Diabetics

Indications and Results of Coronarography in Senegalese Diabetic Patients: About 45 Cases

Published on: 20th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286426513

Introduction: Coronary disease accounts for 75% of diabetic mortality. Coronary angiography reveals lesions that are often diffuse, staggered and multi-truncated. The objective of this study was to determine the indications and results of coronary angiography in diabetic patients. Method: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study which took place from May 2013 to July 2015 at the cardiology clinic of the Aristide Le Dantec hospital. We have included all diabetics who have benefited from coronary angiography by studying clinical and paraclinical data, particularly coronary angiography ones. Results: During this period, 400 patients had coronary angiography, including 45 diabetics, a hospital prevalence of 11.25%. The average age of our patients was 62.27 y/o with extremes of 44 and 85 y/o. The sex ratio was 1.6 in favor of men. Diabete was revealed in 42 patients. Almost all patients were type II diabetics (44 patients) since 9.94 years in average. The associated cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension 66.7% and dyslipidemia 49.6%. Only 4 patients had typical chest pain. The electrocardiogram was abnormal in 84.4% of cases with 26 cases of SCA ST +. Coronary angiography was abnormal in 37 patients with significant stenosis in 30 patients. A single-truncular lesion was found in 14 cases, 8 had bi-truncular and other 8 had tri-truncular one. The anterior interventricular artery and the segment II of the right coronary were the most affected branches. Concerning the management, 14 patients had angioplasty with an active stent, 8 patients had medical treatment alone and 9 patients had coronary artery bypass surgery. Accidents occured for 4 patients, two of whom had arterial spasm, one of a vagal discomfort and another had an occlusion of the circumflex that led to the implantation of a stent. Conclusion: Diabetes is accompanied by progressive coronary atherosclerosis, which has an adverse effect on patients' prognosis. Tri-truncal affection and indications for coronary artery bypass surgery are common
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Plaque morphology in diabetic vs. non diabetic patients assessed by Multi-Slice Computed Tomography coronary angiography

Published on: 4th October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8333008298

Background and Objectives: Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) provides high accuracy for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). The introduction of the latest computed tomography technology allows comprehensive evaluation of various aspects of CAD, including the coronary calcium score, coronary artery stenosis, bypass patency, and myocardial function. This study aimed to assess the effect of DM on coronary arteries evaluated by MSCT-CA Comparing Plaque Morphology in Diabetic patients with Non-Diabetic Whoever Controlled or not assessed by HbA1c. Methods: In this study we randomly assigned 150 adult patients were diagnosed with suspected coronary artery disease underwent MSCT-CA for evaluation their coronaries regarding luminal stenosis, Plaque analysis, Remodeling index, SSS, SIS and Ca score. Results: There was statistically significant difference between diabetics & non-diabetic groups in LM lesions with (P = 0.029). also, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex, diabetics were shown a trend toward more mixed plaque with statistically significant {(OR): 3.422, 95% CI 1.66-7.023, P = 0.001}; whereas, after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, patients with diabetes also shown a trend toward more mixed plaque with statistically significant (OR: 3.456, 95% CI 1.668-7.160, P = 0.001). It means significant differences in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, with a higher proportion of mixed plaques, a more vulnerable form of atherosclerotic plaque in diabetics (P < 0.001) otherwise No significant difference. Conclusion: MSCT angiography may be useful for the identification of CAD in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. There were statistically significant differences in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and composition, with a higher proportion of mixed plaques, between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Furthermore, MSCT may give accurate information about plaque characteristics according to different coronary risk factors, thereby identifying high risk features warranting a more intensive anti-atherosclerotic treatment.   
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Pathological left ventricular hypertrophy and outflow tract obstruction in an infant of a diabetic mother: A case report

Published on: 3rd March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560717043

Background: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) are at increased risk of developing congenital anomalies including cardiac defects. Pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and outflow tract obstruction is a rare but known cardiac comorbidity in infants of diabetic mothers. The severity of this condition in IDMs can vary from an incidental finding on echocardiography to an infant with severe symptoms of congestive heart failure and specific management of the condition varies. Aim: The aim of this article is to report this clinical entity in a Nigerian infant born to a mother with poor glycaemic control in pregnancy and highlight management. Case report: We report a term neonate who was diagnosed as a case of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and outflow tract obstruction delivered to a mother with gestational diabetics with poor glycaemic control in pregnancy. Child was treated successfully with β-adrenergic blocker and showed resolution of hypertrophy in follow-up echocardiography. Conclusion: Infants of diabetic mothers are very high risk infants. Pathological left ventricular hypertrophy in IDM have good prognosis. Early recognition and prompt intervention is advocated.
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Effect of ginger flour supplementation on fermented millet flour ‘ibyer’ anti-diabetic and biochemical properties

