Bacteria

Efficacies of 11% Lactoferricin and 0.05% Chlorhexidine Otological Solution compared, in the treatment of microbial otic overgrowth: A randomized single blinded study

Published on: 4th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325011971

Background:Topical therapy with antimicrobial agents is used in otitis treatment. Due to increase of antibiotic resistance, new strategies are needed. Antiseptics are used but they may induce contact dermatitis. Natural antimicrobial peptides may represent future effective drugs. Objectives:The objectives were to test the efficacy of an 11% lactoferricin otological solution (LCF) in bacterial and yeasts otic overgrowth and compare LCF with a commercial one containing chlorhexidine (CLX) 0.05%. Materials and methods:Forty-one dogs diagnosed with bacterial or yeasts otitis overgrowths were included according to general good practice. They were randomly assigned to lactoferricin or chlorhexidine group for treatment. Otological solution were applied twice a day for a week and then daily for another week. Clinical and cytological score was assessed at day 1 and day 14. At the end of the study, the owners had to express an opinion on the overall efficacy of the products. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilkoxon’s test and T test for paired samples. Results in lesional and cytological score were significative with a p<0.05. Results:Forty dogs completed the study. All cases, receiving lactoferricin or chlorhexidine, were successfully treated with clinical signs remission and regression of infection (p<0.05). The owners’ judgment was good in 87%, mild in 13% for LCF group. For CLX they scored good in 41%, mild in 24% and unuseful in 35% of cases. Conclusions:Lactoferricin, an antimicrobial natural peptide, showed the same efficacy of chlorhexidine in the treatment of otitis characterized by bacterial or/and yeast overgrowth.
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Oral Clindamycin and Metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant black women: Comparison of efficacy and pregnancy outcome

Published on: 10th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272372469

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes with various treatment options. Objective: To compare the efficacy and effect on pregnancy outcome of Metronidazole and Clindamycin in women with bacterial vaginosis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methodology: Randomized controlled study of 136 pregnant women diagnosed with BV at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. A structured proforma was used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and other relevant data. Treatment was with either oral Metronidazole or oral Clindamycin for seven days. A secondary test and evaluation of the effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes were determined. Data analysis was done using the SPSS statistical package version 22.0 Results: BV prevalence was 23%, with similar cure rates with both medications. The failure rates of clindamycin and metronidazole were 10.4% and 13% respectively (p = 0.639). The mean gestational age at delivery in the metronidazole treated group was 38.67 weeks ± 1.69 compared to 38.68 weeks ± 1.64 in the oral clindamycin group (p = 0.96). Pre-labour rupture of membranes and preterm delivery rates with both medications were similar (p = 0.73; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-4.9) and (p = 0.73; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-4.9) respectively. Conclusion: Both medications have comparable efficacy and similar pregnancy outcomes in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in low-risk asymptomatic pregnant Nigerian women and thus can be used interchangeably.
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In vitro antimicrobial activity of a black currant oil based shampoo versus a chlorhexidine 4% shampoo on bacteria strains isolated from canine pyoderma: A comparative study

Published on: 14th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875582641

Over the last few years, antimicrobial shampoo therapy has been increasingly used to treat skin infections in order to reduce systemic use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to compare the In vitro bactericidal effect of a black currant oil based shampoo (S1) to a chlorhexidine 4% shampoo (S2) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Escherichia coli (EC) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolates. A collection of 50 bacterial strains from skin swabs of dogs with superficial recurrent pyoderma was selected: 10 MSSP, 10 MRSP, 10 SA, 10 EC and 10 PA. The two shampoos were blindly tested in duplicate with a microdilution plate method, with scalar concentrations from 1:2 to 1: 256. The MBC was performed for each dilution. A linear regression was used to detect a statistically significance between the two shampoos. All isolates were completely killed at 1:2 up to 1:16 dilution of the two antiseptic products. At the 1:32 dilution the first bacterial growths were observed, in particular for 2 and 4 strains of MRSP by S1 and S2 respectively. The first lethal dilution for SA was at 1:64 for S1/S2 and only for S2 against SP. No significant difference was observed between the two shampoos according to the results of linear regression significant for: i) MRSP, PA and EC (p < 0.05); ii) MSSP and SA (p < 0.1). This study showed that both black currant oil based shampoo and chlorhexidine 4% shampoo have a similar In vitro bactericidal activity.
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in silico discovery of potential inhibitors against Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4: A major biological target of Type-2 diabetes mellitus

