Beliefs

Acute pneumonia: Facts and realities against etiological hypotheses and beliefs

Published on: 4th February, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7997795397

Modern AP concepts are focused exclusively on the infectious nature of the disease and the presence of certain pathogens. This belief determines the principles of treatment, the lack of effectiveness of which remains a concern of health professionals. The article presents a fragment of the study devoted to the etiology of АP. 994 children aged 4 months to 14 years with various forms of so-called community-acquired pneumonia were examined and treated. Bacteriological examination of the material from the inflammation zone was carried out in 542 patients. Experiments on modeling АP and its pleural complications were performed on 44 animals. The obtained results and critical analysis of the literature data and scientific facts allow us to consider bacteria only as one of the etiological elements of АP, which is not mandatory in all cases of the disease. Scientifically based revision of existing ideas about the causes and mechanisms of AP development leads to the need for a radical change in the principles of treatment and is a strategic direction in solving the problem.
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Staff experiences of the REFOCUS intervention to support recovery in mental health: A qualitative study nested within a cluster randomized controlled trial

Published on: 27th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8587364156

Background: The REFOCUS intervention was a whole team, complex intervention, designed to increase the recovery support offered by community based, mental health staff. The intervention consisted of two components: Recovery promoting relationships, which focused on how staff work with service users, and Recovery working practices, which focused on what activities and tasks staff and service users could do together. Aim: We aimed to investigate the experiences of community mental health workers using the REFOCUS intervention to support personal recovery. Method: In the context of the REFOCUS Trial (ISRCTN02507940), 28 semi-structured individual interviews and 4 staff focus groups, with 24 participants were conducted and thematically analyzed. Results: Staff valued coaching training and used coaching skills to have tough as well as empowering, motivational conversations with service users. They were positive about the resources within the ‘working practices’ intervention component. The whole team training and reflection sessions helped create team cultures, structures and processes which were conducive to supporting recovery practice. Conclusion: We recommend the wider use of coaching skills, strengths-based assessments, and approaches to support clinicians to broaden their understanding of service users’ values, treatment preferences and to support striving towards personally-meaningful goals. Staff who used these working practices changed their beliefs about what their service users were capable of, and became more hopeful practitioners. A team-based approach to support recovery creates a learning environment in which staff can support and challenge one another, making sustained practice change more likely.
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Behaviour management during dental treatment!!!

Published on: 28th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8878760522

Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science, which needs to be learned, practiced and reinforced in the context of clinical care and within the community oral health care system. The objective of this science is to develop in a dental practitioner an understanding of the interpersonal, intrapersonal, social forces that influence the patients’ behavior. The clinician must acquire knowledge to develop appropriate behavioral skills with an improved quality of communication and management of patients. Behavior dentistry also teaches to develop a recognition and understanding that the body and mind are not separate entities and focuses on patients’ social, emotional and physiological dental experiences. Behavior is an observable act. It is defined as any change observed in the functioning of an organism. Learning as related to behavior is a process in which experience or practice results in relatively permanent changes in an individual’s behavior. Self-perceptions of dental-facial appearance begin with aesthetic values shared within families and based generally on social norms, but that they may be strongly influenced by peer values and specific experiences of individual children, particularly those involving social responses. Theories incorporating concepts of social comparison and self-efficacy suggest that individuals evaluate themselves in comparison with others in their social environment. Children who perceive themselves to be attractive will reflect those perceptions in their behaviors and generally will receive confirming social responses. The comparison group may express an attractiveness norm that reflects negatively on the individual’s behavior. This, in turn, can affect the individual perceived sense of self-efficacy or adequacy within that group and lead to behaviors that reflect more negative beliefs about the self, thereby inviting still more negative social responses. Patient cooperation is the single most important factor every dentist must contend with. Major considerations are • Regularity in keeping appointments • Compliance in wearing removable appliances • Refraining from chewing hard and tenacious substances that are likely to distort or damage the teeth or crowns • Maintenance of oral hygiene. Laxity in following these instructions may lead not only to compromised treatment but also to slow progress of treatment, loss of chair time and frustration. What may be more interesting to the Dentist than the shaping of self-perceptions in the shaping of behavior that will ensure a successful result of treatment, that is, the patient’s adherence to prescribed routines for self-care and other regimens during Dental treatment. It is helpful in this regard to know that most patients expect improved dental-facial appearance as an outcome of treatment, but there is much more to know about factors influencing cooperation. Poor motivation can also contribute to non-compliance. The regulatory loop requires a motivational system to adjust behavior to coincide with the recommended regimen. A patient may recognize that the regimen is not being followed and yet simply not be motivated to correct the discrepancy. Poor motivation can also result from a lack of concern over the long-term health consequences of one’s behavior and/or a lack of belief in the treatment. Cognitive approaches that emphasize the personal relevance of the regimen or address misconceptions about the treatment may enhance motivation. Several approaches may be useful in treating poor compliance. Providing incentives or rewards for compliant behavior might be a useful strategy to enhance motivation. The cause of noncompliance is multifactorial and strategies to improve compliance must be tailored to fit each situation. Current Dental research focuses on a critical aspect of the feedback; specifically, the input received by the comparator that quantifies the actual amount of adherent behavior. Likewise, Patients, parents, and clinicians need a way to ascertain this information.
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Risk taking sexual behaviors among young adults – findings from a cross sectional population based survey in Barbados