Published on: 29th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899338938

A mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease; COVID-19, has led to tremendous global health and economy damages. This virus could be dampened through home use of fermented bio food material. Fermented millet flour (ibyer) is an indigenous non-alcoholic gruel made from cereals either (maize, sorghum and millet). It is prepared by cooking reconstituted cereal flour or wet milled paste with water. In this study, fermented millet fl our supplemented with ginger powder blends were formulated in the ratio 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 for the production of gruel. The blends were subjected to feeding trial experiment using wistar albino rat. Results analysis revealed that Serum cholesterol was less than 200 mg/dl. The fasting blood glucose was also within the recommended range (67.7 - 125.0 mg/dl). The biochemical parameters were within recommended range, total serum protein ranged from 5.82-7.06 g/L, Alanine aminotransferase ranged from 28.53 to 41.13 iu/L, Aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 28.50 to 48.66 iu/L. The albino rats showed slight increase in body weight throughout the experimental period, ranging from 78.67 -103.80 g. The experiment shows that the diet did not have any adverse effect on the experimental animals and were within the recommended range hence a good anti diabetic blend and has excellent biochemical profile properties for homes use.
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Effect of diabetes mellitus on the Pulmonary Function Tests in Sudanese Diabetic Patients

Published on: 29th August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7856188599

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of illness and death. Pulmonary function test PFT has assumed a key role in epidemiological studies investigating the incidence, natural history and causality of lung disease. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in The National Ribat Teaching Hospital and Jabir Abualiz Specialized Diabetes Center in Khartoum state to measure the respiratory muscle power in 31 diabetic patients (case group) and 30 non-diabetics patients (control groups). Pulmonary function tests were measured by using Digital Spirometer-Micro-Plus version. Results: Lung function parameters between diabetic patients and their matched control group show no significant differences between the means of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. However, diabetic patients showed significant reduction in PEFR. Conclusions: Exercise and well control of diabetes helped in preserving normal respiratory muscle power. Continuous reasonable exercise with good control is highly recommended for all diabetics.
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A Comprehensive review on genomic diversity and epidemiology of COVID-19

Published on: 22nd July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639906558

A respiratory outbreak of COVID-19 started from Wuhan, China and on 30 January 2020, WHO declared this infection to be epidemic, implementing public health emergency worldwide. On 11th March 2020, observing its prevalence in the whole world and WHO declared as a pandemic. Many countries completely collapse in the grip of this pandemic, as there are no effective treatments available, the precaution is the sole remedy to minimize this infection. The emergence and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 (since the SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012] manifest the third time outline of highly contagious and pathogenic infection with infect-ability to spread globally in the twentieth-first century. The SARS CoV-2 genome is highly identical to bat coronavirus which is considered to be the perfect natural host. This coronavirus even utilizes the same ACE2 receptor as SARS-CoV and mainly spread the infection to the respiratory tract, which evidently showed that transmission of this virus through interactions and exposures. The death toll of these infected patients is increasing day by day especially when they have prehistory fatal diseases like cardiovascular, diabetics, and respiratory diseases. In this review, we summarized and explained the research progressed and available data on epidemiology, COVID-19 phylogenetic relation and its impact of different fatal disease and their relation and discuss the precautionary methods to combat this pandemic. Moreover, the pieces of evidence of spreading the virus through pets and prevention of being spreading by copper metal endorsement.
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Diabetes and red blood cell parameters

Published on: 8th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355942733

Type 2 diabetes is a common disease in these days and day by day it is arising. The main focus of the study was to investigate association of packed cell volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MPV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) with glycemic marker HbA1c. So that PCV, MPV, MCHC, RDW could be used as a predictor of glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes instead of HbA1c value. This study included 87 DMT2 patients, which divided into two groups, A (n=41, presence in diabetics≤6.5-6.9%) and B (n=46, target in diabetes≥7.0%), according to HbA1c values. Spearsman correlation co-efficients were calculated to evaluate the relationship between RBC count, MCHC, RDW with random blood sugar (RBS) and PCV, MCV, MCHC with HbA1c value. Binominal logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between glycemic control, as dichotomous outcome of MCHC, RDW, PCV, and MCV as the main prognosticator. MCHC and RDW were significantly higher in the group B compared to the group A. RDW and MCHC may be applied as the auxiliary indicators of deterioration of glucoregulation.
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Clinical profile, etiology, outcome and new-onset diabetes: A SARI case series

