Biolog

The influence of physical activities on biological age parameters of females from 17 to 18 years old

Published on: 17th August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7844553552

The effect of weekly physical activity on biological age (BA) parameters, we have conducted a study 215 females from 17 to 18 years old who were divided into the experimental (EG, n=105) and control (CG, n=110) groups. It was established that if at the end of the experiment the BA parameters of the females CG weren’t a significantly different from the average data (p>0.05), then there was a statistically significant decrease in the BA parameters of the females EG. This was confirmed by statistical probability (p<0.01), which suggests the dependence of biological age parameters on the extent of weekly physical activity.
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Analysis of static, dynamic, and pelvic stability in junior badminton players of South Asia

Published on: 19th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7893702351

Badminton is a sport that requires a player to perform while being still, as well as in motion. Stability is the ability to maintain or control joint movement or joint position, in the static as well as dynamic state. Improvement in stability could help maintain body control and proper posture positions during play. Accordingly, the study was proposed to analyze stability in junior badminton players and understand its importance. A total of 106 players from South Asia between the ages of 8 and 15 years were analyzed. Prokin 252N and Balance trunk MF systems of Tecnobody Italy were used in the assessment and static, dynamic, and pelvic stability was recorded. The variables used were gender, age, body mass index, and experience in years, level at which they play, current pain, and clicks & catches in the past 1 year. Our study showed that there was significant difference in pelvic stability in terms of age and level at which players compete. There were a variety of other factors which do not affect stability. There needs to be a greater focus on stability training as part of the development of junior badminton players.
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Cardiomyopathies - The special entity of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy

Published on: 1st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192807959

Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease with structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, and congenital heart disease. However, it has become clear that diverse etiologies and clinical manifestations (e.g. arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D), ARVD/C, left-ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC)) are responsible for the clinical picture of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The American Heart Association (AHA) classification grouped cardiomyopathies into genetic, mixed and acquired forms, while the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) classification proposed the subgrouping of each major type of cardiomyopathy into familial or genetic, and nonfamilial or nongenetic, forms [1-4]. Cardiomyopathies are clinically heterogeneous diseases, and there are differences in sex, age of onset, rate of progression, risk of development of overt heart failure and likelihood of sudden death within each cardiomyopathy subtype [5]. Because of the complex etiology and clinical presentation, the diagnostic spectrum in cardiomyopathies spans the entire range of non-invasive and invasive cardiological examination techniques including genetic analysis. The exact verification of certain cardiomyopathies necessitates additional investigations. So, histological, immunohistological and molecular biological/virological investigations of endomyocardial biopsies are the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis of an inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi) [6-10]. This review focuses on myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathies underlying an immune-mediated process or persistent viral infection.
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Effect of hemodialysis session on acute changes in inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers

Published on: 9th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9269418657

Background: Inflammation is associated with enhanced cardiovascular risk profile and increased cardiovascular mortality in end-stage kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Mechanisms of activated acute phase reaction in patients on chronic hemodialysis remain to be identified. As successful treatment of the inflammatory condition in these patients may improve long-term survival, we studied potential changes in different inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in end-stage kidney disease patients after a mid-week hemodialysis session. Methods: Inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk (cystatin-C, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, pentraxin-3, serum amyloid-A) and atherogenic plasma lipoproteins (Lipoprotein(a), cholesterol low and high density lipoproteins) were studied in 21 end-stage kidney disease patients previously and after a mid-week hemodialysis session. Results: We found a significant reduction in serum levels of low molecular weight molecules: cystatin-C (5.56 to 1.85 mg/L, 66.73%, p < 0.001), homocysteine (22.85 to 13.25 µmol/L, 42.01%, p < 0.001) and procalcitonin (0.788 to 0.457 ng/mL, 42.01%, p < 0.001). Large molecules as C-reactive protein (9.70 to 9.90 mg/L, 2.06%, p = 0.022) and pentraxin-3 (1.67 to 4.28 ng/mL, 156%, p < 0.001) increased, but serum amyloid-A decreased (15.90 to 12.70 mg/L, 20.13%, p < 0.05). There was no change in Lipoprotein (a) levels. Conclusion: Pentraxin-3 was a more specific inflammatory vascular marker than C-reactive protein, and the best inflammatory marker associated with hemodialysis. Homocysteine, procalcitonin and the other small proteins could be released and removed during hemodialysis session. Further studies are needed to understand the behavior and significance of these markers after successive hemodialysis.
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A Short Synthesis Concerning Biological Effects and Equivalent Doses in Radiotherapy

