Osteoarthritis of the hand is a chronic condition that involves hand joints, but receives less attention. Few studies have investigated the use of ultrasound therapy and laser therapy for the treatment of hand osteoarthritis. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the conjugated treatment of therapeutic ultrasound and laser therapy on the pain and joint function of a patient with hand osteoarthritis. The is case of a woman, 57 years old, with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis on hand for 3 years, presenting constant pain and worsening after manual activities. The pain and function were evaluated, respectively, by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Australian Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index questionnaire (AUSCAN). After 12 sessions using ultrasound and laser therapy application, there was an expressive improvement in the pain and functional indexes of the patient. The combined application of therapeutic ultrasound and laser therapy, through the unified field action of the therapies used, proved to be efficient in reducing pain and improving the functionality.
Purpose: Here, we report the complications of endoprosthesis with threaded cups according to our application in cases of complicated acetabulum (hip revisions and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI)).
Methods: A total of 504 patients was analyzed, including 189 men and 315 women. For re-implanted patients (n = 49), the mean time to re-implantation was 6.3 years and the average age at re-implantation was 54.7 years. For censored patients (n = 455), the mean time to censoring was 5.5 years and the average age of the implant was 55.7 years. Among the patients that were censored, 77 died and 378 patients did not experience an event necessitating re-implantation.
Results: For the total study population, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of 5 year survival is 0.94 and of 10 year survival is 0.85. 90% of the implants survived 7 years, 80% of the implants survived almost 12 years and 70% of implants survived almost 15 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggests that men have higher survival than women. Age of the patient at the time of implant was not a statistically significant factor for re-implantation (p value = 0.21) but sex was (p value = 0.02). Women had 2.25 times more risk of being re-implanted than men.
Conclusions: In our case series, the failure rate, as a result of aseptic loosening, was 7.4% (n = 51). More than half the failure cases (56%) required re-implantation. Over one-third (37%) of the primary arthrosis cases, were found to be FAI, lessening the frequency of diagnosis of the former. In our clinic, the threaded cup seems to be indispensable in hip revision surgery and in treating FAI.
Purpose: The benefits of Physical Activity (PA) considered as a major supportive care in cancer patients, on survival, and recurrence risk is largely disseminated in public communication. However, these data must be taken with caution. The main objectives were to review the evidence and limits of studies reported regarding the post-diagnosis PA role on cancer survival and recurrence risk to secondly discuss of research perspectives on PA programs.
Method: The narrative review included all published or ongoing studies in English during the last 20 years related to PA, survival and recurrence risk with a systematic search on main databases.
Results and discussion: The current evidences regarding the PA role on survival and recurrence risk were only based on cohort studies, mainly in breast cancer. The major methodological limits identified as the lack of PA change assessment, PA level assessed largely by self-reported methods and the significant inter- but also intra- variability make the interpretation of data very. Beyond the use of rigorous RCT, the major issue is to develop adapted and personalized interventions to progressively increase PA level overtime in cancer survivors.
Conclusion: Despite the lack of causal relationship between post-diagnosis PA, survival and recurrence risk, the review underlines several interesting research perspectives. The future PA interventions, using innovative tools and integrated to the “real-life” will argued for the potential antitumoral PA role growing in literature.
Background: Due to variations in hospital protocols and personnel availability, individuals with myocardial infarction admitted on the weekend may be less likely to receive invasive procedures, or may receive them with a greater latency than those admitted during the week. Whether or not this occurs, and translates into a difference in outcomes is not established.
Method: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2008-2011) database, we identified all patients admitted with a principle diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. They were stratified by weekend or weekday admission. Baseline clinical characteristics, procedure utilization and latency to procedure were compared, and logistic regression models were constructed to assess the relationship between these variables and in-hospital mortality.
Results: Patient demographics and provider-related characteristics (hospital type, geography) were similar between weekend and weekday admission for myocardial infarction. Adjusted for covariates, we found that the odds of mortality for a weekend admission are 5% greater than for a weekday admission (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09, p=0.009). For the utilization of an invasive procedure, we found that the odds of receiving a procedure for a weekend admission were 12% less than the odds for a weekday admission, adjusted for the other covariates (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.91, p<0.001). In addition, we found that the time to procedure was an average of 0.18 days (4.32 hours) longer for weekend admissions compared to weekday admissions (95% CI: 0.16, 0.20, p<0.001). However, we did not observe a significant difference in the overall length of stay for weekend and weekday admissions (0.004 days; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.05, p=0.87).
