Classification

Reliability and validity of the Sit-To-Stand Test to assess Global Foot Mobility

Published on: 23rd June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286355564

The Sit-to-Stand test (STST) involves comparing the change in a person’s non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing foot posture to quickly classify a person’s overall foot mobility. Despite the simplicity of the test, its reliability and validity has not been established. The purpose of this study is to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the STST as well as its validity. Ninety-seven subjects with a mean age of 25 years (±3.7) participated in the study. Each subject’s foot posture from non-weight-bearing to weight-bearing was evaluated by two different raters. Each rater classified each subject’s change in foot posture as “Hypomobile”, “Normal” or “Hypermobile”. This same procedure was repeated approximately one week later without the raters being able to review what their original classification for that subject had been. The subjects also had their foot mobility quantified by measuring the height and width of their dorsal arch in both non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing. These quantitative measures of foot mobility were then classified as “Hypomobile”, “Normal”, or “Hypermobile” using quartiles. A series of Cohen’s Kappa coefficients were used to assess the amount of agreement between the visual classifications by each rater as well as the classification between the observational and objective classifications. The between-day Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.613 to 0.719 and the inter-rater Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.473 to 0.531. The Kappa coefficients between the visual and quantitative classifications ranged from 0.281 to 0.436. The STST should therefore be used with caution because of its moderate between-rater reliability and validity.
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Cardiomyopathies - The special entity of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy

Published on: 1st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192807959

Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease with structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, and congenital heart disease. However, it has become clear that diverse etiologies and clinical manifestations (e.g. arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D), ARVD/C, left-ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC)) are responsible for the clinical picture of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The American Heart Association (AHA) classification grouped cardiomyopathies into genetic, mixed and acquired forms, while the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) classification proposed the subgrouping of each major type of cardiomyopathy into familial or genetic, and nonfamilial or nongenetic, forms [1-4]. Cardiomyopathies are clinically heterogeneous diseases, and there are differences in sex, age of onset, rate of progression, risk of development of overt heart failure and likelihood of sudden death within each cardiomyopathy subtype [5]. Because of the complex etiology and clinical presentation, the diagnostic spectrum in cardiomyopathies spans the entire range of non-invasive and invasive cardiological examination techniques including genetic analysis. The exact verification of certain cardiomyopathies necessitates additional investigations. So, histological, immunohistological and molecular biological/virological investigations of endomyocardial biopsies are the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis of an inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi) [6-10]. This review focuses on myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathies underlying an immune-mediated process or persistent viral infection.
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Long-term results for post-interventional systemic heparinization following angioplasty of peripheral vessels

Published on: 15th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8612480354

