Cadmium

A Gateway to Metal Resistance: Bacterial Response to Heavy Metal Toxicity in the Biological Environment

Published on: 3rd September, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7893781761

Heavy metals and metalloids are dangerous because they have the tendency to bioaccumulate in biological organisms over a period of time. However, it is conceived that a number of phytochemical agents as well microorganism can act as heavy metal removing agent both from human beings and the environment surrounding. For instance, microbes are used for the removal of heavy metals from the water bodies including bacteria, fungi, algae and yeast. This review shows that bacteria can play an important role in understanding the uptake and potential removal behaviour of heavy metal ions. The bacteria are chosen based on their resistance to heavy metals (incl. their toxicities) and capacity of adsorbing them. Due to specific resistance transfer factors, cell impermeability is drastically inhibited by several ion (i.e. mercury, cadmium, cobalt, copper, arsenic) forms. Between these elements, free-ion cadmium and copper concentrations in the biological medium provide more accurate determination of metal concentrations that affect the bacteria, than with most of the other existing media. Metal toxicity is usually assessed by using appropriate metal ion chelators and adjusting pH factor. Bacteria and metals in the ecosystem can form synergistic or antagonistic relationships, supplying each other with nutrients or energy sources, or producing toxins to reduce growth and competition for limiting nutritional elements. Thus, this relation may present a more sustainable approach for the restoration of contaminated sources.
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Effect of cement solidification on strength and leaching properties of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil

Published on: 13th August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7844539292

This study investigated the effect of Portland cement on stabilization of heavy metal contaminated clayey soils that may give range of geo environemntal benefits. The absolute concentration of heavy metals: Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd) and Copper (Cu) were measured using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). A series of laboratory scale experiments such as unconfined compression test (UCT), pH test and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were performed to study the effects of curing time and cement content on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching characteristics of heavy metals. According to results, excessive concentration of heavy metals are present in the topsoil of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) among which Pb, Zn and Cd were most prominent. Other test results showed that the dry density of both C4 and C8 soil samples increases with curing time. Similarly the compressive strength (qu)of C4 and C8 samples at 21 d of curing increases by 40% (113 kPa-288 kPa) and 15% (745kPa-864 kPa) respectively, as compared to the 7 d of curing. Besides, the test results showed a prominent decrease in the leached concentration of heavy metals with increasing curing time.
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Ranking of cadmium low amount measurement systems according to economic, environmental, and functional indicators using ELECTRE analytical method

Published on: 8th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9244774024

Cadmium is one of the transition metals, known by the scientific name Cd. One of its main characteristics is the high toxicity, even in very little amounts. Cadmium is often released through industrial effluents, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and the burning of fossil fuels. Since the presence of cadmium ions in the living organisms’ body, especially humans, can cause serious damage to the liver and pancreas, and also because its role in causing cancer has been proven, measuring very low amounts of this metal is of high importance. In the first step, this study has reviewed and analyzed common laboratory methods for measuring small amounts of cadmium. Then, according to economic, environmental, feasibility, speed, and accuracy factors, all available methods were evaluated using the ELECTRE technique. The results showed that the extraction methods using Dowex Optipore V-493 resin and extraction system in Triton X-114 surfactant, placed in the first and second positions.
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Behavior evaluation of freundlich and langmuir isotherms in cadmium preconcentration using solid phase extraction method for linear and nonlinear numerical computational patterns

Published on: 8th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9244773069

Cadmium is naturally present in the mineral cadmium sulfide which is a rare form of this element and the highest amount of cadmium is obtained from the extraction process of other minerals such as lead, copper and zinc. The release of this metal into the environment leads to widespread epidemiological effects. Therefore, measuring small amounts of this metal is also of particular importance. Small amount measuring methods of this metal are such as,preconcentration using solid phase extraction system using adsorbents. The main part of the preconcentration process is achieved by adsorption processes. In this study, the behavior of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms for the capacity of TMON and IMNM adsorbents in cadmium adsorption has been evaluated by Power and Rational statistical distributions. At the end of the study, the constant coefficients of the Freundlich and Langmuir models were compared in both linear and non-linear modes. The results showed; the linearization method for the Kf coefficient of the Freundlich isotherm can cause errors equal to 41.6% in TMON adsorbent and 39.3% in IMNM adsorbent. Also, in parameter b, errors of 66.66% are obtained in TMON adsorbent and 32.45% in IMNM adsorbent.
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Evaluation of Heavy Metals Concentration in Poultry Feed and Poultry Products

