Background: The prognostic significance of impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation and increased LV stiffness as precursor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and death is still largely unknown in apparently healthy subjects.
Methods: We constituted a cohort of 353 patients with normal ejection fraction (>45%) and no significant heart disease, based on a total of 3,575 consecutive left-sided heart catheterizations performed. We measured peak negative first derivative of LV pressure (-dP/dt) and operating chamber stiffness (Κ) using a validated equation. Patients were categorized as having: 1) normal diastolic function, 2) isolated relaxation abnormalities (-dP/dt > 1860mm Hg/sec and K <0.025mm Hg/ml), or 3) predominant stiff heart (K ≥0.025mm Hg/ml).
Results: During a follow-up of at least 5 years, the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (death, major arterial event, heart failure, and arrhythmia) was 23.2% (82 patients). Compared to isolated relaxation abnormalities, predominant stiff heart showed stronger prognostic significance for all events (p=0.002), namely heart failure (HR, 2.9; p=0.0499), cardiac death (HR, 5.8; p=0.03), and heart failure and cardiac death combined (HR, 3.7; p=0.003).
Conclusion: In this apparently healthy population referred to our center for cardiac catheterization, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was very high. Moreover, predominant stiff heart was a better predictor of cardiovascular outcomes than isolated relaxation abnormalities.
Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is an important cause of increasing the hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. By increasing intra-renal vasoconstriction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can increase the risk of CI-AKI. We sought to investigate whether LVEF can impact the incidence of CI-AKI after cardiac catheterization and whether it can be used to predict CI-AKI.
Methods: Patients underwent cardiac catheterization from December 2017 to February 2018 at Jersey Shore University Medical Center were enrolled in the study. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or an increase of ≥ 25% from the pre-procedure value within 72 hours post-procedure. The maximum allowable contrast dose was calculated using the following formula: (5* (weight (kg)/creatinine level (mg/dL)). A multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for potential confounders, were used to test associations between LVEF and CI-AKI.
Results: 9.6% had post catheterization CI-AKI. A total of 18 out of 44 (44%) of patients who had CI-AKI also had ongoing congestive heart failure. No statistically significant association found neither with maximum allowable contrast (p = 0.009) nor ejection fraction (p = 0.099) with the development of CI-AKI.
Conclusion: In spite of the fact that no statistically significant relationship found between the percentage maximum contrast dose and the ejection fraction with the post-procedure CI-AKI, we heighten the essential of employing Maximum Allowable Contrast Dose (MACD) and ejection fraction in patients undergoing PCI to be used as a clinical guide to predict CI-AKI.
Background: Various surgical methods have been utilized in the management of complete atrioventricular septal defects (CAVSD). Early intervention and achievement of a competent left atrioventricular valve are the key factors for successful treatment.
Methods: A total of 66 patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect have been operated in a tertiary care center. Patient group consisted of 28 males and 38 females with an average age of 6.2 ± 3.3 months. Ventricular and atrial defects were repaired generally with single-patch technique using autogenous pericardium.
Results: Preoperative catheterization and angiography was performed in 41 patients. Single patch and modified single patch techniques were preferred in 57 and 9 patients respectively. The average duration for respiratory support, intensive care unit stay and discharge from hospital were 36 ± 49.3 hours, 4.1 ± 1.9 days, and 10.1 ± 3.3 days respectively. In the left atrioventricular valve mild, moderate and severe regurgitation were detected in 44 (66.6%), 17 (25.7%) and 2 (3%) patients postoperatively. No regurgitation was determined in 3 patients (4.5%). Two cases ended up with mortality (3%).
Conclusion: Single patch repair technique can provide satisfactory surgical outcomes in patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect.
Stroke following coronary interventions is a devastating and most dreaded complication with signiβicant morbidity and mortality. Various factors have been ascribed for this complication including the technical errors . A small percentage of strokes are iatrogenic, including those associated with invasive cardiac procedures. According to the literature, it is a rare complication of left heart catheterization . Percutaneous coronary intervention is increasingly used to treat patients with diffuse atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes and even high-risk patients such as low ejection fraction . The authors describe a patient who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the context of inferior infarction, which was complicated by ischemic stroke during cardic catheterization.
Background: Congenital Vascular malformation relatively rare and extremely varied clinical presentations. The purpose of our study was to present our initial experience of embolization in a series of 26 patients with congenital vascular malformation to assess retrospectively the results and the complications of ethanol and coils embolization treatment of these patients.
Methods: Retrospective trial, the study group consisted of 26 patients with congenital vascular malformations. Transcatheter arterial embolization by ethanol or coils were performed, Therapeutic outcomes were established by evaluating the clinical outcome of symptoms and signs, as well as the degree of devascularization at follow-up angiography.
Results: Between November 2014 and March 2018, 26 consecutive patients (3 male, 23 female) at Alshifa Hospital - Cardiac Catheterization Center with congenital vascular malformations in the body and extremities underwent staged ethanol or coils embolization. The mean age of the patients was 25 years (age range, 6– 59 years). Ethanol embolization was administrated in 16 patients, coil embolization in 9 patients and graft stent in one patient. The side effect such as pain, pulsation, and bruit in most of the patients were obtained. The reduction of redness, swelling, and warmth was achieved in all of the patients, According to the angiographic findings, congenital vascular malformation were devascularized 100% in 12 patients, 50% to 99% in 11 patients, less than 50% in 3 patients. The most common complications were reversible skin necrosis.
Conclusion: Transcatheter embolization by ethanol or coils has proved efficacious and safe in the treatment of congenital vascular malformation of the body and extremities but with acceptable risk of complications
We describe a patient who developed severe retroperitoneal and intraperitoneal bleeding complicating femoral arterial catheterization for Percutaneous coronary intervention. Balloon tamponade of the actively bleeding femoral artery was effective in sealing off the leakage.This management strategy for this problem emphasizing an anatomical based interventional approach if the patient does not stabilize with volume resuscitation.
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University of Agriculture, Pakistan
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