Published on: 28th June, 2022

Introduction: The world is currently facing the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with evolving 2nd wave. The COVID-19 patients present most commonly with Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) in an emergency room with acute onset fever, cough, and breathlessness. However, not all SARI cases as per definition are due to COVID-19 infection, which is well proven in this case series of 113 cases of SARI. This is just the opposite of the other SARI series done in the pre-COVID-19 era. Also, no previous SARI case series data has shown significant association with Diabetes Mellitus, including new-onset diabetes thus figuring out the major Pathophysiological association of COVID-19 with glucose metabolism and has a bearing on the pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome of COVID-19 infection and perpetuity of pandemic of this magnitude. Here we raise concern for the first time about the growing association of an infectious pandemic with the lifestyle disorders which are non-communicable diseases but carry with them the potential of fertile soil for rapidly spreading epidemics.Aim and objective: To find out the etiology, clinical profile, treatment outcome, and mortality rate in different sub-groups of SARI cases in a tertiary care hospital and the incidence of new-onset Diabetes Mellitus in them and to investigate theoretically the hypothesis that maintaining normal glucose metabolism could prevent progression of a mild Flu-like illness (FLI) to a severe form of Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) and consequent complications such as Cytokine Storm Syndrome and Multi-Organ failure.Design: Retrospective, single-center case series of 113 SARI patients at a tertiary care hospital in Agra India between 1 March- 30 October 2020.Main outcome: The demographics, clinical, pathological, imaging, and treatment outcome data were collected. The SARI cases analyzed were defined as “Severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) an acute respiratory illness of recent onset (within seven days) manifested by fever (≥38°C), cough and shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing requiring hospitalization and were sub-classified according to the primary etiology producing SARI in them. The findings were compiled and compared. Conclusion: Of the 113 patients of SARI – 32.7 %were associated with Diabetes, with 9.74% new-onset Diabetes and 26 % previously known Diabetes. This was mainly due to SARS-CoV-2 (24 Diabetics out of 52 COVID-19 cases- 46.1 %).The Average hospitalization stay of SARI cases was 10 days with a maximum in SARS-CoV-2 and a minimum stay of 5.22 days in Bacterial Pneumonia and 5.66 days in Koch’s Lungs.The death rate was maximum (4 out of 26) 15.3%. Hospitalized TB/Koch’s Lung patients who presented as SARI and 3.8% in Bacterial Pneumonia, 2.43% in SARS-CoV-2, and <1% in Sepsis.Those SARI cases who were euglycemic at the time of initial presentation recovered early and carried a good prognosis with less mortality as compared to those who were hyperglycemic on presentation. Also, those FLI cases who maintained euglycemia or did not have any other risk factor which predisposes them to stress (Diabetes, Prolonged fasting, Obesity, major organ disorder, Psychological disorder, and Cancer) did not progress to SARI as the endogenous steroid secretion and sympathetic activation did not occur, the intracellular pH levels remained in the alkaline range.10.18% of cases developed new-onset diabetes (a total of 11 cases) out of which 10 were in COVID-19. Thus 19.2% incidence of new-onset diabetes in SARS-CoV-2 and a prevalence of 26.9% in SARS-CoV-2, making total diabetes 46.1% in SARS-CoV-2, and out of all SARI cases, 26 % of patients developed pulmonary fibrosis with consequent long-term complications. In COVID-19 patients, it was seen only in diabetics SARS CoV-2 male patients, thus no death in non-diabetic females in COVID-19 in this case series.
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Correlation of dyslipidemia and athrogenic index of plasma with anthropometric measurements and clinical variables among diabetic patients in Dessie Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia, 2021

Published on: 14th July, 2022

Background: Control of increased athrogenic index of plasma and lipid parameters in the early stage of diabetes mellitus helps diabetic patients to improve their quality of life and treatment outcomes. Limited studies were conducted on the assessment of dyslipidemia and its correlation with clinical and anthropometric variables among diabetes patients but no study was conducted on the correlation of the athrogenic index of plasma with anthropometric measurements among diabetes patients in this study area. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation of dyslipidemia and athrogenic index of plasma with anthropometric measurements and clinical variables among diabetic patients in Dessie Compressive specialized hospital, Northeast Ethiopia.Methods: Institution-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 to June 2021. A total of 250 diabetic and healthy control respondents were included in the study with convenience sampling. Semi-structured questionnaire of a modified WHO stepwise Approach to Surveillance for chronic disease was used to collect data. Finally, descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted to assess the correlation between variables. A P-value of less than 0.05 was declared as the level of significance.Results: Athrogenic Index of Plasma, Triglyceride to High-density Lipoprotein Ratio, Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, waist circumference, WHtR and BMI were statistically significantly higher among type 2 DM groups. There was a significant positive linear correlation between triglycerides and waist circumference, between TG / HDL and WHtR, and between cholesterol and WHtR, but a significant negative linear correlation between HDL and waist circumference among the Type 2 DM group. Systolic blood pressure and pulse showed a significant positive linear correlation with WC, BMI, and WHtR among diabetics groups only. Our study showed that the pattern of lipid abnormalities observed among DM patients was high AIP in 68%, moderate AIP in 16% and all four groups of hyperlipidemia were found in 9% of diabetic patients. All lipid profiles showed a significant very strong positive linear correlation with AIP, but DHL has a significant very strong negative linear correlation with AIP among type 2 DM groups.Conclusion: The proportions of high athrogenic index of plasma and lipid profile disorders were higher in DM patients compared to healthy controls. Dyslipidemia and a high athrogenic index of plasma had a considerable correlation with anthropometric measurements and clinical outcomes of type II DM patients. DM patients who have a higher athrogenic index of plasma and higher lipid parameters should be strictly followed based on their anthropometric measurements.
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