Objective: The long-term outcome of percutaneous transluminal angioplasties is mainly determined by restenoses, either by progression of the underlying disease or by intimal hyperplasia. Pharmacological substances on the one hand and the implantation of stents on the other have been developed with the intention of preventing precisely this complication. While patients are treated after PTA of peripheral vessels with different low-molecular-weight heparins, the indication for stent implantation is determined individually rather by experience. The aim of this study was to determine gender-specific risk factors of long-term outcome after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of peripheral vessels with or without stentimplantation. Methods: In the present study, we examined the long-term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of peripheral vessels. Between 2007 and 2017, in total, 3,276 patients underwent PTA with or without stent implantation in our clinic. All patients were treated postinterventionally for 48 hours with 25,000 IU heparin (Unfractionated Heparin (UFH), heparinsodium-Braun, 25,000 I.E./5 ml, 2 ml/h) monitored by the partial thromboplastin time and subsequently underwent a control investigation every 6 months. The endpoint of the study was determination of symptomatic stenosis larger than 50% that required reintervention. Results: 239 (68.2% with mean age 68.02 years) male patients and 111 female patients (31.71% with mean age 62.92 years) were evaluated with complete follow-up. A total of 470 PTAs were performed on male patients and 213 on female patients in multiple interventions. The majority of patients at the time of treatment were in stage IIb according to the classification of Fontaine (81.6% of male patients and 68% of females). In our sample, peripheral arterial disease stage III and IV according to Fontaine classification occurred twice as frequently in female patients as in male patients (stage III in 12.6% in female versus 6.1% in male, and stage IV in 18% in female versus 8.9% in males). In both groups, the femoral superficialis artery was most frequently dilated (64 cases, 30% in female and 155 cases, 32.9% in male), followed by the iliacal communis artery (46 cases in female and 99 cases in male, both with 21.5%). A balloon angioplasty of the tibialis anterior and posterior arteries was performed twice as frequently in female patients as in male patients (28 cases with 13.1% of tibialis ant. artery in female versus 32 cases with 6.8% in male patients, and in 17 cases with 7.9% of tibialis post. artery in female versus 16 cases with 3.4% in male patients). In this study, without consideration of gender, patency rates of 79% after 2.5 years, 67% after 5 years, 49% after 7.5 years and 37% after 10 years were determined for PTA without stent implantation. Between the 7th and 10th year in follow-up, the cumulative patency rates for stent implantation was 49%, whereas it was 31% for PTA alone. The results of this study show that the stent assisted PTA`s of comm. artery and external iliacal artery are significantly independent of risk factors better than the femoral vessels, and these in female patients better than in male patients. Male patients do not benefit significantly from stent implantation in the long term. As the COXI and II regression analyses show, gender-linked results are most evident for renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus, and less pronounced also for the number of open lower leg vessels. Conclusion: Under consideration of gender and risk factors, while male patients with diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency and/or poor run-off did not benefit from stent implantation in the long-term, female patients with similar risk factors showed higher patency rates after stent therapy. In addition, the long-term results after PTA of femoral superficialis artery and poplitea artery are significantly worse than PTA of the pelvic vessels in both genders.
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Predicament of classification: Multisystem small vessel vasculitis with cresentic Glomerulonephritis

Published on: 9th April, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7666350132

The patient is a 28-year old Caucasian man with six month history of arthralgia and crampy abdominal pain who presented with acute dyspnea and cough for 6 months associated with migratory polyarthralgias involving his knees, ankles, wrists, and shoulders.
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Open bite malocclusion: An overview

Published on: 12th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7379416963

The term open bite is referred as no contact between anterior or posterior teeth. The complexity of open bite is attributed to a combination of skeletal, dental and habitual factors. Etiology of open bite can be attributed to genetics, anatomic and environmental factors. However, the tendency toward relapse after conventional or surgical orthodontic treatment has been indicated. Therefore, open bite is considered one of the most challenging dentofacial deformities to treat. The aim of this article is to emphasize that early etiological diagnosis, dentofacial morphology and classification are essential to the successful outcome of the technical intervention. Failure of tongue posture adaptation subsequent to orthodontic and/or surgical treatment might be the primary reason for relapse of open bite. Prolonged retention with fixed or removable retainers is advisable and necessary in most cases of open bite treatment. The treatment of open bite remains a tough challenge to the clinician; careful diagnosis and timely intervention with proper treatment modalities and appliance selection will improve the treatment outcomes and long-term stability. 
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The outcome of Acute Kidney Injury in patients with severe Malaria

Published on: 8th November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317600169

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious clinical complication in patients with severe malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of AKI in a large population of hospitalized patients with a primary admission diagnosis of malaria, and to investigate the robustness of the KDIGO criteria for predicting the need for dialysis, length of hospital stay and hospital mortality. Results: We studied 695 consecutive patients admitted with primary diagnoses of malaria, in a 6 months period. AKI occurred in 86 (12.4%) patients (Stage 1 in 30.2%, Stage 2 in 23.3% and Stage 3 in 46.5%), and 19 (22.1%) patients required hemodialysis. No patient in the no-AKI or AKI Stage 1 groups (admission or maximum AKI Stage) required hemodialysis, and the requirement of hemodialysis was higher in patients with AKI Stage 2 (23.1%) and Stage 3 (42.4%). The length of hospital stay was longer (7.3±7.4 days vs 5.1±3.0 days; t=4.996, p<0.0001), and mortality was higher in patients who developed AKI than in those who did not (22,5% vs 2,5%; χ2=79.52; p<0.0001). Patients with AKI Stage 1, 2 and 3 had significantly higher hospital mortality (11%, 23% and 30%, respectively), compared with 2.5% for patients without AKI [odds ratio 5.2 (1.40-19.11, p=0.0331), 13.2 (4.24-41.06, p=0.0002), and 16.9 (7.26-36.65, p<0.0001)], respectively. Conclusion: In a relatively large cohort of patients with falciparum malaria infection, the KDIGO criteria identified 12.4% with a diagnosis of AKI. The KDIGO classification was robust in this population for predicting the need for dialysis, length of hospital stay and hospital mortality. The results support the utilization of the KDIGO criteria in diagnosis and to predicting outcomes for patients with malarial AKI.
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Role of HRCT Thorax in preoperative assessment of RT-PCR COVID-19 negative oral cancer patients