Published on: 26th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560723476

Objectives: Type-2 diabetes mellitus, caused by impaired secretion of insulin, is becoming one of the health hazardous threats to human lives across the world. Its prevalence is rising with time. In this study, 2750 phytochemicals, that are considered to have great ability to eliminate diseases caused by different viruses and bacteria, are obtained from different medicinal plants and discovery of inhibitors through in silico method was performed against Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). Method: The pharmacological assessment and pharmacokinetics of phytochemicals, molecular docking and density functional theory (DFT) analysis helped to explore the inhibitory action of phytochemicals against DPP4. Total forty-nine phytochemicals were screened initially to reduce the number of compounds to be analyzed further based on a threshold of binding affinity ≥ -5.5 kcal/mol and were considered for further computational studies to analyze their inhibitory effects for DPP4. For comparison and validation of the results of present study, various previously reported and experimentally validated compounds were docked with the DPP4. For these dockings, binding affinity was predicted and compared with those of phytochemicals to check if these phytochemicals are competent enough to be used as an inhibitor in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the future. Results: Only four phytochemicals showed binding affinity greater than those of experimentally validated compounds. These included two phytochemicals from Silybum marianum, i.e. Diprenyleriodictyol and Taxifolin and while other two phytochemicals from Santolina insularis and Erythrina Varigatae i.e. Papraline and Osajin respectively. The reactivity levels for these four phytochemicals with the binding site residues of DPP4 were obtained by DFT based analysis, in which ELUMO, EHOMO and band energy gap were computed. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is concluded that these four phytochemicals, after passing through in vitro and in vivo validation, can be utilized as potential DPP4 inhibitors as they have strong properties as compared to those of various experimentally validated inhibitors.
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Development of ELISA based detection system against C. botulinum type B

Published on: 30th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8562108005

Botulism is the disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins. It is produced by an obligate anaerobic bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. There is no immuno-detection system available in the world for the detection of C. botulinum. Secretory proteins of cooked meat media grown C. botulinum type B were extracted by TCA precipitation method. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against secretory proteins. Cytokine profiling of secretory proteins were done. An immunodetection system was developed to detect the C. botulinum type B using Secretory proteins of C. botulinum type B.
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Viral meningitis in pregnancy: A case report

Published on: 13th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691250730

Ms X is a 34 year old para 1 woman who presented at 26+5 weeks’ gestation with fever, neurological symptoms and history of a viral illness. She was treated empirically for bacterial meningitis and transferred to a tertiary maternity hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for enteroviral ribonucleic acid (RNA), confirming viral meningitis. Ms X improved clinically and was discharged after six days. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of meningitis in pregnancy. Thorough history, examination and workup is vital for timely treatment. Prognosis in viral meningitis is excellent with no clear adverse fetal or neonatal outcomes.
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Role of T-Helper cells (CD4+ T Cells) in human immune system against some microbial infection: A mini review

Published on: 11th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8601982623

The human immune system consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which both provide protective immunity to microbial infection. The adaptive immune system consists of T and B cell which act as second line defense through production of neutralizing antibody by B cells and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells. The CD4+ T-cell performs a central role in the immune responses. These cells also known as T4 or helper/inducer T lymphocytes recognize antigens presented by antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and monocytes. Once antigens such as bacteria and viruses are presented, CD4+ T lymphocytes orchestrate the body’s antigen-specific immune response by Coordinating B-lymphocyte production of antibodies to these antigens, producing cytokines and induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. The paper was aimed to review the role of T-helper cells (CD4+ T cells) in human immune system against some microbial infections.
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Characterization of plastic degrading bacteria isolated from landfill sites