Published on: 25th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8600330342

Background: The National Strategic Plan for HIV Prevention and Control 2014-2018 recognized the need for the utilization of research findings to guide the development of HIV policies, programs and interventions for the general population and key population groups and to inform the allocation of government resources to the areas of greatest impact and need. To this end, a Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Sexual Practices Survey (KABP) was conducted among adults’ ages 15 to 49 years. Objectives: To identify the sexual behaviors among adolescents and young adults that exposed them to the risks of HIV/STIs and to identify factors that may have to be addressed, in order to achieve further reduction in the spread of HIV in this population. Methods: This is a population based cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2016. Sample was taken from among persons’ ages 15 – 49 years using a multistage sampling methodology. The survey questionnaire was developed from Family Health International’s guidelines for repeated behavioral surveys in populations at risk of HIV. It was interviewer-administered and consisted of ninety-nine (99) closed-ended questions. The topics covered by the survey included sexual history; use of and access to condoms; and HIV testing. Participants were asked about their sexual behaviors over the last 12 months, and about their experience with their most recent partner. Results: Overall, 87.8% described themselves as heterosexual, 1.2% as bisexual and 0.5% as homosexual. By the age 16, 17 1nd 19 years 25%, 50% and 75% of respondents have had sex respectively. Among the 763 respondents reporting vaginal or anal sex over the past 12 months, 80.6 and 19.4% had a single and multiple sex partner respectively. Also, 94.4%, 13.3% and 1.6% reported to have regular, non-regular and commercial sex partners respectively. Overall, 54.6% used condom at the last sex, the corresponding figure for the regular and non-regular partners were 41.2% 80.8% respectively. Only 40.9% reported to have had a HIV test done over the past 12 months and of those who did not, 42.8% had never been tested for HIV. Conclusion: Inconsistent and infrequent condom use and low HIV testing especially among the adolescents and younger adults, in the setting of young ages at sexual debut and multiple sexual partners. Findings form this study strongly recommends for a much greater effort from the public health at promoting condom use and HIV testing especially targeting the younger persons who risk their own protection and that of their partners.
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The role of islamic lifestyle and healthy nutrition in accordance with the recommendations of islam and the holly quran by focusing on the risk of cancer incident

