevalence is constantly increasing worldwide. Common symptoms associated with asthma include repeated episodes of wheeze, dyspnoea, chest tightness and cough. Although commonly most asthmatic episodes are resolved with medical treatment, at times serious complications can deteriorate the clinical picture. Among these complications, the simultaneous spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax, the subcutaneous emphysema and the pneumomediastinum are life threatening complications.
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Allergic Asthma and Sick building syndrome

Published on: 11th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7985918111

Asthma is a complicated chronic disease of airway and airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, cough, dyspnea and wheezing that are main symptoms of the asthma. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental agents are main factors in pathophysiology of the asthma. Direct and indirect healthcare costs and health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients require more and more attention. A main challenges of asthma control is environment and specially house and building [1].
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Biologic therapy in severe asthma: An update

Published on: 28th August, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8212046060

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, reversible airflow obstruction and recurrent symptoms. Patients often present with coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest tightness, were they usually responds to the mainstay of treatment that relies on inhaled glucocorticoids (ICS), and long acting β2 agonist (LABA), along with leukotriene. In around 20% of the patient’s morbidity, mortality and cost of therapy increased because they fail to benefit from the existing gold standard therapy regimen. Both immunoglobulin-E (IgE), interlukin-5 (IL-5) had proven to play important major role in asthma pathogenesis. Over the past two decades biologic therapy that targeting IgE begins the era in treating severe asthma, and recently anti-IL-5, revealed major role in eosinophils maturation, activation, survival, and recruitment process of severe asthma. The different biologic therapy that is currently available in the market are supported by solid evidence from controlled randomized clinical trials, to guide the clinician on the type of patients that will benefit from the therapy, with an insight on the appropriate monitoring parameters and patient evaluation plans. This review was conducted by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed clinical trials, guidelines, and review articles published in English in the role of biologic therapy in severe asthma. The main aim from publishing this review is to summarize the current available evidence on the approved biologic therapy in treating patients with severe asthma.
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Retrosternal goiter mimicking asthma: A diagnostic challenge

Published on: 10th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8529515341

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Common manifestations of asthma include wheezing, chest tightness, cough, shortness of breath. Diagnosis of asthma requires clinical documentation of respiratory symptoms, exacerbation of symptoms following exposure to triggers, as well as demonstration of expiratory airflow obstruction. Wheeze is a continuous sound, lasting longer than 0.25 s that is produced by oscillation of opposing airway walls [1,2]. Wheezing, although a typical symptom of asthma, can also be caused by other diseases. Apart from asthma, wheezing can be due to extra-thoracic upper airway obstruction, intrathoracic upper airway obstruction, lower airway obstruction. Benign multimodal goiter is a common disease, that rarely causes upper airway obstruction. Retrosternal goiter should be taken into account the differential diagnosis of upper airway obstruction [3]. The respiratory symptoms of a retrosternal goiter may be masked for years due to the slow growth of the goiter. Patients commonly complain of respiratory symptoms if tracheal diameter is narrowed more than 50% from the normal size. Respiratory symptoms may be suddenly precipitated by spontaneous or traumatically induced bleeding into the substernal goiter, as well as by tracheal infections [4]. Clinical management of this condition is really challenging. Diagnosis is also not straightforward, as clinical suspicion is needed. There are cases of retrosternal goiter mimicking asthma that remain undiagnosed for many years. Retrosternal goiter should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of patients diagnosed as suffering from asthma, and presenting no improvement despite medical therapy. In addition, it should be taken into account that sudden gland enlargement due to hormonal changes might lead to life threatening upper airway obstruction with clinical picture similar to bronchial asthma attack [5]. In a recent very interesting case report, the authors present a case of a pregnant woman in the second trimester who presented with an acute airway obstruction due to the enlargement of a retrosternal goiter [3]. Goiters are the more common masses of the superior mediastinum [6,7]. Commonly, retrosternal goiter is due to the extension in the thorax of a cervical goiter. However, rarely, it may represent primary disease due to the growth of ectopic thyroid tissue. In addition, retrosternal goiter may develop in patient submitted to thyroidectomy due to cervical multinodular goiter [8]. Although retrosternal goiters are commonly asymptomatic, symptoms may include dyspnea, stridor, hoarseness, dysphagia, superior vena cava syndrome, transient ischemic attacks, cerebral edema, Horner’s syndrome, and thyrotoxicosis [4]. Diagnosis could be verified by neck and chest radiography, thorax CT and MRI. Chest radiography commonly shows a widened mediastinum with a superior mediastinal mass causing compression of the trachea as well as deviation of the trachea to the right. Mediastinal computed tomography reveals a mass that is extension of the thyroid gland. The presence of respiratory symptoms in a patient with retrosternal goiter is an indication for surgery. The majority of retrosternal goiters can be approached through a cervical approach [9,10].
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Helping asthmatic children through bonding therapy