Published on: 28th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8605989023

The plastic pollution is threatening the environment because it has very slow degradation rate and high usage in regular activities. The present study aims at the isolation of novel microorganisms that would assist faster degradation process of polyethylene. The waste samples were collected from different landfills and dumpsites. Out of forty samples, eight samples were found to degrade polythene strips in liquid medium. Further screening of these samples showed that two strains of microbes had high potential for polythene degradation. Biochemical tests and ribotyping were performed for characterization of isolated bacteria. Resultantly, two novel bacterial strains were identified named; Bacillus wudalianchiensis_UMT (2A) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa_UMT (6). Analysis of these microbes further revealed that Bacillus wudalianchiensis_UMT and Pseudomonas aeruginosa_UMT have capability to degrade 6.6% and 4.8% polyethylene respectively. So, the results disclosed that these bacteria have great potential to degrade polythene in less time as compare to natural degradation process and can contribute to reduce pollution from our environment.
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Clinical characteristics, management, maternal and neonatal outcome among seven severe and critically ill pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia

Published on: 30th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8812298810

Pneumonia caused by the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease and the ongoing outbreak has been declared as a Pandemic by the World health organization. Pneumonia is a serious disease in pregnancy and requires prompt attention. Viral pneumonia has higher morbidity and mortality compared to bacterial pneumonia in pregnancy. All efforts are well exerted to understand the newly emerged disease features but still some areas are gray. The treatment is primarily supportive with antivirals, steroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. Severe cases require intensive care monitoring with oxygen support, mechanical ventilation. Investigational therapies include convalescent plasma, cytokine release inhibitors and other immunomodulatory agents like interferons. The mortality appears driven by the presence of severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS) and organs failure. COVID pandemic is a challenging and stressful socio-economic situation with widespread fear of infection, disease and death. In the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, studies are being conducted to ascertain the manifestation of disease in pregnant women and the fetal outcome. The aim of our case series is to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, feto- maternal outcome of severe and critical COVID pneumonia in pregnant women in Latifa Hospital.
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Determination of antibiotics susceptibility profile of Shigella species isolated from children with acute diarrhea

Published on: 15th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8870458574

Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. This study aimed to isolate, identify and determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella sp associated with acute diarrhea among children in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted among children less than 5 years diagnosed with acute diarrhea and admitted to paediatric ward of Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital Kano. Stool samples from a total of 37 (20 male and 17 female) subjects were used to isolate and identified the pathogen. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted using disc diffusion method. The result showed 12 out of 37 samples were positive for Shigella sp which accounted for 32.4%. Higher incidence of Shigella sp was found among subjects of age between 2 – 3 years. The isolates were 100% resistant to Ampicillin. High resistance was also observed in Amoxicillin (83.33%), Chloramphenicol (58.33%) and Tetracycline (25%). The isolates are 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 66.7% to Levofloxacin and Gentamicin each and 58.33% to Erythromycin. Three (3) isolates were resistance to Ampicillin and Amoxicillin, 5 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin while 2 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin. It is concluded that Shigella sp is one of the etiological agent of diarrhea in children. Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and Gentamicin are drugs of choice for treating diarrhea caused by Shigella sp.
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Synergistic interactions of sperm impairing bacteria: Impact on pregnancy outcome in mouse model