Published on: 15th April, 2017

The limits of classical equivalent computation based on time, dose, and fractionation (TDF) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding the delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. In this letter, we propose an outline related to the different models usable for equivalent and biological doses that are likely to be the most appropriate. The used methodology is based on: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames.
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Mechanism-related Teratogenic, Hormone Modulant and other Toxicological effects of Veterinary and agricultural surfactants

Published on: 18th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325078577

Veterinary and agricultural surfactants are supposed to be inert additives, yet these substances commonly exert biological side-effects, in given cases synergistic with those of the active ingredients of these preparations. This is explicitly seen in altered toxicity of veterinary or pesticide formulations compared to their active ingredients alone. Neither the individual effects of these excipients, nor such combination effects are well-studied in toxicology, and therefore, possible toxicity consequences are occasionally not being considered at sufficient significance in the authorization, use and control of these substances. Risk assessment of these substances should cover all hazards they may represent, and corresponding levels of exposure. Surfactants used in veterinary and pesticide formulation enter the environment either by direct dispersion or by indirect release through excrement, leaching, sewage waters or sludge, and in turn, create potential exposure to a number of non-target organisms. Biochemical and (eco)toxicological hazards recently identified regarding certain agricultural surfactants include cytotoxicity (on cell lines of epithelial, neural and other tissues, as well as stem cells and tumor cells), endocrine disrupting effects, as well as aquatic ecotoxicity. This Mini Review summarizes toxicological effects identified in our studies in aquatic toxicity tests, in cell viability and cytotoxicity tests, in estrogenic activity assays, correlated with biochemical analysis of the surfactants and their decomposition. The conclusions are hoped to facilitate environmentally precautious revision of surfactants widely used in agriculture.
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Influence of Vitamin E on the Disposition Kinetics of Florfenicol after single and multiple oral administrations in Broiler Chickens

Published on: 12th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317595688

Investigation the influences of vitamin (vit) E over a period of 5 days on the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol after single and multiple oral administrations in broiler chickens. Total of 12 broiler chickens had been taken single and multiple oral administrations of florfenicol (30 mg/kg) alone or pre-treated with vit E (2 mg/kg). The serum concentrations of florfenicol were determined using microbiological assay with Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 25922) as a tested microorganism. The mean serum concentrations of florfenicol alone were markedly lower when compared with florfenicol pre-treated with vit E after single and multiple dosing. The peak serum concentrations (Cmax) were 5.9±0.46, 7.48±0.3 ug/ml, absorption half-life (t0.5ab) of 0.51±0.06, 0.71±0.1 h and elimination half-life (t0.5el) of 2.72±0.34, 3.34±0.5 after single florfenicol alone and florfenicol pre-treated with vit E respectively. While, after multiple dosing, (Cmax) were 7.4±0.3, 8.04±0.3 ug/ml, (t0.5ab) 0.82±0.04, 0.81±0.04 h and (t0.5 el) 3.77±0.2, 4.52±0.7 h after multiple dosing of florfenicol alone and florfenicol pre-treated with vit E respectively. In conclusion Vit E alter the disposition kinetics of florfenicol after single and multiple oral administrations as, vit E allows prolongation of the duration of action for more 24 and 48 h of the drug concentration in the serum indicated by prolonged elimination half-lives and MRT reflecting the importance of this combination for the drug duration in serum but the increase in the serum concentration of florfenicol increasing its efficacy not toxicity as florfenicol of wide safety margin so, it’s advisable for poultry farms owners to use this combinations.
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An analysis of wild animals with respect to French Ethics and Law

Published on: 9th May, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8163878958