Published on: 22nd December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872656815

Background: Oral cancer accounts for 30% of all types of cancer in India. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment but due to the recent outbreak of COVID-19, there is a partial or complete disruption of health services in the country. The initial delay in the treatment was due to cancellations of planned surgeries as per government regulations and reduction in public transportation. In the latter half of the initial relaxation of the lockdown, we formulated our institutional protocol for the surgical treatment of oral cancer patients. On admission, all patients were kept in isolated wards followed by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing on the same day. RT-PCR negative patients are subjected to HRCT Thorax (High-resolution Computer Tomography). This ensured the safety of health care workers, patients, and patient attendees. Keeping this in mind, we did an observational study on the role of HRCT in the pre-operative screening of asymptomatic oral cancer patients.  Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 150 patients was done. HRCT reporting was done by two experienced senior radiologists of the Department of Radiology at our hospital. Results: The number of patients under the CO-RADS 1 category was 121 and CO-RADS 2 category was 29, according to CO-RADS classification. The results of RT-PCR and HRCT were compared and there was a 100% positive correlation between RT-PCR and HRCT Thorax. Conclusion: Our study supported the use of HRCT Thorax as a diagnostic tool in pre-operative screening of oral cancer patients for COVID 19, particularly in RT-PCR negative cases.
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The efficacy of complex Decongestive Physiotherapy in patients with Bilateral Primary Lower Extremity Lymphedema and Untreatable multiple health conditions: A Case Report

Published on: 8th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286355299

Background: Primary lymphedema occurs as a result of genetic abnormalities of the lymph system. Currently, complex decongestive therapy is accepted as the standard treatment of the lymphedema. In this case presentation, we described the management of bilateral primary lower extremity lymphedema and the use of complex decongestive therapy. Case Report: A 62 years old female patient had stage III primary lymphedema on her left lower extremity and stage II primary lymphedema on her right lower extremity. The patient, who had morbid obesity, also had untreatable sleep apnea, urinary incontinence, umbilical hernia and hypertension controlled by drugs. She had stage 4 gonarthrosis according to Kellgren – Lawrence classification in her both knees. The patient received complex decongestive therapy as an outpatient. After 27 sessions of complex decongestive therapy, edema reduced in both lower extremities. Before the treatment started, the patient couldn’t go up and down stairs, get out and had difficulty mobility in the home. But after the treatment, the patient could go up and down 16 stairs by holding the railing, get out by two walking sticks and had less difficulty mobility in the home. However, due to gonarthrosis in her knees, her pain did not diminish. Conclusion: Complex decongestive therapy is effective in the management of bilateral primary lower extremity lymphedema, which progressed with multiple health conditions.
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Host biomarkers for early diagnosis of infectious diseases: A comprehensive review

Published on: 5th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165317456

Biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis of disease and other conditions for many decades. There are diverse ranges of analytical targets, including metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins were used as a biomarker. Clinical diagnoses already rely heavily on these for patient disease classification, management, and informing treatment and care pathways. For that there is always a need of rapid and point of care test. However, until fairly recently, studies of biomarker efficacy in a clinical setting were mainly limited to single or dual use, and the landscape was complex, confused, and often inconsistent. Few candidates emerged from this somewhat clouded picture: C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT) for sepsis, ADA for mycobacterium tuberculosis and a Circulating miRNAs serve as molecular markers for diverse physiological and pathological conditions.
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Biomechanical analysis of Sit-To-Walk movement in Parkinson’s patients