Published on: 5th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9030359812

Disruptions in Maternal-infant Bonding are shown to be the mediating variable between maternal distress and the subsequent expression of childhood asthma. When the mothers’ bonding is repaired, their children’s asthmatic symptoms diminish or remit. This study evaluated 16 asthmatic children before and after their mothers were treated with Bonding Therapy. Fourteen improved on 11 measures, including reduction in the STEP classification system and medication use. Thirteen children were able to stop all medications. Surprisingly, all mothers scores on the Beck Depression Inventory improved through Bonding Therapy, suggesting that impaired bonding can lead to maternal depression or even Postpartum Depression. The link between bonding disruptions and airway inflammation are discussed. Bonding Therapy is described.
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A retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship of airway hyperresponsiveness to type 2 biomarkers in persistent asthma

Published on: 17th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8927344068

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a hallmark of persistent asthma measured using direct or indirect airway bronchial challenge testing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the putative relationships between type 2 inflammatory biomarkers, airway geometry (FEV1 and FEF25-75) and specific IgE (RAST or skin prick) to AHR. We performed a retrospective analysis of our database (n = 131) of patients with asthma. Of these subjects, 75 had a histamine challenge and 56 had a mannitol challenge. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) but not blood eosinophils were significantly higher in patients with AHR to either histamine or mannitol. FEV1 % and FEF25 - 75 % were significantly lower in patients with AHR. Elevated Type 2 biomarkers including FeNO and specific IgE but not blood eosinophils were associated with AHR. Highlights: FeNO and specific IgE but not blood eosinophils are raised in patients with airway hyperresponsiveness.
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Higher venom-specific IgE levels differentiate children with previous local large reactions from children with previous systemic reactions of different severity

Published on: 19th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8972361005

Introduction: Risk factors for systemic reactions (SRs) from hymenoptera venom (HV) allergy are well known in the adult population but they have been little studied in the pediatric one. Method: The aim of our study was to identify risk factors for SRs in a population of children allergic to HV, comparing a series of clinical (age, gender, atopy, asthma) and laboratory (total IgE, tryptase, venom-specific IgE levels) variables between patients with at least two large local reactions (LLRs) and patients with SRs of different severity for the identified insect. We selected a population of HV allergic children aged < 15 years with LLRs or SRs stratified according to Mueller grades after stinging. Results: The population included 80 children, 35 with at least 2 LLRs and 45 with SRs. The level of specific IgE for vespid (Polistes dominula, Vespula species) venoms was significantly higher (p = 0.0321) in children with SRs (Mueller grade II+III+IV) than in those with LLRs and the same significance was also found for specific IgE for Apis mellifera, considering SRs group (Mueller grade I+II+III+IV) in respect with LLRs group (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: The main difference in our pediatric population was the highest level of specific IgE in children with a history of SRs compared to those with a history of LLRs for both vespids and honey bees. These results, once confirmed on a larger population, could suggest the opportunity to follow the behavior of venom specific IgE in children with LLRs to reveal a risk to develop future more serious reactions.
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Immunological background for treatments with biologicals in CRSwNP

Published on: 8th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9030352571

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous and multifactorial inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa. To date, no internationally standardized uniform classification has been developed for this disease. Usually, a phenotype classification according to CRS with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) polyposis is performed. However, through a variety of studies, it has been shown that even within these phenotypes, different endotypes of CRS exist, each with a different underlying inflammatory pathophysiology. In this mini-review, we aim to outline the essential immunological processes in CRSwNP and to highlight the modern therapeutic options with biologics derived from this disease. Methods: Current knowledge on the immunological and molecular processes of CRS, especially CRSwNP, was compiled by means of a structured literature review. Medline, PubMed, national/international trial and guideline registries as well as the Cochrane Library were all searched. Results: Based on the current literature, the different immunological processes involved in CRS and nasal polyps were elaborated. Current studies on the therapy of eosinophilic diseases such as asthma and polyposis are presented and their results discussed. Conclusion: Understanding the immunological basis of CRSwNP may help to develop new personalized therapeutic approaches using biologics. Currently, 2 biologics (dupilumab, omalizumab) have been approved for the therapy of CRSwNP (polyposis nasi) in Europe.
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Fluticasone furoate/Vilanterol 92/22 μg once-a-day vs Beclomethasone dipropionate/Formoterol 100/6 μg b.i.d. in asthma patients: a 12-week pilot study