Conclusion: In a large and diverse subset of patients admitted with myocardial infarction, weekend admission was associated with fewer procedures, increased latency to those procedures, and a non-significant trend towards greater in adjusted in-hospital mortality.
Woven coronary artery (WCA) is an extremely rare and still not a clearly defined coronary anomaly. It is characterized by the division of epicardial coronary artery into thin channels which then reanastomose with the distal part of the abnormal coronary artery . Since the angiographic imaging of WCA looks like an intracoronary thrombus and dissection; the differential diagnosis between atherothrombotic coronary arteries with recanalization of organized thrombi in coronary arteries and WCA may be very difficult for invasive cardiologists, especially in patients with single or two coronary artery involvements .
Background: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a simple and noninvasive bedside diagnostic tool with a well-established role in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to study the diagnostic value of electrocardiographic ST-T wave changes in lead aVL in prediction of site of coronary artery stenosis in patients with chronic stable angina.
Patients and Methods: study was conducted on 156 patients referred for invasive coronary angiography with history of stable CAD as proved by non- invasive tests, 12 lead ECG was recorded and fully interpreted with more focus on T wave direction in aVL lead. T waves in aVL were categorized into one of three groups: upright, flat or inverted.
Results: regarding T wave in lead aVL, inverted T wave was reported in 71(45.5%) patients, 58 (37.2%) patients were with upright T wave in lead aVL and 27(17.3%) patients were with flat T wave in lead aVL, and we found that inverted T wave in lead aVL was most evident in 56(73.7%) patients with mid LAD with (highest κ value equal to 0.550[moderate agreement], and p value<0.001.
Conclusions: This study confirmed the diagnostic value of T wave inversion in lead aVL in prediction of mid left anterior descending artery lesions in patients with stable coronary artery disease.
Introduction: Hypertensive cardiopathy is the target organ lesion caused by arterial hypertension (HTN) that exhibits the highest morbidity and mortality rates. Although the importance of hemodynamic overload exerted by HTN on the onset of cardiopathy is well established, several non-hemodynamic factors may contribute significantly to its development.
Objective: To evaluate the influence of different non-hemodynamic risk factors in the development of hypertensive cardiopathy.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out in hypertensive patients assisted at the specialized arterial hypertension physicians’ office of the “Carlos Manuel de Céspedes” Specialty Policlinic attached to the General University Hospital, Bayamo Municipality, Granma Province, Cuba from January 5, 2006 to December 31, 2015. The study included 18-to-55-year-old hypertensive patients with a stage 1 arterial hypertension diagnosis for less than a year1.
Results: The multivariate analysis showed a significant and independent relation among the majority of the factors studied and the risk of developing cardiopathy. The major factor was C-reactive protein (HR: 5.020; IC 95%: 3.383-7,448; p<0.005) followed by microalbuminuria (HR: 2.649; IC 95%: 1.932-3.631; p<0.005). The area under the model ROC curve was 0.887 (p<0,005).
Conclusions: The results showed that it is possible to estimate the risk of developing hypertensive cardiopathy with the application of the regression model to major risk factors.
Introduction: The high morbidity and mortality by hypertensive cardiopathy demand the construction and validation of tools to stratify the risk of developing this condition.
Objective: To design and validate an index, based on risk factors, that permits to predict the development of hypertensive cardiopathy in patients with a diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was done in hypertensive patients assisted at the specialized arterial hypertension physicians’ office of the “Carlos Manuel de Céspedes” Specialty Policlinic attached to the General University Hospital, Bayamo Municipality, Granma Province, Cuba from January 1st, 2010 to December 31, 2016. Internal and external validity and the internal consistency of the index were determined.
Results: The index sensitivity was of 97, 20 (IC: 93, 93-94.09) and specificity of 65, 38 (IC: 76, 25-76, 20). Both the index discriminative capacity (area under the ROC curve= 0,944; interval of confidence: 0.932-0.956; p<0.0005) and calibration (p=0.751) were adequate.
Conclusions: The present study proposes an index to predict the risk of developing hypertensive cardiopathy, with adequate discriminative capacity and calibration (external validity). The index can be used as a tool of clinical and epidemiological surveillance since it permits to identify subjects with greater probability of developing the condition and to stratify the risk.