Published on: 27th April, 2018

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ankle-knee-hip interaction during sit-to-walk (STW) movement and clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs in Parkinson’s patients. Methods: Twenty male patients, ages ranged from 55 to 70 years, stage ΙΙ & ΙΙΙ according to modified Hoehn and Yahr (1997) classification of disabilities and ten male healthy elderly subjects, ages ranged from 55 to 70 years, participated in this study. All subjects were assessed for; clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs, ground reaction force (GRF) & spatiotemporal data and range of motion (ROM) of hip, knee and ankle joints during STW movement. Results: The results showed very significant differences in the GRF among the normal subjects and Parkinson’s patients during STW movement. There were significant differences in hip, knee and ankle joints ROM during STW. There were significant differences in spatiotemporal findings during STW movement. The Parkinson’s disease patients did not merge the two tasks of STW while the elderly subjects merged it. There was impairment in clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs in Parkinson’s patients. Conclusion: A continuum of STW performance and clinical functional abilities whereby the healthy elderly people performed the task more efficiently than PD patients.
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The Risk Factors for Ankle Sprain in Cadets at a Male Military School in Iran: A Retrospective Case-control Study

Published on: 23rd March, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286429204

Introduction: Ankle sprain is a widespread impairment in sport groups; this impairment leads to an absence from the workplace. The ankle sprains incidence rates are induced by height, weight, BMI, physical fitness, level of match, classification of sport, and personal exposure to sport. Methods: A longitudinal case-control study was executed to verify the outcome of risk factors for ankle sprain at a Military Male School between 2012 and 2013 of 4987 people at risk for ankle sprain, a total of 234 cadets sustained new ankle sprains during the study, 432 non-injured cadets randomly selected as the control group. Results: Regarding to the total people at risk in our study the incidence rate was approximately 5/1000 ankle sprain-years. Cadets with ankle sprains had higher weight, BMI and higher scores in Army Physical Fitness test than the control group. Ankle sprain occurred most commonly during athletics (51.4%). Ankle sprain incidence rate did not significantly vary from different athletic competitions after controlling for athlete-exposure. Soccer and Ball Games had the highest ankle sprain incidence rate. Conclusion: Higher weight, increased BMI, greater physical conditioning and athlete exposure to selected sports were all risk factors for ankle sprain.
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Comparative analysis of cesarean section using the Robson's Ten-Group Classification System (RTCGS) in private and public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Published on: 29th June, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272361559

Objectives: We analyzed the indications of cesarean section (CS) using Robson Ten-Group. Classification Systems (RTGCS) and comparison between private and public health facilities in Addis Abeba hospitals, Ethiopia, 2017. Methods: Facility-based retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out between January 1 and December 31, 2017, including 2411 mothers who delivered by CS were classified using the RTGCS. Data were entered into SPSS version 20 for cleaning and analyzing. Binary logistic regression and AOR with 95% CI were used to assess the determinants of the CS. Results: The overall CS rate was 41% (34.8% and 66.8% in public & private respectively, p < .0001). The leading contributors for CS rate in the private were Robson groups 5,1,2,3 whereas in the public 5,1,3,2 on descending order. Robson group 1 (nulliparous, cephalic, term, spontaneous labor) and group 3 [Multiparous (excluding previous cesarean section), singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation& spontaneous labor], the CS rate was over two-fold higher in the private than the public sector. Women in Robson groups 1, 2, 5 & 9 are two and more times higher for the absolute contribution of CS in private than public. The top medical indications of CS were non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS, 39.1%) and repeat CS for previous CS scars (39.4%) in public and private respectively. Mothers who delivered by CS in private with history of previous CS scar (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.2), clinical indications of maternal request (AOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.1-27.98) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.6-10.7), induced labor (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) and pre-labored (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.0) were more likely to undergo CS than in public hospital. Conclusion: The prevalence of CS was found to be high, and was significantly higher in private hospitals than in a public hospital. Having CS scar [having previous CS scar, Robson group 5(Previous CS, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation) and an indication of repeat CS for previous CS scar] is the likely factor that increased the CS rate in private when compared within the public hospital. Recommendation: It is important that efforts to reduce the overall CS rate should focus on reducing the primary CS, encouraging vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). Policies should be directed at the private sector where CS indication seems not to be driven by medical reasons solely. 
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Essential thrombocythemia: Biology, clinical features, thrombotic risk, therapeutic options and outcome

