Aim: To compare the anatomical and functional outcomes of cataract surgery with manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) to those of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) in Lome.
Patients and Methods: A prospective study involved two groups of patients who underwent ECCE (group 1) and MSICS (group 2) by the same surgeon in the same conditions in different periods. Complications and visual results to the 45th postoperative day were compared.
Results: At the 45th postoperative day, 60% of operated eyes of the ECCE group (G1) and 83.9% in the group of MSICS (G2) had uncorrected visual acuity greater than or equal to 3/10. Through the pinhole, these proportions increased to 73.3% for G1 and 92.2% for G2. Visual acuity was less than 1/10 in 4.4% for G1 and 1.1% for G2. The vitreous loss was observed in proportions of 3.8% for G1 and 3.3% for G2. During follow-up, the three main early postoperative complications were inflammation (13.9%), corneal edema (13.3%), and the pigment dispersion (7.2%) in G1 and corneal edema (9.4%), pigment dispersion (8.3%) and hypertonia (6.6%) in G 2.
Conclusion: Two cataract extraction techniques offer the same level of safety in intraoperative period. However, MSICS has certain advantages over the ECCE and would be an alternative technique in developing countries.
Irvine-Gass syndrome, is one of the most common causes of painless decrease in vision following even uneventful cataract surgery. It usually responds well to medical therapy, but, there are no widely acceptedconsensus on the efficacy of various therapeutic options for the treatment of Irvine-Gass syndrome. The patient presenting in this case report, has systemic hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and he use oral anti-hypertension medication and inhaler steroid. He diagnosed as Irvine-Gass syndrome due to presence of decrease in visual acuity and macular edema with hyporeflective cystic intraretinal spaces in optical coherence tomography (OCT) since4th weekcontrol visitfollowing uneventful cataract surgery. After the responsiveness of several medications including topical steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF), intravitreal sustained-release dexamethasone implant was applied. The visual acuity improved to 0.00 logMAR at 1st month after intravitreal dexamethasone therapy and consecutive OCT images showed complete resolution of macular edema with a normalization of the foveal profile.The visual acuity and foveal architecture remained stable in 2-year follow-up period and additional treatment was not needed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reportthatmentions the increment of visual acuity after a single dexamethasone implant, even though it did not response anti-VEGF combined with topical steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Among eye diseases, cataract is the most commonly encountered lens disease and the leading cause of reduced vision. Cataract caused by radiation develops due to neck & head, central nervous system tumors, eye localized tumors and total body irradiation. Today, the only treatment of cataract is surgery.
Beta radiation is seen to have an important place both in the etiology and treatment of cataract. Beta-radiation creates cataract in the lens as an adverse effect. However, beta radiation implementation is used for delay or prevention of cataract in glaucoma surgery. Effects of beta-radiation on the etiology and treatment should be supported by further prospective clinical studies.
Obesity is a chronic and metabolic disease with a high increasing prevalence worldwide. It has multifactorial pathogenesis including genetic and behavioral factors [1-5]. Overweight and obesity have been defined and classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) [2,3]. A person with a normal weight has Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9. A person with a BMI under 18.5 is called underweight. An adult having a BMI of 25-29.9 is overweight and pre-obese. Class 1 obesity is defined as a BMI between 30.00-34.99. Class 2 (Severe) Obesity is to have a BMI between 35.00-39.99. Morbid (Extreme, Class 3) obesity is to have a BMI over 40 [1-5]. Obesity is significantly associated with enhanced morbidity and mortality rates. It has also various economic, medical and psychological effects and causes health problems including many systemic diseases, economic costs and burdens, social and occupational stigmatization and discrimination and productivity loss [4-6]. Obesity carries the increased risk of development of many systemic and chronic diseases, including sleep apnea, depression, insulin resistance, Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes, Gout and related arthritis, degenerative arthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, heart disease such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or coronary artery disease, polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive disorders, Pickwickian syndrome (obesity, red face and hypoventilation), metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholecystitis, cerebrovascular accident, colonic and renal cancer, rectal and prostatic cancer in males, and gallbladder, uterus and breast cancer in females [6-12].
In recent years, some publications reported that obesity has been strongly associated with some ocular diseases including age-related cataract and maculopathy, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy [13-16].
The recent reports demonstrated that the central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure were increased while as mean thickness of RNFL and retinal ganglion cell and choroidal thickness (CT) were decreased in the morbidly obese subjects [17-19]. However, another study has reported that CT increased in obese children . On the other hand, a recent study reported that all values of the specific tests used to evaluate the ocular surface were within the normal range . In some experimental studies, it has been demonstrated that obesity may cause retinal degeneration [22,23]. Additionally, in a past meeting presentation, it has been speculated that keratoconus is associated with severe obesity . Teorically, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and papilledema may also be associated with obesity . Obesity may be also a cause of mechanical eyelid abnormalities such as entropion . However, further investigations are needed to detect the significant relationship between these diseases and obesity.