Published on: 27th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597138

Two of the most recent LABA/ICS combinations for treatment of persistent asthma are Fluticasone furoate/Vilanterol 92/22 µg (Ellipta) and Beclomethasone dipropionate/Formoterol 100/6 µg (Nexthaler). Objective: To compare once-daily Fluticasone/ Vilanterol combination with twice daily Beclomethasone/ Formoterol association in moderate asthma, in terms of quality of life and lung function. Methods: Fourty patients with moderate asthma treated with Beclomethasone/Formoterol 100/6 µg or Fluticasone/Vilanterol 92/22 µg. We revalued patients in terms of lung function and Asthma Control Test, at 4, 8 and 12 weeks to assess any differences between the two groups. After 4 weeks, thirty-one of the fourty patients were evaluated in terms of respiratory function at predetermined time intervals. Result: In patients treated with beclomethasone/formoterol FEV1 presented a mean value of 78% at the third visit and of 79.1% during the final check, compared with 74.5% and to 75.8% in patients in treatment with fluticasone/vilanterol (p 0.01). Mean values of IC and MMEF25-75% were higher in patients treated with beclomethasone/formoterol compared with fluticasone/vilanterol. For the dyspnea it was a difference at the third observation. For the nocturnal symptoms and the use of rescue drug there was a significant difference, except at the beginning. For the perception of control by patients, there was a difference in the two groups at the beginning, after 4 and 8 weeks. Total ACT score showed a significant difference after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. In the group treated with beclomethasone/formoterol FEV1 value was significantly higher at a distance of four hours after drug administration (p 0.04) and after the second dose (p 0.02) compared with the group treated with fluticasone/vilanterol. Discussion: Patients in treatment with beclomethasone/formoterol showed improved asthma control and nocturnal symptoms and more stable respiratory function compared with patients receiving fluticasone/vilanterol.
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Eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic asthma: Shared pathophysiology and response to anti-IL5

Published on: 4th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165317458

Asthma is a highly prevalent airway disease with multiple phenotypes [1,2]. Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is a severe asthma subtype associated with more frequent and severe exacerbations, the development of persistent airflow limitation and a poorer quality of life. This type of asthma is much more difficult to control than other asthma subtypes, requiring high doses of inhaled or even oral corticosteroids (OCS) [3,4]. Recently, several new monoclonal antibody therapies have been approved for eosinophilic severe asthma, including anti-IL-5 treatment. IL-5 is essential for eosinophilic maturation and survival [5] and anti-IL5 treatment has markedly reduced asthma exacerbations with sparing of OCS use in patients with eosinophilic asthma [6]. Eosinophilic asthma is frequently associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and/or nasal polyposis [7], suggesting that a similar eosinophilic inflammatory process might drive both conditions. Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) also might fit in this concept, showing remarkable similarities with asthma and nasal polyposis. The disease was first reported in 1994, but only since 2011 diagnostic criteria for EOM were identified. If a patient shows otitis media with effusion or chronic otitis media with eosinophil-dominant effusion (major criterion) and is being positive for ≥2 items of the 4 minor criteria (highly viscous middle ear effusion, resistance to conventional treatment, association with asthma, association with nasal polyposis) he is diagnosed as having EOM. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and hypereosinophilic syndrome must be excluded [8].
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Dysfunctional breathing in children

Published on: 30th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8607009162

Objective: Dysfunctional breathing (DB) refers to abnormal patterns of breathing. No gold standard exists for diagnosis. In clinical practice we regularly see children with functional breathing problems. We collected data from this patient group to gain more insight into the characteristics of children with dysfunctional breathing. Methods: We composed a retrospective, cross-sectional study. The population consisted of children referred to a physiotherapist by a pediatrician due to suspected dysfunctional breathing. Data from 2013-2015 were collected from patient files, selected according to patterns and onset of symptoms, concomitant asthma, Nijmegen questionnaire (NQ) score, maximum exercise capacity and breathing pattern. Results: A total of 201 patients were included in the study, 66% of whom were female. The mean age was 13.9 years; 26% of the children were overweight. The most frequently reported symptoms were breathlessness, chest pain/tightness and dizziness. Fifty-two percent had a NQ score ≥23, mainly female. Twenty-eight percent of the children scored < p5 for their age on maximum exercise capacity; this proportion was substantially higher among males. Of the total population, 78% scored < p50 for their age. Subgroups with a higher body mass index (BMI) showed lower maximum exercise capacity. Children presenting with pulmonary symptoms were primarily misdiagnosed with asthma. Conclusion: Dysfunctional breathing is a common cause of respiratory complaints. Most children with dysfunctional breathing have a high BMI and are in poor physical condition, which suggests a clinically relevant comorbidity and possible options for therapy. Children are often falsely diagnosed with asthma; better recognition will decrease unnecessary medication use.Introduction
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Spontaneous pneumomediastinum associated with COVID-19: Rare complication of 2020 pandemic

Published on: 17th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8701510922

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition, more commonly seen in patients with history of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infections, or drug users. Today, we face one novel virus that has cause an outbreak of acute respiratory illness, affecting over a million individuals worldwide. New knowledge is been gained of the virus and possible complications are been seen. Following, we present the case of a 71-year-old man with diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia complicated with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.
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