Published on: 2nd September, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8216107596

Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) is currently classified as a Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) together with polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF); the latter can be further divided in pre-fibrotic primary myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) and overt myelofibrosis, as listed in the revised 2016 World Health Organization classification of myeloid malignancies (WHO 2016). Overall, respect to the others MPNs, ET is characterized by favorable prognosis, lower life expectancy if compared to the control population, increased risk of thrombohemorrhagic complications along with possible evolution in myelofibrosis and leukemic transformation. In this review the authors will review current knowledge on biology, clinical aspects, prognosis and stratification of thrombotic risk, therapeutic options and outcome in ET patients.
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Aggressive hydration in early resuscitation phase does not provide mortality benefit in acute pancreatitis

Published on: 5th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8457482467

Introduction: Fluid management is the cornerstone of treatment for acute pancreatitis (AP), but the proper rate and volume is still controversial. We aim to evaluate the role of aggressive hydration in AP patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 279 hospitalized patients of AP. Severity was determined by the Revised Atlanta classification; validated clinical scores were also calculated based on clinical information upon presentation. We extracted amount of fluid received by at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after presentation. Aggressive hydration was defined as amount higher than 10 ml/kg bolus followed by infusion at 1.5 ml/kg/h. After direct comparison between aggressive versus non-aggressive hydration groups, propensity-score match was performed to control severity, APACHE II and BISAP score. Post-match comparison as well as a subgroup comparison were conducted. Results: At 24 hours, 125 (44.8%) patients received aggressive hydration averaged at 5.1 L (2-18 L), while 154 (55.2%) patients received non-aggressive hydration averaged at 2.5 L. Post-match comparison showed that aggressive hydration group had longer hospital stay (MAP: 5.3 vs 4.5, p = 0.145, MSAP/SAP: 8.3 vs 4.8 d, p = 0.007), and higher rate of intensive care unit admission (mild: 12.9% vs 4.4%, p = 0.042, moderately severe or severe: 36.8% vs 3.1%, p = 0.001), while showed no difference in rate of mortality or re-admission by 1 year. In patients who presented without organ failure, aggressive hydration did not change the rate of development of organ failure (14.1% vs 12.5%, p = 0.731), but the aggressive hydration group had a trend towards longer hospital stay (5.5 vs 4.6 d, p = 0.083) and higher rate of MICU admission (12.1% vs 4.8%, p = 0.051)
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Helping asthmatic children through bonding therapy

Published on: 5th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9030359812

Disruptions in Maternal-infant Bonding are shown to be the mediating variable between maternal distress and the subsequent expression of childhood asthma. When the mothers’ bonding is repaired, their children’s asthmatic symptoms diminish or remit. This study evaluated 16 asthmatic children before and after their mothers were treated with Bonding Therapy. Fourteen improved on 11 measures, including reduction in the STEP classification system and medication use. Thirteen children were able to stop all medications. Surprisingly, all mothers scores on the Beck Depression Inventory improved through Bonding Therapy, suggesting that impaired bonding can lead to maternal depression or even Postpartum Depression. The link between bonding disruptions and airway inflammation are discussed. Bonding Therapy is described.
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Immunological background for treatments with biologicals in CRSwNP

Published on: 8th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9030352571

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous and multifactorial inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa. To date, no internationally standardized uniform classification has been developed for this disease. Usually, a phenotype classification according to CRS with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) polyposis is performed. However, through a variety of studies, it has been shown that even within these phenotypes, different endotypes of CRS exist, each with a different underlying inflammatory pathophysiology. In this mini-review, we aim to outline the essential immunological processes in CRSwNP and to highlight the modern therapeutic options with biologics derived from this disease. Methods: Current knowledge on the immunological and molecular processes of CRS, especially CRSwNP, was compiled by means of a structured literature review. Medline, PubMed, national/international trial and guideline registries as well as the Cochrane Library were all searched. Results: Based on the current literature, the different immunological processes involved in CRS and nasal polyps were elaborated. Current studies on the therapy of eosinophilic diseases such as asthma and polyposis are presented and their results discussed. Conclusion: Understanding the immunological basis of CRSwNP may help to develop new personalized therapeutic approaches using biologics. Currently, 2 biologics (dupilumab, omalizumab) have been approved for the therapy of CRSwNP (polyposis nasi) in Europe.
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Palliative care approach to oncological patient – Main points