Published on: 9th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9023207277

Earlier in our laboratory, the role of various individual sperm impairing microorganisms on sperm parameters and female infertility has been elucidated at higher doses. As, multiple bacterial species tend to exert more pathogenic effect in comparison to single organism hence, present study was carried out to evaluate that if consortia of these sperm impairing organisms can lead to infertility in female mice at sub fertility dose. For this, impact of individual bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and consortia of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was examined on the motility, viability of mouse spermatozoa and fertility outcome. The results showed that the individual bacterial strains of E. coli, S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae could led to immobilization of spermatozoa by agglutination and P. aeruginosa led to immobilization of spermatozoa without agglutination. Also, all of them led to 100% sperm death in 45 min of incubation. In case of consortia of bacterial strains, the results showed sperm agglutination in all the cases and they were able to induce 100% sperm death at 30 min of incubation time. Further, in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate the impact of individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains on the fertility outcome in female Balb/c mice. For this, female mice were administered intravaginally with 101 cfu/20µl of individual bacterial strains or consortia of strains for 10 consecutive days or PBS. The results showed that both individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains were able to efficiently colonize the mouse vagina. Further, control group receiving phosphate buffer saline and groups receiving individual bacterial strains showed all the pregnancy related changes viz. abdominal distension, string of pearls on palpation as well as delivery of pups on completion of gestation period and delivery of pups. The histological examination of reproductive organs viz. uterus and ovary, of the female mice receiving PBS or individual bacterial strains showed the formation of corpus luteum in the ovary and the formation of decidua’s in the uterus, indicative of pregnancy. However, mice receiving consortia of bacterial strains did not show any pregnancy related changes throughout the experiment. Thus, these results indicate that the presence of consortia of sperm impairing microorganisms in vaginal milieu is efficient in provoking infertility even at subfertility doses.
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Neutralizing scFv Antibodies against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolated From a Nlpa-Based Bacterial Display Library

Published on: 21st February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286425792

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) considered as one of the major viral diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. The causative agent of the IBD is Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) which replicates in developing B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius leading to its destruction and bursal inflammation. In this study, we investigated a technology to produce therapeutic recombinant antibodies against IBDV in bacteria by constructing a bacterial displayed recombinant scFv library from immunized chickens, followed by screening the scFv library by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) with FITC-labeled VP2. Twelve VP2-binding scFv clones with unique sequences were obtained, with overall amino acid homology of 81.53%. The complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 in the heavy chain displayed the lowest homology, while the amino acid sequences in framework regions and CDR2 of both chains and CDR1 of the heavy chain are relatively conserved. Twelve VP2-binding scFv clones were expressed in E.coli and purified through denaturation and denaturation of inclusion bodies. Our ELISA results showed that all scFvs exhibited binding ability and specificity to VP2 and various IBDV strains. In addition, two scFvs showed significant neutralizing activity to IBDV (B-87 strain) as these scFvs inhibited cytopathic effect of chicken embryo fibroblast (DF1) caused by IBDV. In conclusion, our study provides a lead candidate for further development of therapeutic antibodies for IBDV infection.
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Convenient route synthesis of some new benzothiazole derivatives and their pharmacological screening as antimicrobial agents

Published on: 29th August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286359000

Background: The reaction of 2-(benzo]d[thiazol-2-yl)-3-oxopentanedinitrile 4 with DMF/DMA has been investigated to explore the synthetic potentialities of this novel activated nitrile in heterocyclic synthesis. Results: Pyrano, pyridino, pyrazolo, azepino and oxothiepano carbonitrile derivatives could be obtained starting from 4 and plausible mechanisms for their formations are reported. Conclusion: The newly synthesized compounds were assessed for their antimicrobial activity. Compounds 7, 10 and 12 exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial profile against the tested organisms.
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Synthesis of some new Schiff bases of Pharmaceutical Interest

Published on: 26th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286424219

A series of Schiff bases of diphenylamine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic both Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli using ciprofloxacin as standard drug at conc. of 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of IR and 1H-NMR spectral analysis. The compound (3d) displayed potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (17 and 15mm) and Escherichia coli (19 and 17mm) by disc diffusion method.
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A Gateway to Metal Resistance: Bacterial Response to Heavy Metal Toxicity in the Biological Environment

Published on: 3rd September, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7893781761

