Catheterization

Preclinical stiff heart is a marker of cardiovascular morbimortality in apparently healthy population

Published on: 31st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192795566

Background: The prognostic significance of impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation and increased LV stiffness as precursor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and death is still largely unknown in apparently healthy subjects. Methods: We constituted a cohort of 353 patients with normal ejection fraction (>45%) and no significant heart disease, based on a total of 3,575 consecutive left-sided heart catheterizations performed. We measured peak negative first derivative of LV pressure (-dP/dt) and operating chamber stiffness (Κ) using a validated equation. Patients were categorized as having: 1) normal diastolic function, 2) isolated relaxation abnormalities (-dP/dt > 1860mm Hg/sec and K <0.025mm Hg/ml), or 3) predominant stiff heart (K ≥0.025mm Hg/ml). Results: During a follow-up of at least 5 years, the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (death, major arterial event, heart failure, and arrhythmia) was 23.2% (82 patients). Compared to isolated relaxation abnormalities, predominant stiff heart showed stronger prognostic significance for all events (p=0.002), namely heart failure (HR, 2.9; p=0.0499), cardiac death (HR, 5.8; p=0.03), and heart failure and cardiac death combined (HR, 3.7; p=0.003). Conclusion: In this apparently healthy population referred to our center for cardiac catheterization, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was very high. Moreover, predominant stiff heart was a better predictor of cardiovascular outcomes than isolated relaxation abnormalities.
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Left ventricular ejection fraction and contrast induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization: Results of retrospective chart review

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330168042

Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is an important cause of increasing the hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. By increasing intra-renal vasoconstriction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can increase the risk of CI-AKI. We sought to investigate whether LVEF can impact the incidence of CI-AKI after cardiac catheterization and whether it can be used to predict CI-AKI. Methods: Patients underwent cardiac catheterization from December 2017 to February 2018 at Jersey Shore University Medical Center were enrolled in the study. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or an increase of ≥ 25% from the pre-procedure value within 72 hours post-procedure. The maximum allowable contrast dose was calculated using the following formula: (5* (weight (kg)/creatinine level (mg/dL)). A multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for potential confounders, were used to test associations between LVEF and CI-AKI. Results: 9.6% had post catheterization CI-AKI. A total of 18 out of 44 (44%) of patients who had CI-AKI also had ongoing congestive heart failure. No statistically significant association found neither with maximum allowable contrast (p = 0.009) nor ejection fraction (p = 0.099) with the development of CI-AKI. Conclusion: In spite of the fact that no statistically significant relationship found between the percentage maximum contrast dose and the ejection fraction with the post-procedure CI-AKI, we heighten the essential of employing Maximum Allowable Contrast Dose (MACD) and ejection fraction in patients undergoing PCI to be used as a clinical guide to predict CI-AKI.
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Our experience with single patch repair of complete atrioventricular septal defects

Published on: 2nd May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588716552

Background: Various surgical methods have been utilized in the management of complete atrioventricular septal defects (CAVSD). Early intervention and achievement of a competent left atrioventricular valve are the key factors for successful treatment. Methods: A total of 66 patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect have been operated in a tertiary care center. Patient group consisted of 28 males and 38 females with an average age of 6.2 ± 3.3 months. Ventricular and atrial defects were repaired generally with single-patch technique using autogenous pericardium. Results: Preoperative catheterization and angiography was performed in 41 patients. Single patch and modified single patch techniques were preferred in 57 and 9 patients respectively. The average duration for respiratory support, intensive care unit stay and discharge from hospital were 36 ± 49.3 hours, 4.1 ± 1.9 days, and 10.1 ± 3.3 days respectively. In the left atrioventricular valve mild, moderate and severe regurgitation were detected in 44 (66.6%), 17 (25.7%) and 2 (3%) patients postoperatively. No regurgitation was determined in 3 patients (4.5%). Two cases ended up with mortality (3%). Conclusion: Single patch repair technique can provide satisfactory surgical outcomes in patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect.
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Management of Ischemic Stroke during cardiac catheterization: A case report and review of literature

Published on: 22nd August, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8259338471

Stroke following coronary interventions is a devastating and most dreaded complication with signiβicant morbidity and mortality. Various factors have been ascribed for this complication including the technical errors [1]. A small percentage of strokes are iatrogenic, including those associated with invasive cardiac procedures. According to the literature, it is a rare complication of left heart catheterization [2]. Percutaneous coronary intervention is increasingly used to treat patients with diffuse atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes and even high-risk patients such as low ejection fraction [1]. The authors describe a patient who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the context of inferior infarction, which was complicated by ischemic stroke during cardic catheterization.
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Transcatheter embolization of congenital vascular malformations, single center experience