Before discussing the crux of the matter, it is important to understand what “wild” signifies and the characteristics that define a wild animal. As contrasted to domesticated animals, a wild animal can be defined as an animal living freely in his natural habitat, independently of Man. These animals are only exposed to variations in the biological equilibrium, to the imperatives of their genetic program and live in a habitat that gives them the possibility of expressing it themselves. However, this definition is very narrow as there exist a number of species of wild animals that don’t live freely in their natural habitat. These animals are constrained by Man, who by creating a relationship of dependence, controls them and in turn becomes responsible for their sustenance. In such a situation, their habitat is no more their natural habitat but than which has been imposed on them by Man; such animals are said to be “held in captivity” or even “tamed”. In short, when talking about law and ethics related to wild animals, there are two things to be taken into account: wild animals that live in the wild and wild animals that live held in captivity by Man.
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Time to Terminate LNT: Radiation Regulators Should Adopt LT

Published on: 26th June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286353862

The linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNT)-the basis of radiation regulatory policy-extrapolates from observed high-dose harm to assumed low-dose harm, entailing that all ionizing radiation is harmful, by denying any biological response to damage and asserting cumulative lifetime harm, regardless of dose or dose rate. All aspects of LNT are demonstrably false. There are evolved biological responses that repair or remove radiogenic damage from low doses and dose rates, thereby averting acute harm and precluding the alleged cumulative damage. LNT and its offspring, the “as low as reasonably achievable” principle, do not err on the side of caution; neither is truly conservative. The public needs protection from radiophobia, rather than from low-dose radiation exposure. Neither radiation regulations nor medical practice should be based on LNT, but rather, at least as a first step, on a linear (down to a) threshold (LT) model.
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Synthesis, Radioiodination and Biological distribution of 5-(5-(tributylstannyl) benzofuran-2-yl) pyridin-2-amine as an amyloid imaging agent

Published on: 26th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317576309

In this work an efficient method developed for the synthesis of 125I-benzofuran-2-yl) pyridin-2-amine (125IBPA), followed by radioiodination with 125I by using Chloramine-T at pH 8. The reaction proceeds within 10 min at room temperature (20-25°C). The radiochemical yield determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) using hexane:ethyl acetate (1:6 v/v) and the purity analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase RP18column and acetonitrile:0.1 M ammonium bicarbonate (pH 7.5) (1:1) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml×min−1. The radiochemical yield using aH2O2 oxidant found equal to 96.5% with a radiochemical purity of 125I-BPA of over 96.5%. The biodistribution data in normal mice indicated a high initial uptake of 6.54±0.10 (% ID/g±SD) in the brain within 30 min post-injection. These results promote a further the use of 125I-BPA as a novel agent for brain imaging.
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Esthetic recovery of permanent Mandibular Lateral Incisor using biological post after non-surgical healing of Periradicular Lesion: A Case Report

Published on: 22nd June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286353205

Statement of the problem: Anterior tooth fracture, as a result of traumatic injuries, frequently occurs in dentistry. This leads to necrosis of pulp and periapical pathology. The goal of endodontic and restorative dentistry is to retain natural teeth with maximum function and pleasing esthetics. Purpose of the study: This study aimed at proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth through the procedure known as “Biological Restoration.” Materials and methods: Biological post obtained through natural, extracted teeth from another individual represents a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of damaged anterior teeth that provides highly functional and esthetic outcomes. Conclusions: This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of mandibular left lateral incisor after non-surgical healing of periradicular lesion.
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Low Level Light Therapy (LLLT): Penetration and Photobiomodulation

Published on: 31st July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286425855

Mester et al., stated the laser effects in a review of their studies of 15 various biological systems, they observed the stimulating effect of low energy (in terms of J/cm2) laser and inhibiting effect of high energy laser and later reported the relationship of cumulative energy applied and the effects conforms to the Arndt-Schultz law. They concluded their experience with 875 healed cases and the results of their experiments had convinced them to recommend the use of lasers to stimulate wound healing [1].
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Imaging modalities delivery of RNAi therapeutics in cancer therapy and clinical applications