Heavy metals and metalloids are dangerous because they have the tendency to bioaccumulate in biological organisms over a period of time. However, it is conceived that a number of phytochemical agents as well microorganism can act as heavy metal removing agent both from human beings and the environment surrounding. For instance, microbes are used for the removal of heavy metals from the water bodies including bacteria, fungi, algae and yeast. This review shows that bacteria can play an important role in understanding the uptake and potential removal behaviour of heavy metal ions. The bacteria are chosen based on their resistance to heavy metals (incl. their toxicities) and capacity of adsorbing them. Due to specific resistance transfer factors, cell impermeability is drastically inhibited by several ion (i.e. mercury, cadmium, cobalt, copper, arsenic) forms. Between these elements, free-ion cadmium and copper concentrations in the biological medium provide more accurate determination of metal concentrations that affect the bacteria, than with most of the other existing media. Metal toxicity is usually assessed by using appropriate metal ion chelators and adjusting pH factor. Bacteria and metals in the ecosystem can form synergistic or antagonistic relationships, supplying each other with nutrients or energy sources, or producing toxins to reduce growth and competition for limiting nutritional elements. Thus, this relation may present a more sustainable approach for the restoration of contaminated sources.
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Anti-Inflammatory probiotic biomarkers in Fermented foods

Published on: 24th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7985918960

We present below a mechanistic molecular approach for development of Anti-Inflammatory biomarkers of Probiotic Bacteria in Fermented Foods. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote human health by counteracting the noxious toxic gut microflora in human intestine, by modulating of the tight junctions, and by increasing mucin production, enforcing intestinal epithelial cell barrier function, modifying microbial community within the gut intestinal disorders, and improving immune responses associated with chronic inflammation in experimental animal models, collectively enhancing human health. Cytokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages are regulated by probiotics through key signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated kinases, resulting in alleviation of several disorders such as allergies, diabetes, obesity, heart diseases and cancer. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression by inhibiting gene translation. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches in cell lines and mice models to study effects of probiotic conditional media and heat-killed bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory effect to elucidate the mechanisms by which probiotics affect signaling pathways, and by using global cytokine and microRNA gene expression analyses arrroaches to develop biomarkers for studying different pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, and using statistical approaches to analyse the data, we show that cytokines and miRNAs have an essential role in regulation of cancerous and inflammatory bathways. This mechanistic approach will result in developing specific disease biomarkers for the early diagnosis of certain pathogenic states, as well as evaluating the effect of different dietary componenents on developed biomarkers in health states that will promote and enhance human health. Comparing the concordance of the in vitro to the in vivo research findings will confirm the correspondence of both approaches to each other. Moreover, this study will have a major public health relevance in elucidating the role of miRNAs and their targets in inflammation, paving the way to diagnosing and treating of pathogenic human disease stages.
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Peritonitis: Culprit for peritoneal dialysis decline

Published on: 3rd April, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8056332970

Peritonitis is the main complication of peritoneal dialysis caused the withdrawal of treatment like peritoneal dialysis which was used as primary treatment modality few years back in Pakistan. With this motto to know the exact cause of peritonitis this retrospective study was done and 35 out of 42 pervious peritoneal dialysis patients who had peritonitis were analyzed using old data. A total of 57 bags of all these peritonitis patients were analyzed in department of microbiology during the year 2007-2011. Out of these bags positive culture was obtained from 42 bags (74%). Most of patients with positive culture were undergoing acute peritoneal dialysis 66.67% and rest were on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Main concern was the yield of organisms causing culture positive peritonitis. It was found that bacterial peritonitis was positive in 80%, fungal peritonitis was 11% and mycobacterium tuberculosis peritonitis was 09%. Various culture techniques along with Gram Stain, Zeihl Nielsen Stain and Auramine stain were used for knowing the yield. Limitations: Old and only small available data of peritonitis patients and stop of further peritoneal dialysis.
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Can bloodstream infection be predicted by nasal culture in hemodialysis patients?