On the other hand, the ocular surgeries of obese patients are difficult compared to normal weight-subjects. The posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss may easily develop during cataract surgery of these patients because obese patients have an elevated vitreous pressure and operating table cannot often be lowered or surgeon’s chair cannot be elevated sufficiently to provide the clear viewing of the operating area and tissues. So, some different surgical manipulations such as standing phacoemulsification technique and reverse Trendelenburg position have been developed. Additionally, the standing vitrectomy technique has been used for vitreoretinal interventions in morbidly obese patients [27,28].
In conclusion, all obese subjects should be subjected to a completed ophthalmological examination and to relevant clinics for the detection of possible comorbidities and diseases
Cystoid macular edema is a common cause for unexplained painless vision loss after cataract surgery. Even the pathogenesis of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) still remains undefined, it can most frequently occur in eyes with high vasoactive profile, had complicated cataract surgery such as posterior capsule rupture and risk of inflammation. Increased inflammation, ultimately leading to the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier and cystic accumulation of extracellular intraretinal fluid. The natural history of PCME is spontaneous resolution without any treatment in most of patient, but it may take weeks or months, in addition permanent visual morbidity may occur in some cases. Therefore there is lack of consensus regarding treatment approach for this common ocular condition.
In this review treatment alternatives of PCME and its relation with underlying patho-physiologic mechanism are evaluated.
Purpose: Analyze Microincision Cataract surgery wound using Fourier-Domain optical coherence tomography.
Setting: Medical School of Medicine, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasília, Brazil.
Design: Prospective comparative observational study
Methods: Forty eyes were included in this prospective study divided in two groups: with contact lens (CL) and without contact lens (WCL). A line scan pattern of the corneal incisions were acquired using a Spectral domain OCT system immediately after the surgery, and at postoperative days 1, 7 and 30. Incisions were analyzed regarding length, location, angle, architecture, and anatomic imperfections.
Results: All incisions were located temporal or nasal superiorly. The average wound length was 1.28 + 0.18mm and the mean incision angle was 49 + 9 degrees. The average wound length of the WCL group mean was 1.24 + 0.17 mm and the mean incision angle was 51 + 8 degrees. Comparing groups for the length and the angle, the incisions measurements were not statistically significant. Anatomic imperfections were observed at the first day postoperative in 12 eyes for CL group and in 13 eyes for the WCL group. No patient presented endophthalmitis during the follow-up.
Conclusion: Epithelial imperfection was observed in two patients in the WCL group with spontaneous resolution. The CL group had the highest length and lowest angle of corneal incision. Using contact lens to prevent wound construction imperfection appears not to be a good option. Further studies using a greater number of patients with an architectural analysis of clear corneal incisions are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
Visual impairment is a global health problem. Cataract is responsible for 50% of blindness worldwide .
Posterior capsular opacification is the most common late complication of cataract surgery as a result of proliferation of residual lens epithelial cells overall 25% of patients undergoing extra-capsular cataract surgery develops visually significant PCO within 5 years of the operation .
Nd: YAG laser provides the advantage of cutting the posterior lens capsule, thereby avoiding and minimizing infection, wound leaks, and other complication of intraocular surgery. Thus Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is noninvasive, effective and relatively safe technique .
However, this procedure is associated with complications such as- postoperative increased intraocular pressure (IOP), cystoid macular edema (CME), disruption of the anterior vitreous surface, uveitis, lens subluxation, increased incidence of retinal detachment and pitting of the IOL .
Laser shots can be applied in several patterns such as “Cruciate or Cross pattern”, “Can opener”, inverted “U-Method” and in a “Circular pattern”. Many authors promote the use of a cruciate pattern in the Centre of the visual axis, with the clinician starting off on both axes away from the Centre to avoid pitting the lens centrally .
This study mainly aims to analyze the effect of various forms of PCO capsulotomy openings on visual function after Nd: YAG capsulotomy.
The Nd-Yag L has been developed in Europe since the mid-1970s . Today Nd-Yag LPC has become an established procedure for after cataract. Before the Nd-Yag L came into use, the capsulotomy was done by performing a small puncture with a needle knife or 27 gauge needle, either at the time of original operation or as a secondary procedure through the limbus in aphakic or through pars plana in pseudophakic. The Nd-Yag L preferred because it is non-invasive and infection cannot occur. The most important complication is a transient rise in IOP 1-3 hrs of Nd-Yag LPC . Occasionally the pressure rise is high and can cause serious damage to the optic nerve, so that the IOP should be monitored and appropriate measures should be taken if necessary. Only if we can minimize its frequency or, better still, avoid it, altogether, can we accept Nd-Yag L as a safe procedure in our effort to restore vision. In otherwise normal eyes, a mild elevation of IOP is of no consequence because it usually resolves within 24 hour especially when the patient receives anti-glaucoma drugs before and after laser application. However in eyes with pre-existing glaucoma, the incidence of IOP elevation is higher and its duration is longer than in otherwise normal eyes. Some glaucomatous eyes may therefore require additional glaucoma therapy for several weeks following Nd-Yag LPC . So monitoring is particularly important in the cases of glaucoma with optic nerve damage and field loss as these eyes are susceptible to small pressure rises for even a short period. A single rise to 40mmHg for a few hours can cause irreversible damage to the damaged optic nerve and lead to permanent visual loss or even blindness . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes in IOP at 1hour,24hour and 1 week after Nd-Yag LPC.