Published on: 31st March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8566861688

According to the World Health Organization definition, palliative care is an approach aimed at increasing the quality of life of patients and their relatives by addressing physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs and treating conditions early, such as pain while they are coming to terms with a life-threatening disease [1]. Palliative care services have started a rapid progress in developed countries such as Scandinavian countries, England and Canada since the beginning of 1990 [2]. Although palliative care cares for any patient who is in need of care, whether bed-bound or unable to look after themselves, one of the main area of interest is of course oncological patients and their relatives. Patients with advanced cancer, frequent sufferings from physical and psychological symptoms - primarily pain, reduced functional capacity, and reduced quality of life are in the scope of palliative care protocol [3]. The most common end-of-life symptoms and signs in palliative cancer patients are pain, anorexia, nausea, cachexia, weakness, dyspnea, ascites, anxiety, agitation, delirium, confusion and pressure sores. In order to achieve quality and continuous care in case management, a family doctor, specific branch specialist, nurse, dietician, psychologist, cleric, etc. should work together in a multidisciplinary approach and clinical guidelines and care protocols should be implemented [4]. However, it should be kept in mind that increasing the medication dose may not always be beneficial to the oncological patients in palliative services. The goal should always be maximum benefit with minimal tests and treatment. Palliative care does not aim to accelerate or postpone death; but it has many benefits in cancer patients and their relatives including the integration of the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of patient care into physical care, providing support for patients to live as active as possible until the last moment, improving the quality of life and the disease process, providing help and support in the grieving process [1,5]. Providing good care to advanced cancer patients requires that caregivers are educated and supported about their patients’ physical, psychological and social care needs. Balancing the physical and emotional needs of the caregivers will reduce the stress they experience, as well as increase the quality of life of their patients [6,7]. Professionalism in palliative care comes into play right at this point. There is no consensus in the medical world about by whom, when and to whom palliative care should be given. In this regard, the conflicts of opinion between specific branches such as anesthesia, internal medicine and neurology are inevitable. We think that the team leader should be a family physician or a palliative care specialist. The reason for this is the family medicine’s principles of core competencies including biopsycosocial, holistic, comprehensive approach and equal distance to specific branches. Of course when the palliative care specialist is the team leader the patient’s own family doctor still provides invaluable service because of his intimate and long-term knowledge about the patients. One key difference in some countries is that no distinction is being made between palliative and hospice care. Neither the insurance companies nor the state demands such classification because it doesn’t serve any practical purpose at the moment. However, in due time such distinction will be inevitable as one of the cost-cutting measure. Medical oncology will have to report about the expected survival of the cancer patients and it will further increase their workload given the exponential increase in cancer cases.
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3D software reconstruction for planning robotic assisted radical nephrectomy with level III caval thrombus

Published on: 30th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8861737634

Inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement by intraluminal extension of tumor is infrequent, occuring in 4% to 10% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) [1-5]. Based on the cephalic extension of the thrombus, Mayo [6] described a classification of inferior vena cava thrombi in 4 categories, which has implications on surgical complexity, estimated blood loss (EBL) and peri-operative complications, but not cancer-specific survival [2,7]. Level III IVC thrombus is classified as being located in the retro-hepatic IVC below the diaphragm. Total resection of this tumor is the best chance of cure when no distant metastases are present [4,8]. Actually, open radical nephrectomy with concomitant thrombectomy is still the standard treatment. This procedure is technically challenging and involves a large incision and prolonged convalescence [9]. Recently, the feasibility of robotic IVC thrombectomy has been demonstrated, with potential lower EBL and shorter hospitalization and convalescence [7,10-14]. This surgery requires thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy, detailed pre-operative preparation and meticulous robotic technique [7]. The key point in the surgical management is the correct assessment of the extension of the endocaval thrombus, what is mainly based on radiological examinations [8]. Although Ultrasonography (US) and computerized tomography (CT) are useful in demonstrating the extent of the thrombus, CT is not always accurate in delineating the superior margin of the tumor in the IVC. More precisely, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate a tumor thrombus and its extension, besides signs of wall invasion, being extremely useful to surgical procedure planning [8,15]. Vena cavography is not additive to US, CT, and MRI, and it increases the risk of contrast-associated renal injury [4,8]. However, new modern image technologies has emerged to help surgical planning, as three-dimensional visualization technique (3DVT) based on routine CT or MRI processed image data [16-20]. Recently, a comparative study showed advantage of 3DVT in management of complex renal tumor during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy [20]. This modality is able to demonstrate anatomy relations, allowing the surgeon to observe the relationship between targeted tumor and peripheral structure before surgery and perform virtual manipulation. This kind of preoperative accurate assessment can enhance surgeons confidence of surgical procedure and decrease surgical risk and incidence of complications [20]. There is no report in the literature of the use of this type of technology in cases of IVC tumor thrombus. We present the use of 3D holographic interactive reconstruction in a single case of robotic radical nephrectomy with level III IVC thrombectomy.
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Prospective Clinical Study to Find out Epidemiology of Xerophthalmia in Children in a Tertiary Care Centre in India

Published on: 29th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355977840

Objective: To study the epidemiology of xerophthalmia in children 2-6 years of age in North India. Methods: A prospective clinical study was done at two tertiary care centers of North India between 2010 to 2016, Cases were selected from routine OPD and children less than 6 years of age were examined by an ophthalmologist. Diagnosis and classification of Xerophthalmia was done according to WHO classification. All the data recording demographic profile, socioeconomic status, other health problems etc were recorded in a fixed proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 16. Findings: Two thousand nine hundred forty six cases were included in the study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The prevalence of night blindness was estimated to be 2.93% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.53-3.33) among children between 2 and 6 years of age. Xerophthalmia prevalence was 4.43% (95% CI: 4.19-4.67). Prevalence was more in girls than boys and higher in low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Vitamin A deficiency is recognized to be a severe public health problem leading to corneal opacity and childhood blindness in most of the areas of North India
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CT signs of pressure induced expansion of paranasal sinus structures

Published on: 26th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317653929

Several articles have been written about hyper inflated sinus structures. Never before, however, a complete overview of all possible pressure induced variations of sinus anatomy have been published. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the most common CT signs of hyper inflated paranasal sinus structures. During a period of 2 years all CT-scans of the paranasal sinuses made in an ENT-department were studied and the most typical shapes of hyper inflated sinus structures were recorded. The authors documented 9 different anomalies of the anterior paranasal sinus complex (frontal sinus, frontal and supra-orbital recess and anterior ethmoid), 8 of the ethmoid and 1 of the sphenoidal sinus. These hyper inflated paranasal sinus structures can only be generated by high positive intranasal pressures. The nose blowing manoeuvre is the only manoeuvre that generates extremely high pressures and as such it might be the driving force in the generation of these hyper inflated paranasal structures and consequently play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic sinusitis. Pneumatisation of the sinuses starts at birth and is a lifelong process. Sometimes, however, pneumatisation can be extreme and will result in facial deformities. Pneumosinus dilatans, is such a condition, characterized by an abnormal dilatation of a paranasal sinus cavity, containing air only. Most reports describe pneumosinus dilatans of the frontal sinus, but also other sinuses can show this phenomenon: maxillary sinus and in one case a unilateral pneumosinus dilatans of nearly all sinuses (maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinus) was described. Recently Kalavagunta et al., described a less dramatic expansion of the maxillary sinus and named it “Extensive Maxillary Sinus Pneumatisation” (EMSP). They were surprised to see that EMSP has received little attention in the literature. Neuner et al., described 9 different atypical pneumatisation abnormalities of the paranasal sinus anatomy. Most of deformities of the sinus pneumatisation are growth deformities of the thick bones that make up the frame of the sinuses. Only a few articles, deal with specific deformities of thinner bone structures such as “wavy orbital floor” and “frontal cells”. Never before, however, an article was published that studied all possible deformities due to increased pressures and tried to make a classification. So the aim of this study was to make an inventory of the most obvious pressures related deformities that can be seen on CT-scans of patients with rhinosinusitis.
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