Introduction: Implementation of prevention strategies for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is essential, but many fall short of reaching their goals. Patients often perceive themselves as healthy and are less motivated to change lifestyle. To obtain better results patients need repeated information, preferably with motivational and person-centered approaches.
Aims: To investigate whether health care providers inform CAD patients about risk factors and lifestyle changes at a percutaneous coronary intervention unit. Also to investigate whether the information given at discharge included secondary prevention management and if motivational and person-centered approaches were used.
Methods: This is a descriptive, observational study that includes both a qualitative and quantitative design. Physicians and nurses working at a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) unit and physicians at a coronary care unit (CCU) participated. A staff nurse observed and noted what information the patients received at the PCI unit. At the CCU, observations regarding secondary prevention strategies during the discharge counselling were performed.
Results: There were 50 observations made at the PCI unit. The information mainly consisted of tobacco consumption, physical activity and diet.
During the 31 discharge counselling sessions the diagnosis, interventional procedure and medical treatment were frequently included. Most patients received little or no person-centered or motivational counselling.
Conclusion: Nearly all patients at the PCI unit received information about the consequence of tobacco consumption, and more than half about the beneficial effects of physical activity. In contrast, the counselling at discharge need to focus more on behavioral changes and a motivational and person-centered approach.
Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease with structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, and congenital heart disease. However, it has become clear that diverse etiologies and clinical manifestations (e.g. arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D), ARVD/C, left-ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC)) are responsible for the clinical picture of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
The American Heart Association (AHA) classification grouped cardiomyopathies into genetic, mixed and acquired forms, while the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) classification proposed the subgrouping of each major type of cardiomyopathy into familial or genetic, and nonfamilial or nongenetic, forms [1-4].
Cardiomyopathies are clinically heterogeneous diseases, and there are differences in sex, age of onset, rate of progression, risk of development of overt heart failure and likelihood of sudden death within each cardiomyopathy subtype .
Because of the complex etiology and clinical presentation, the diagnostic spectrum in cardiomyopathies spans the entire range of non-invasive and invasive cardiological examination techniques including genetic analysis. The exact verification of certain cardiomyopathies necessitates additional investigations. So, histological, immunohistological and molecular biological/virological investigations of endomyocardial biopsies are the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis of an inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi) [6-10].
This review focuses on myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathies underlying an immune-mediated process or persistent viral infection.
Background: Early diagnosis and improved facilities are necessary for determining the optimal timing of surgery and other interventions in children with congenital heart diseases in Nigeria. This is because late presentation, late diagnosis and delayed surgery can lead to mortality and affect the quality of life among these children.
Objectives: This review article is aimed at enumerating the timing of cardiac surgeries and other interventions and to seek if there is any factor associated with the timing of cardiac surgery.
Methods: A search on PubMed database, World Health Organization libraries, Google scholar, TRIP database, and reference lists of selected articles on timing of cardiac surgery in children was done. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was also searched. We noted few data from African setting. Key words such as timing of cardiac surgery; children, congenital heart defect were used.
Conclusion: Appropriate timing for cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease is very important as late surgical intervention could result in several morbidities and mortality.
Blunt chest trauma leads to a wide range of lesions, relatively minor parietal injuries to potentially fatal cardiac lesions, making diagnosis and management difficult. The diagnosis is currently facilitated by imaging, however, these lesions may go unnoticed and be discovered late through complications.
We report the case of a neglected heart wound revealed by a heart failure. This case is notable due to a favourable outcome despite a delay in diagnosis due to a lack of pericardial effusion and the absence of cardiac symptoms, and a long delay from injury to appropriate treatment in the presence of a penetrating cardiac wound deep enough to cause a muscular ventricular septal defect and lacerate the anterior mitral leaflet.
Background: Current guidelines for diagnosis and management of heart failure (HF) rely on clinical findings and natriuretic peptide values, but evidence suggests that recently identified cardiac biomarkers may aid in early detection of HF and improve risk stratification. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of multiple biomarkers in patients with HF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
Methods: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI), N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), endothelin-1 (ET-1), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pMMP-9), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured using single-molecule counting technology in 200 patients with varying stages of HF. Plasma detection with cross-sectional associations of biomarkers across all HF stages, and advanced-therapy and transplant-free survival were assessed using multivariate analysis and Cox regression analyses, respectively.