Published on: 17th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872660064

Background: The Islamic religion has emphasized the importance of health and well-being, and Muslims have recognized the value of a good and healthy life based on Islamic recommendations. Health-oriented lifestyle is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that is the purpose of this study to investigate the Islamic lifestyle. Methods: In this review study, we tried to explore practical strategies in Islam through access to credible sources in the form of a descriptive article on achieving a healthy lifestyle in nutrition. For this purpose, using keywords and electronic and manual searches in authentic Islamic and medical sources, information was searched and collected to answer the research question. Results: Based on the results of the reviewed studies, the guidelines of Islamic religion and beliefs are mainly based on improving lifestyle factors and dietary habits. It has been emphasized that adherence to the Islamic dietary guidelines and lifestyle, may lead to less risk of diseases. Conclusion: Given the availability of valuable nutritional resources and instructions in Islam to prevent and combat nutrition-related diseases, these theories can be applied and prevent from spreading and creating malnutrition-related diseases; the guidelines of Islam on healthy lifestyles in nutrition can be recommended to the world as a basic strategy
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Knowledge, attitude and behaviour of undergraduate medical students towards mentally Ill patients-Suez Canal University, Egypt

Published on: 10th September, 2022

Background: Worldwide, studies show negative attitudes among medical students toward psychiatry and mental illness. The knowledge of the attitude and awareness of the undergraduate medical students toward mental health and psychiatric disorders are most important as they are going to be involved in the care of these patients either directly or indirectly during the years of their careers.Aim: To explore, the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of undergraduate medical students towards mentally ill Patients before their planned psychiatry rotation in the fourth year of undergraduate medical study, faculty of medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.Objectives: To assess mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and intended behavior of undergraduate medical students towards mentally ill patients.Subjects and methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted on 120 fourth-year undergraduate medical students affiliated with the faculty of medicine-Suez Canal University. A comprehensive sample was used to include all of the students in the fourth year of undergraduate medical study, and the study group participants completed a semi-structured questionnaire including four parts to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral responses towards individuals with mental illnesses. The data of the study was collected in September-October 2019.Results: Based on the participants’ scores, the cut-off points estimated to dichotomize the responses as poor or good, for mental health-related knowledge, belief towards mental illness and intended behavior were, 17, 55 and 8.5 respectively. This study showed that the study participants had marginally poor mental health-related knowledge with a median score of 17, poor beliefs about mental illness with a median score of 49.5 and poor intended behavior towards the mentally ill with a median score of 7. Conclusion: In this study, undergraduate medical students showed marginally poor mental health-related knowledge, poor stigmatizing beliefs, and behavior towards mentally ill patients. More controlled studies are needed to eliminate the inherent response biases in survey studies and to measure the outcomes of anti-stigma educational and curricular interventions. 
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Medical Ethical Issues, an Islamic Perspective

Published on: 8th February, 2024

Morality is a unique human subject. It is affected by a number of cultural factors, such as history, tradition, education, and religious beliefs. Ethics is based on two basic concepts: one is a "value" and the other is the duties "must". In the Islamic faith Health and illness as life and death are not mere facts, they include many values that must be respected. The disease, for example, is not only a medical scientific fact like other physiological phenomena. Despite the rise of secular people most of the arabs are believers and religion remains a significant force in society. Diseases and physical suffering have a big impact on the Muslim's life. It tests endurance, faith, and submission to one almighty God, who has healing powers for all patients. How staff ‘does’ good medical ethics depends on this perspective. To understand the Islamic contribution to medical ethics, five topics are discussed; first, obeying. God's commandments; second, categorising of commandments; third, the 5 guiding principles of Islamic Law (maqased); fourth, judging actions by intention and fifth, refers to a warrant belief in the divine decree and the predestination. In many Western countries multi-cultures and multi-religious textures are met including Muslim citizens and new immigrants. Medical Staff will be required at one point during their work to treat these Muslim patients; therefore, a minimum level of cultural awareness is a prerequisite for the delivery of care that is culturally sensitive. In this paper, there is the highlight of certain key teachings in Islamic medical issues and their applications. Hopefully, the insights gained will aid medical staff to better understand their Muslim patients and deliver care that pays due respect to their beliefs.Muslims in the U.S. and in Europe come from diverse backgrounds. Understanding their beliefs and observances is crucial for providing culturally competent care. In bringing any religious perspective to bear on medico-moral issues, a willingness to listen and courtesy in the debate is necessary.
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