Published on: 7th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165289153

Background: Congenital Vascular malformation relatively rare and extremely varied clinical presentations. The purpose of our study was to present our initial experience of embolization in a series of 26 patients with congenital vascular malformation to assess retrospectively the results and the complications of ethanol and coils embolization treatment of these patients. Methods: Retrospective trial, the study group consisted of 26 patients with congenital vascular malformations. Transcatheter arterial embolization by ethanol or coils were performed, Therapeutic outcomes were established by evaluating the clinical outcome of symptoms and signs, as well as the degree of devascularization at follow-up angiography. Results: Between November 2014 and March 2018, 26 consecutive patients (3 male, 23 female) at Alshifa Hospital - Cardiac Catheterization Center with congenital vascular malformations in the body and extremities underwent staged ethanol or coils embolization. The mean age of the patients was 25 years (age range, 6– 59 years). Ethanol embolization was administrated in 16 patients, coil embolization in 9 patients and graft stent in one patient. The side effect such as pain, pulsation, and bruit in most of the patients were obtained. The reduction of redness, swelling, and warmth was achieved in all of the patients, According to the angiographic findings, congenital vascular malformation were devascularized 100% in 12 patients, 50% to 99% in 11 patients, less than 50% in 3 patients. The most common complications were reversible skin necrosis. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolization by ethanol or coils has proved efficacious and safe in the treatment of congenital vascular malformation of the body and extremities but with acceptable risk of complications
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Percutaneous treatment of severe retroperitoneal hematoma after percutaneous coronary intervention

Published on: 25th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272370670

We describe a patient who developed severe retroperitoneal and intraperitoneal bleeding complicating femoral arterial catheterization for Percutaneous coronary intervention. Balloon tamponade of the actively bleeding femoral artery was effective in sealing off the leakage.This management strategy for this problem emphasizing an anatomical based interventional approach if the patient does not stabilize with volume resuscitation.
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Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension resulting in decompensated right heart failure

Published on: 24th November, 2022

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a notoriously underdiagnosed cause of severe pulmonary hypertension. It is a form of precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) that results from intraluminal thrombus organization and fibrous formation which ultimately results in the complete obliteration of pulmonary arteries, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance which leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension and as a result right heart failure. The mechanism involves the narrowing of the pulmonary artery which increases blood pressure within the lungs and impairs blood flow which increases the workload of the right side of the heart ultimately causing right heart failure. Pulmonary hypertension can also cause arrhythmias, blood clots, and bleeding in the lungs. Even though CTEPH is a deadly condition, among all forms of pulmonary hypertension, CTEPH is the only curable form. Echocardiography is the initial assessment tool for suspected PH. A right heart catheterization may be performed to confirm the presence of pulmonary hypertension. Confirmation of CTEPH requires a V/Q scan. Although ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy has a major role in the evaluation of patients with suspected CTEPH, nowadays CTA chest is being used widely as it produces much better-quality images compared to V/Q scan. Without treatment, the prognosis is very poor. Out of three treatment modalities such as; pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) surgery, balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), and medical therapy, surgery is the gold standard. The physician must be familiar with the disease entity, early diagnosis, and appropriate treatment to improve survival. Here we present a literature review on this topic.
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Macitentan in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Published on: 22nd April, 2024

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with a mortality rate of 37%. There is an upregulation of adhesion molecules which leads to the expression of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor. A prospective, descriptive study was done to determine the safety and efficacy of macitentan in patients with SCD and PH. Continuous variables were reported as mean ± SEM or percentage where appropriate. We screened 13 patients and recruited five. All five patients were adults. Data were analyzed as appropriate by student t - test. Statistical significance was assumed at p < 0.05. Baseline pulmonary hemodynamics obtained by right heart catheterization and systemic hemodynamics were (± SEM): mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) 32 ± 8 mmHg, right atrial pressure (RAP) 9 ± 4 mmHg, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) 257 dynes-sec/cm5 and CI 3·7 ± 0.39 l/m2. Of all parameters, only PVR and 6-min walk distance changed significantly. For the group, MPAP decreased by 15.6%, PVR by 22.5% and RAP by 25.5%. The 6-minute walk distance increased over sixteen weeks except in Patient 4 who had a 3% decrease. The mean walk distance increased in the total distance, from 464 ± 158 meters to 477 ± 190 meters (p .123). In four patients, the adverse events were mild to moderate and did not lead to study drug discontinuation. Significant improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with SCD-related pulmonary arterial hypertension. We found that macitentan was safe and well tolerated.
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