Published on: 4th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9039869756

The RNA interference (RNAi) technique is a new modality for cancer therapy, and several candidates are being tested clinically. Nanotheranostics is a rapidly growing field combining disease diagnosis and therapy, which ultimately may add in the development of ‘personalized medicine’. Technologies on theranostic nanomedicines has been discussed. We designed and developed bioresponsive and fluorescent hyaluronic acid-iodixanol nanogels (HAI-NGs) for targeted X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and chemotherapy of MCF-7 human breast tumors. HAI-NGs were obtained with a small size of ca. 90 nm, bright green fluorescence and high serum stability from hyaluronic acid-cystamine-tetrazole and reductively degradable polyiodixanol-methacrylate via nanoprecipitation and a photo-click crosslinking reaction. This chapter presents an over view of the current status of translating the RNAi cancer therapeutics in the clinic, a brief description of the biological barriers in drug delivery, and the roles of imaging in aspects of administration route, systemic circulation, and cellular barriers for the clinical translation of RNAi cancer therapeutics, and with partial content for discussing the safety concerns. Finally, we focus on imaging-guided delivery of RNAi therapeutics in preclinical development, including the basic principles of different imaging modalities, and their advantages and limitations for biological imaging. With growing number of RNAi therapeutics entering the clinic, various imaging methods will play an important role in facilitating the translation of RNAi cancer therapeutics from bench to bedside.
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The effects of EMF (ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS) on the Bone and Cartilage Tissue

Published on: 1st May, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286356767

Environmental electromagnetic fields are nowadays available in all environments today. These areas affect the biological system. Controlled interactions with elecrtomagnetic fields can have positive effects when unrestricted interactions have negative effects. Uncontrolled exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic fields can cause adverse effects such as signal transduction in cells and tissues, cell membrane structure, ion channels, molecular interactions, DNA damage. But contrary to controlled exposure, it positively affects tissues. The most obvious example of this is seen in the bone and cartilaginous tissue. Repairing fractures and damage in bone and cartilage. This has been shown in many studies. Below is a summary of the relevant information.
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A Review on filaricidal activity of phytochemical extracts against filariasis and the Parasites Genomic Diversity

Published on: 26th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7912403155

Filariasis is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) known to be of serious public health importance and pose devastating socio-economic burden especially among the poor people in tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The parasite is responsible for lymphatic filariasis affecting about 1.3 billion people in 72 countries worldwide. The major parasitic agents of the infection are three closely related nematodes of clade Onchocercidaei namely Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori that are transmitted to human through bites by mosquitoes of genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. The disease is targeted by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination by 2020 through the use of chemically synthesized drugs used as therapeutic agents to cure the disease but there are some setbacks. Phytochemical extracts are viewed as alternative therapy in the management of the disease. Additionally, the species have many ecological variants and are diversified in terms of their genetic fingerprint. This diversification in terms of genomic sequences as well as rapid infection rate warrant the lymphatic filarial parasites to respond differently to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Thus understanding the genomic diversity of the parasite will help in efficient therapeutic management of the disease, thereby eliminating it to prevent unnecessary suffering and contribute to the reduction of poverty. In this review, we have highlighted on the used for phytochemical extracts in the therapeutic management of the lymphatic and the molecular genetic diversity of the parasite was delineated.
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Knowledge, perception and practices of Suez Canal University students regarding Hepatitis C Virus infection risk and means of prevention

Published on: 5th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8197638609

Background: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV in the world as more than 10% of population suffers from HCV infection. High prevalence of HCV in Egypt represents a great risk to the whole population that requires aggressive mass awareness regarding routes of infection and means of prevention. Aim: To determine the knowledge and practices of university students in 5 different faculties in Suez Canal University regarding HCV infection and means of prevention. Materials and method: A cross sectional study was conducted in five university faculties in Suez Canal University. Results: The study included 698 students from the faculties of Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Nursing and Education in Suez Canal University in Ismailia city in Egypt. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the knowledge about the diagnosis, complications and routes of transmission total knowledge score for HCV among the different faculties. Conclusion and Recommendations: Knowledge and practices of university students in Suez Canal University is partial to weak especially in students of non-biological sciences who have less close contact with patients
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in silico discovery of potential inhibitors against Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4: A major biological target of Type-2 diabetes mellitus