Published on: 11th July, 2023

The study was conducted to determine the absorption of essential and non-essential trace minerals from poultry feed to poultry products. Poultry feed, liver, muscles, and egg samples were collected from six poultry farms in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, and Iron were analyzed in the samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Iron, Lead, and Chromium exceeded the permissible limits set by World Health Organization and National Research Council in Poultry feed. Lead was high in the liver, breast muscles, thigh muscles, egg albumen, and egg yolk. Chromium was found in feed, egg yolk, egg albumen, and two (02) of the liver and breast muscle samples. Mercury was not detected in any of the samples. The liver contains significantly higher concentrations of detected heavy metals as compared to thigh and breast muscles and egg yolk contained significantly high concentrations of Iron, Cadmium, and Lead as compared to egg albumen. Standards requirements for feed manufacturers and poultry farmers should be maintained to monitor and mitigate routes of entry of contaminants in the food chain.
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Determination of the Effect of Zinc Acetate as a Doped Substance on the Properties of Cadmium Sulfide Nanomaterials by using a Hydrothermal Interaction Technique

Published on: 14th September, 2023

In the current work, cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) NPs were synthesized via the hydrothermal interaction technique. Especially, the deviation in zinc Acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2 with 0.5% 1.5%, and 2.25% was examined for its part in nanoparticles size. The nanoparticle size seems to reduce from 149.7 nm to 116.3 nm by enhancing the zinc acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2. With increasing zinc acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2 in CdS (Cadmium Sulfide) small lattice phase changes appeared due to angle peaks of diffraction shifting toward higher angle. The standard crystallite size and lattice parameters were analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization. The average crystallite size and volume unit cell were found to increment with increasing Zinc acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2 concentrations. Absorption peaks in the UV visible spectra corresponding to zinc acetate Zn(CH3CO2)2 of CdS (Cadmium Sulfide) were analyzed at various wavelengths of 368 nm and 369 and 371nm. These findings show the tuning ability of structural, and optical characteristics of cadmium sulfide (CdS) NPs.
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Isolation and Influence of Carbon Source on the Production of Extracellular Polymeric Substance by Bacteria for the Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Santo Amaro City

Published on: 9th February, 2024

The city of Santo Amaro (Bahia, Brazil) gained visibility among the scientific community due to the contamination of the Subaé River by lead and cadmium from the PLUMBUM Mineração e Metalurgia Ltda industry, on the banks of the river in 1956, which produced lead ingots The present work aimed to investigate the adsorption capacity of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) of EPS produced by bacterial species from the Subaé River, for possible future application of these biopolymers in bioremediation processes in areas impacted by the aforementioned heavy metals. Subaé river water was collected for physical-chemical analysis and bacterial isolation. It was verified that all isolated bacteria produced an expressive amount of Exopolysaccharide (EPS). Thus, the optimization of this production in different sugars (sucrose, glucose, and mannitol) and in three different pHs: 5.5; 6.5, and 7.5. All bacteria produced EPS in large quantities and the best sugar was sucrose at pH 7.5. In order to use the EPS for the bioremediation area, the adsorption test of lead and cadmium was carried out by the isolated EPS. 0.5 g of the EPS was dissolved in 50 ml of deionized water, then the solutions of metals, lead acetate, and cadmium sulfate (procedure performed separately) were incubated at 28 °C for 16 h after that period, and were centrifuged. Samples were filtered to separate the insoluble EPS and the filtrates obtained were used in the quantification of the metals by atomic absorption (FAAS- Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry). Bacillus spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus spp., and Serratiamarcescens, all showed tolerance to the tested metals, due to the efficiency in the adsorption capacity of the EPS, and it was possible to distinguish seven genera, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lysinibacillus spp. to be used in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with heavy metals.
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Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Commercial Baby Foods

Published on: 21st February, 2024

Nutritious and safe foods are essential to meet normal physiological and metabolic functions. This study evaluated heavy metals in selected food products for newborns and toddlers. These substances may result in adverse health risks and young children are extremely vulnerable due to their immature immune systems and organs. Industrialization and technological advancement have contributed to an increase in heavy metals in the soil; therefore, entering the food system in potentially harmful amounts. Safe levels have been established by monitoring agencies to reduce the presence of heavy metals. Ten national brands of baby foods were analyzed for selected heavy metals. The main ingredients ranged from vegetables, fruits, dairy, poultry, meats, and grains. The products were analyzed in triplicates using QQQ-ICP-MS instrumentation to detect the presence of arsenic, cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminum, and chromium. Based on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [1] guidelines for safe quantities, aluminum (4.09 µg/g and 2.50 µg/g) and zinc (33.5 µg/g 69.5 µg/g, and 30.2 µg/g) exceeded the recommended levels of 1 µg/g/day and 2 - 3 µg/g /day respectively. Mixed model analysis found significant differences in metal concentrations (F6,24 = 2.75, p = 0.03) with an average metal concentration of 0.96 µg/g. However, no significant correlations were found between the packaging materials used and the observed metal concentrations in the food samples. The study concluded that the presence of heavy metals may be due to food type and the soil on which it is grown and not the packaging materials, establishing food system contamination by heavy metals.
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