Results: NTproBNP, pMMP-9, IL-6 were elevated in early, asymptomatic stages of HF, and increased with HF severity. Higher circulating levels of combined IL-6, NTproBNP, and cTnI predicted significantly worse survival at 1500-day follow-up. Cox regression analysis adjusted for ACC/AHA HF stages demonstrated that a higher concentration of IL-6 and cTnI conferred greater risks in terms of time to death, implantation of left ventricular assist device (LVAD), or heart transplantation.
Conclusion: Biomarkers of inflammation, LV remodeling, and myocardial injury were elevated in HF and increased with HF severity. Patients had a significantly higher risk of serious cardiac events if multiple biomarkers were elevated. These findings support measuring NTproBNP, cTnI and IL-6 among patients with HF and LVSD for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.
Introduction: Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), is a bone disorder characterized by the abnormal joining (fusion) of two or more spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae), which is present from birth. Three major features result from this abnormality: a short neck, a limited range of motion in the neck, and a low hairline at the back of the head. In some individuals, KFS can be associated with a variety of additional symptoms and physical abnormalities which contribute in the deterioration and complication of the condition of the child.
Aim of presentation: Here, we report five children from Kosovo with KFS associated with different heart abnormalities, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of selected conditions in resources-limited settings.
Methods: Retrospectively we analysed medical reports of five children, diagnosed at different age with congenital disease and clinical and lab signs of Klippel-Feil syndrome.
Conclusion: Basing on our cases, all diagnosed in a small country as a Kosovo, we can conclude that KFS is not such a rare condition. In addition, such syndrome is not so rarely associated with different congenital heart disease. In four cases cardiac surgery was indicated and successfully was done abroad Kosovo in the lack of such services in Kosovo.
Anomalies of coronary artery origin are congenital malformations characterized by the abnormal birth of a coronary artery from the controlateral coronary aortic sinus (birth of the left coronary artery from the right sinus or birth of the right coronary artery from the left sinus). The artery concerned has an abnormal initial path between the aorta and the pulmonary artery; this segment is most often intramural, in the aortic wall. They are rare with a prevalence (0.1% to 0.3% of the population).
They pose a high risk of sudden stress death related to exercise myocardial ischemia. The most common mode of discovery is aborted sudden death, but sometimes fortuitously. The contribution of multi-round CT is described for the positive diagnosis of these anatomical variations, sometimes delicate in coronary angiography, but also for the distinction between “benign” and “malignant” forms, potentially responsible for myocardial ischemia. Treatment is usually surgical in symptomatic forms. We report the cases of two patients with coronary connection abnormalities discovered in adulthood.
Introduction: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Community-based studies are important in ascertaining the burden of the disease.
Objectives: The study was set out to determine the prevalence and types of CHD among primary school children in Port Harcourt Local Government Area (PHALGA) of Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria.
Methods: A total of 1,712 primary school pupils were selected by multistage sampling from twelve schools in PHALGA. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from pupil’s parents on their child’s biodata and symptoms suggestive of heart disease. General physical and cardiovascular system examinations were carried out on each selected pupil, following which those with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of heart disease had echocardiographic confirmation of their cardiac status.
Results: The 1,712 subjects were aged 5-14 (mean 8.48 ± 2.30) years. 874 (51.1%) were females while males were 838 (48.9%). The study revealed that 31 pupils had congenital heart diseases confirmed by echocardiography, giving a prevalence of 18.1 per 1,000 pupils. The commonest cardiac defects seen were acyanotic CHD in 30 (96.8%) pupils while cyanotic CHD was seen in only one (3.2%) pupil. Among the acyanotic CHD, atrial septal defects (83.9%) followed by ventricular septal defects (9.7%) were the commonest. CHD occurred with higher frequency among females (64.5%) and among the younger age group of 5-9 years (61.3%) though these were not statistically significant (p > 0.005).
Conclusion: Cardiac examination as part of compulsory health screening at primary school entry will help detect children with CHD, reduce delay in diagnosis for intervention, avert debilitating morbidity and assure a better quality of life.
Amyloidosis encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble abnormal amyloid aggregates, due to a failure in protein quality control. Cardiac amyloidosis is a disorder in which proteins misfold and deposit as amyloid ﬁbrils that inﬁltrate the myocardial extracellular space .