Published on: 26th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560723476

Objectives: Type-2 diabetes mellitus, caused by impaired secretion of insulin, is becoming one of the health hazardous threats to human lives across the world. Its prevalence is rising with time. In this study, 2750 phytochemicals, that are considered to have great ability to eliminate diseases caused by different viruses and bacteria, are obtained from different medicinal plants and discovery of inhibitors through in silico method was performed against Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). Method: The pharmacological assessment and pharmacokinetics of phytochemicals, molecular docking and density functional theory (DFT) analysis helped to explore the inhibitory action of phytochemicals against DPP4. Total forty-nine phytochemicals were screened initially to reduce the number of compounds to be analyzed further based on a threshold of binding affinity ≥ -5.5 kcal/mol and were considered for further computational studies to analyze their inhibitory effects for DPP4. For comparison and validation of the results of present study, various previously reported and experimentally validated compounds were docked with the DPP4. For these dockings, binding affinity was predicted and compared with those of phytochemicals to check if these phytochemicals are competent enough to be used as an inhibitor in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the future. Results: Only four phytochemicals showed binding affinity greater than those of experimentally validated compounds. These included two phytochemicals from Silybum marianum, i.e. Diprenyleriodictyol and Taxifolin and while other two phytochemicals from Santolina insularis and Erythrina Varigatae i.e. Papraline and Osajin respectively. The reactivity levels for these four phytochemicals with the binding site residues of DPP4 were obtained by DFT based analysis, in which ELUMO, EHOMO and band energy gap were computed. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is concluded that these four phytochemicals, after passing through in vitro and in vivo validation, can be utilized as potential DPP4 inhibitors as they have strong properties as compared to those of various experimentally validated inhibitors.
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Physicochemical and microbiological quality of tanker waters in Bengaluru urban for safe water supply

Published on: 11th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8601971117

This study investigated the water quality of tanker waters that was collected from Bengaluru urban areas to assess its suitability for domestic purpose. A total of 50 samples were collected in dry (March 2019) season. All samples were analyzed for various hydrochemical parameters, such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (as CaCO3), calcium (CaCO2+), chloride (CaCO−) and nitrate (NO3−). Bacteriological analyses of water samples were analyzed for total coliform count. A very high level of total hardness (186 - 434.6 mg L-1) was determined in 27 water samples tested in this study indicating the necessity of water treatment before used for domestic purpose. Of the 50 samples tested, 7 showed a most probable number (MPN) index of < 23 and 9 showed < 240 and the remaining 34 were unsatisfactory with an MPN index of > 1600 per 100 ml. In some locations, the presence of high MPN index, in particular, rings the bell before using the tanker water in houses and restaurants. Exploration of the mechanisms by which water quality deteriorates during supply chain and potential implication for regulatory policy for monitoring of tanker water while distribution is the need of the hour.
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Chemical constituents and biological activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus lam (Jackfruit): A review

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8987258409

Artocarpus (Moraceae) is a deciduous tree with appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit and is widely used in folk medicines. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus heterophyllus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds. This review indents to compile various studies on A. heterophyllus and critically evaluates its ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological properties. Several pharmacological studies from A. heterophyllus have conclusively established their mode of action in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Based on the available data, it is concluded that Artocarpus as a promising source of useful products and opens up new avenues for novel therapeutics.
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Analysis of Pyogenic Liver Abscesses

Published on: 19th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325071770

Background: Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) are frequent in immunosuppressed patients. We review the characteristics of patients with PLA at a tertiary academic Spanish hospital in Asturias. Methods: A retrospective observational study for 10 years, between 2006-2015. Epidemiological, clinical, analytical characteristics, treatment and hospital stay of the patients with PLA were analyzed. Results: 99 patients, 62 (62.6%) men, with age ≥65 years (72.7%). The most frequent etiology was: Biliary (40%), postsurgical (15%) and intestinal origin (11%). The most frequent clinical signs were fever, showing significant differences, abdominal pain (p=0.001) and nausea (p=0.02) between biliary PLA and the rest of the PLA. Microbiological results were confirmed in 63% (62 cases). All were treated with antibiotic therapy, along with percutaneous drainage (44.4% (44 cases)); and surgical drainage (12.1% (12 cases)). The overall mean stay was 23.1 days without significant differences between those treated with percutaneous drainage or surgical drainage. Conclusion: PLA predominate in patients ≥65 years. Biliary PLA are the most frequent, diagnosed at an older age than the intestinal PLA (p=0.005). - The treatment is based on systemic antibiotherapy and percutaneous drainage, especially in PLA only >5cm (p=0.019). - There are no significant differences in average stay of patients treated with percutaneous drainage or surgical drainage.
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