Published on: 15th April, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8163588486

The blood and drainage cultures are suggested for early diagnosis of bloodstream infection (BSI), which are time consuming and laborious. Nasal colonization of bacteria is one of the modalities, occasionally can predict BSI. We hypothesized that nasal culture, as an accessible fluid may be helpful to predict future BSI in hemodialysis patients. The present prospective study evaluated 63 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis at the Pars hospital dialysis center, Tehran, Iran, from November 2015 until February 2016. Nasal fluid of patients were collected from the 1–cm internal anterior part of both nostrils of patients by a sterile swab and cultured in Trypticase soy agar. All patients were followed for three months for BSI. The results of first nasal fluid sample revealed that 33.3% in first sampling and 27.0% in sampling had positive nasal fluid culture. The type of bacteria in all positive cases was Staphylococcus aureus. The rate of BSI infection in the patients with positive and negative first nasal fluid culture was 9.5% and 2.4% respectively with no significant difference. We found also no significant association between BSI positivity and nasal culture results so that positive BSI was revealed in 5.9% of patients with positive nasal fluid culture and 4.3% in those with negative nasal fluid culture with no meaningful difference. None of the baseline variables including age and gender, underlying risk factor, access, or duration of dialysis was associated with BSI positivity. In hemodialysis patients, BSI may not be predicted by nasal fluid culture positivity.
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Microbiome and Gastroesophageal Disease: Pathogenesis and Implications for Therapy

Published on: 21st May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8603898545

There is growing evidence that gastroesophageal disease is influenced by the esophageal microbiome, and that commensal bacteria of the oropharynx, stomach, and colon are thought to have a role in modulatiing pathogenesis. These emerging hypotheses are based on observed changes in the composition of the esophageal flora, notably, repeated observations: 1. There is an abundance of gram-positive bBacteria in the healthy esophagus. are more gram positive prevalent 2. The esophageal bacterial population becomes increasingly gram negative with disease progression. Associated with this shift to a more gram negative prevalence is an increase in the potential for the presence of antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The immunoreactivity of LPS endotoxin thought to promote susceptibility to inflammation and disease. The pathogenesis of the more common diseases of the esophagus e.g. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal dysmotility (achalasia), eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal cancer, are well-established. Emerging data suggest however, that these are all characterized by an immune-mediated inflammatory cascade, propogated by a dysbiotic state. Thereby, the ability of the healthy “normative state” to protect against foreign bacteria is compromised. This dysbiosis thereby can create adverse inflammatory or immunoregulatory responses with progression of disease. In the normal healthy state, the esophageal microbiome is constituted in-part, by a multitude of gram positive bacteria, many of which produce antibacterial peptides called bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are selective and used to maintain population integrity by killing off foreign bacteria. When the “normative biome” is interrupted (e.g. antibiotics, medications, diet, environmental factors), the constitutional changes may allow a more hospitable imbalance favoring the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Therefore it seems rational that defining, perhaps that defining, perhaps cultivating, a protective bacterial community that could help prevent or mitigate inflammatory diseases of the esophagus. Furthermore, in conjunction with evidence demonstrating that some bacteriocins are cytotoxic or antiproliferative toward cancer cell lines, further exploration might provide a rich source of effective peptide-based drug targets. Therapeutic options targeting the microbiome, including prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and bacteriocins, have been studied, albeit the attributable effects on the esophagus for the most part, have been unrecognized by clinicians. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the involvement of the microbiome in esophageal diseases (most notably GERD/Barrett’s esophagus/esophageal cancer) and identifies emerging new concepts for treatment.
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Acute pneumonia: Facts and realities against etiological hypotheses and beliefs

Published on: 4th February, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7997795397

Modern AP concepts are focused exclusively on the infectious nature of the disease and the presence of certain pathogens. This belief determines the principles of treatment, the lack of effectiveness of which remains a concern of health professionals. The article presents a fragment of the study devoted to the etiology of АP. 994 children aged 4 months to 14 years with various forms of so-called community-acquired pneumonia were examined and treated. Bacteriological examination of the material from the inflammation zone was carried out in 542 patients. Experiments on modeling АP and its pleural complications were performed on 44 animals. The obtained results and critical analysis of the literature data and scientific facts allow us to consider bacteria only as one of the etiological elements of АP, which is not mandatory in all cases of the disease. Scientifically based revision of existing ideas about the causes and mechanisms of AP development leads to the need for a radical change in the principles of treatment and is a strategic direction in solving the problem.
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