Background: Ocular diseases affect every individual in this world, with the only difference being in the pattern of occurrence of disease depending on age, gender, region, and climatic conditions. In Ethiopia there is shortage of literatures stating pattern of ocular diseases which is very important for planning preventive, curative and rehabilitative health service concerning prevalence of eye problems.
Objective: This study is aimed to determine the pattern of eye diseases at Borumeda Hospital, Amhara region, Ethiopia from July 10 to December 15, 2018.
Method: Institutional based cross- sectional retrospective study was conducted among 384 patients attending in ophthalmic OPD of Borumeda primary hospital. Nine hundred three newly diagnosed patients who were registered on OPD registration book in the study period were study population. Systematic random sampling was conducted to select study participants from study population. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and frequency percentage).
Results: From all study participants who had ocular disorders 92(24%) of them were came by Allergic conjunctivitis, followed by cataract 16.9%, refractory disorders 13%, Glaucoma 7.1%, infective conjunctivitis 4.7%, Pterygium 3.1%, Blepharitis 3.1%, NLDO 2.6%, Pseudoaphekia 2.4% and Corneal opacity 2.1%.
Conclusion: Significant number of patients 182(47.5%) of them came for treatment of adnexa (lid, margin, conjunctiva, lacrymal system) disorders. So every health professional should be responsible to deliver preventive, curative and rehabilitative services to control the most prevalent ocular disorders.
Significance of study: This study will be very important for health managers to distribute medical resources and staffs according to the prevalence of ocular disorders. This study result will be useful for health care workers for planning preventive, curative and rehabilitative health services for those common eye disorders.
Background: In developing countries, manual small incision cataract surgery is a better alternative and less expensive in comparison to phacoemulsification and thus the incision is an important factor causing high rates of postoperative astigmatism resulting into poor visual outcome. Thus, modifications to the site of the incision is needed to reduce the pre-existing astigmatism and also to prevent postoperative astigmatism. Modification to superotemporal incision relieves pre-existing astigmatism majorly due to its characteristic of neutralizing against-the-rule astigmatism, which is more prevalent among elderly population and thus improves the visual outcome.Aims: To study the incidence, amount and type of surgically induced astigmatism in superior and superotemporal scleral incision in manual SICS.Methodology: It is a randomized, comparative clinical study done on 100 patients attending the OPD of Ophthalmology at a tertiary care hospital, with senile cataract within a period of one year and underwent manual SICS. 50 of them chosen randomly for superior incision and rest 50 with superotemporal incision. MSICS with PCIOL implantation were performed through unsutured 6.5 mm scleral incision in all. Patients were examined post-operatively on 1st day, 7th day, 2nd week and 4th week and astigmatism was evaluated and compared in both groups.Results: It is seen that on postoperative follow up on 4th week, 77.78% of the patients with ATR astigmatism who underwent superior incision had increased astigmatism whereas, only 13.63% of the patients with ATR astigmatism who underwent supero-temporal incision, had increased astigmatism but 81.82% had decreased ATR astigmatism. However, 77.78% of the patients with preoperative WTR astigmatism who underwent supero-temporal incision, had increased astigmatism, whereas 44.45% of the patients with WTR astigmatism preoperatively, had increased astigmatism in contrast to 50% had decreased amount of astigmatism. It is also seen that the supero-temporal incision group had more number of patients (78%) with visual acuity better than 6/9 at 4th postoperative week than superior incision group (42%).Conclusion: This study concludes that superior incision cause more ATR astigmatism postoperatively whereas superotemporal incision causes lower magnitude of WTR astigmatism, which is advantageous for the elderly. Besides superotemporal incision provides better and early visual acuity postoperatively.
Progeria syndromes are very rare genetic diseases characterized by premature aging changes. There are several phenotypes and variables noted in literature in some cases difficult to specifically classify a specific syndrome. It occurs due to mutation in DNA repair genes. The most common ocular findings are loss of eyebrow and eyelashes, brow ptosis, lid margin changes, entropion, Meibomian gland dysfunction, severe dry eye, corneal opacity, cataract, poor mydriasis, and rod-cone dystrophy. We report this case with all the above ocular manifestations in 19year old teenager with additional finding being retinal detachment.
Aim: To examine the relationship between the levels of HbA1c and hospital admission rates.Methods: We recorded HbA1c levels of all diabetic patients in Tripoli University Hospital over one year.Results: The mean HbA1c was 8.03%, with no difference between males and females. Over half of patients (56.5%) were admitted through their diabetes was well-controlled. Over half of the patients with type 1 diabetes (57/102, 55.9%) had a high HbA1c at admission compared to 42.1% of patients with type 2, who were mainly admitted with HbA1c level within the acceptable range set for this study. The HbA1c level was positively and significantly correlated with the length of hospital stay (R = 0.93, p = 0.000), and was significantly associated with hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, coronary artery disease, limb ischemia, cataract, osteomyelitis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.Conclusion: HbA1c is correlated significantly with hospitalization in type 1 diabetes but not in type 2.
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