Transthyretin (ATTR) and light chain (AL) are the most frequent types of cardiac amyloidosis. Transthyretin is a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, it may be hereditary or acquired from either wild-type (ATTRwt) or mutant (ATTRm) amyloid . Cardiomyopathy is a common manifestation of ATTR amyloidosis with a particularly poor life expectancy of 2 to 6 years after diagnosis . Although considered rare, the prevalence of this serious disease is likely underestimated because symptoms can be non-specific, and diagnosis largely relies on amyloid detection in tissue biopsies.
Critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) are preferably diagnosed prenatally or soon after birth. Late diagnosis has been related to poorer prognosis. The aim of this study is to assess when CCHDs are diagnosed in Iceland and whether late diagnosis is a problem. All live born children in Iceland and foetuses diagnosed with CCHDs during the years 2000-2014 were included. CCHD was defined as a defect requiring intervention or causing death in the first year of life, or leading to abortion.
The total number of pre- and postnatal diagnosis of CCHDs was 188. Prenatal diagnosis was made in 69 of 188 (36.7%). Of 69 diagnosed prenatally 33 were terminated due to CCHD. Of the 155 live born children with CCHD, 36 (23.2%) had a prenatal diagnosis and 100 (64.5%) were diagnosed shortly after birth, before discharge from birth facility. 19 children (12.3%) were diagnosed late, that is after discharge from birth facility. Coarctation of the aorta was the most common CCHD diagnosed late (6/19).
Prenatal screening and newborn examination give good results in diagnosis of CCHDs in Iceland. Late diagnosis are relatively few, but both the number of prenatally diagnosed CCHDs and CCHDs diagnosed shortly after birth can be further improved.
Background: Adoption of the Lung Allocation Score (LAS) has led to increased listing of older patients and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for lung transplantation (LTX). Older patients and those with IPF have higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), a relative contraindication for LTX. The impact of the LAS on CAD prevalence and cardiovascular morbidity in LTX recipients is unknown.
Methods: Retrospective review of single institution database from January 2000 to December 2010. Patients with and without CAD were compared by age, gender, LAS, single vs double LTX, and transplant indication. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, and statistical significance determined by log-rank method. Survival analysis was performed on all patients and by 3:1 propensity matching. Differences in CAD, gender, and indication were determined by Chi-squared test. Differences in LAS and age were calculated with a two-tailed t - test.
Results: In the pre-LAS era, 6.2% (9/145) recipients had CAD vs. 9.2% (17/184) in the post-LAS era (p = 0.411). Among all patients, recipients with CAD had a worse long term survival as estimated by Kaplan-Meier method (p = 0.001), although there was no statistically significant difference after propensity matching ((p = 0.14). Although more recipients in the post-LAS era had a diagnosis of IPF [15/145 vs. 71/184 patients, (p < 0.001)], there was no difference in the prevalence of CAD in the IPF cohort compared to others. There were no differences in cardiovascular deaths among recipients with CAD, with IPF, or in the post-LAS era. Patients with a pre-transplant diagnosis of CAD had an descreased risk of new onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) (p = 0.007; HR:0.133; CI:0.030-0.583).
Conclusion: Adoption of the LAS was not associated with a significant change in proportion of recipients with CAD who underwent LTX at our institution, despite an increase in recipients with IPF. Recipients with CAD had a higher risk of developing new postoperative AF and worse survival than patients without CAD. Differences in survival, however, could not be attributed directly to CAD based on propensity matched analysis
A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of right-sided thoracic pain. The ECG showed inferior ST segment elevations. He has been treated with aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated heparin and tenecteplase, and his symptoms resolved after 30 minutes. About half an hour later, the patient developed again left-sided thoracic pain and the signs of an anterior myocardial ST-segment elevation infarction. 90 minutes after receiving the initial medications, the performed coronary angiography revealed a long dissection of a large ramus circumflexus. Furthermore, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded at about the mid-level. The left ventriculography showed a reduced ventricular function and a Stanford type A aortic dissection. Immediate patient transfer for emergency surgical intervention was arranged. However, ventricular fibrillation occurred during transport and he required endotracheal intubation and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Unfortunately, he died during further transport.
In a patient with massive thoracic pain of initially uncommon localization in combination with fluctuation of ST-segment elevations, aortic dissection should be seriously taken into the differential diagnosis as well as into therapeutic management decisions (in particular antiplatelet and thrombolytic therapy).
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