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Thrombolysis, the only Optimally Rapid Reperfusion Treatment

Published on: 23rd June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286427398

Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been plagued by inadequate efficacy and a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), which led to its replacement by procedures like percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) whenever possible. Since this requires hospitalization, it is time-consuming, and compromising salvage of brain tissue and myocardium. Thrombolysis is the only first-line treatment that can provide sufficiently timely treatment for optimal recovery of organ function. However, for this potential to be realized, its efficacy and safety must be significantly improved over the current method. By adopting the sequential, synergistic fibrinolytic paradigm of the endogenous system, already verified by a clinical trial, this becomes possible. The endogenous system’s function is evidenced by the fibrinolytic product D-dimer that is invariably present in blood, and which increases >20-fold in the presence of thromboembolism. This system uses tPA to initiate lysis, which is then completed by the other fibrin-specific activator prourokinase (proUK). Since tPA and proUK in combination are synergistic in fibrinolysis, it helps explain their efficacy at their low endogenous concentrations.
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Investigation of Retinal Microvascular Findings in patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Published on: 7th July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286351578

Objectives: Retinal microvascular anomalies may be a marker for cardiovascular diseases. Our aim in this study was to investigate the utility of ocular fundoscopic examination as a noninvasive method in specifying the patients who carry a risk for coronary artery disease. Material and Method: Patients who were diagnosed with coronary artery disease by coronary angiography were included in our study. Bilateral fundoscopic examination was performed in these patients. Fundoscopic findings and risk factors for coronary artery disease were evaluated. Results: This study enrolled 100 patients (male: 72 (72%), mean age: 58.25±7.1) who were diagnosed with coronary artery disease by coronary angiography. Upon fundoscopic examination, 87% of the study population had atherosclerotic changes. Grade I atherosclerosis was found in 54% of the patients, grade II atherosclerosis was found in 32% of the patients and grade III atherosclerosis was found in 1% of the patients. Increased retinal tortuosity was present in 65% of the patients. Hollenhorst plaque was observed in 3 patients. Drusenoid bodies were observed with a statistically significantly higher rate in the patients who were not using clopidogrel compared to the patients who were using clopidogrel (p<0.001). Conclusions: Retinal findings are frequently found in patients with coronary artery disease. Therefore, fundoscopic examination is a noninvasive and feasible examination method which can be frequently used in the evaluation of cardiac functions.
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Heart disease new hypothesis: under endogenous toxicological aspect

Published on: 22nd January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347022791

In order to suggest new pathogenetic hypothesis in some heart disease we think is interesting to observe some biomedical literature: Can we think some endogenus toxicologic movens in some heart pathologies?
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Endogenous sensitizer of beta-adrenergic receptors (ESBAR) and its analogs (review)

Published on: 29th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929276791

The results of the 20 years studies of the presence in blood serum and other body fluids of endogenous modulators of adrenergic and M-cholinergic impact as a component of humoral link of autonomic nervous system. The article is devoted to the endogenous sensitizer of beta-adrenergic receptor (ESBAR) - water-soluble low molecular weight substances, analogs of which are histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine, mildronat and preductal. It is shown, that separate dilutions of human serum and animal (as a source of ESBAR) and analogs of ESBAR ways to enhance the effectiveness of activation of beta-adrenoceptors (AR) of smooth muscle (uterus, coronary and renal arteries, trachea, stomach), myocardium, erythrocytes and platelets (respectively influenced of histidine and tryptophan). It is reported that content of ESBAR in human serum (according to the titers of its dilution) depends on the sex and the presence of somatic diseases, and at women are also on the stage of reproduction and obstetric complications It is discussed possible mechanisms of ESBAR action, its physiological role, including as a component of beta-adrenoceptor inhibitory mechanism for myometrium, as well as the prospect of the use of analogs of ESBAR, including for the prevention of preterm labor, and for the treatment of bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, hypertension and heart failure.
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Single-centre real world experience of the Mynx Femoral closure device in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

Published on: 4th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165159464

Background: Vascular closure devices are routinely used following femoral artery access to perform percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). A number of devices are available on the market. We have reported previously on our experience of the Mynx device following diagnostic coronary angiography. Aims: To assess the success and complication rates of the Mynx device used in all-comers in the context of PCI within a single cardiac centre. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data available for patients who underwent PCI via the femoral route and received a Mynx device at a single tertiary centre. Results: The device was used to achieve haemostasis in 113 patients following PCI. In all cases weight-adjusted Heparin as well as dual antiplatelet therapy (Aspirin and Clopidogrel/ Ticagrelor) was administered as per PCI protocol. The device was successfully deployed in 111 cases (98.2%). The were 2 cases of device failure, one due to operator error and the other due to Mynx grip balloon bursting during device deployment. In 15 cases (13.2%; 9 male and 6 female) there were reports of small haematomas (<2cm) or oozing resulting in application of manual pressure or Femstop (St. Jude). A further patient required ultrasound-guided compression of the artery due to a large retroperitoneal bleed resulting from access complications. A larger proportion of the cases with complications were done as PPCI (44% vs 33%). The group with complications had higher systolic BP (140mmHg vs 128mmHg; P<0.05) and MABP (97mmHg vs 75mmHg; P<0.05) as compared with the group without any complications. Conclusion: The Mynx closure device is safe and easy to use in the context of PCI, in both the elective and emergency (PPCI) settings. Complication rates, predominately minor, can be minimised in experienced hands.
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Aortic dissection causing 2 myocardial infarctions

Published on: 16th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8488779776

A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of right-sided thoracic pain. The ECG showed inferior ST segment elevations. He has been treated with aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated heparin and tenecteplase, and his symptoms resolved after 30 minutes. About half an hour later, the patient developed again left-sided thoracic pain and the signs of an anterior myocardial ST-segment elevation infarction. 90 minutes after receiving the initial medications, the performed coronary angiography revealed a long dissection of a large ramus circumflexus. Furthermore, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded at about the mid-level. The left ventriculography showed a reduced ventricular function and a Stanford type A aortic dissection. Immediate patient transfer for emergency surgical intervention was arranged. However, ventricular fibrillation occurred during transport and he required endotracheal intubation and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Unfortunately, he died during further transport. In a patient with massive thoracic pain of initially uncommon localization in combination with fluctuation of ST-segment elevations, aortic dissection should be seriously taken into the differential diagnosis as well as into therapeutic management decisions (in particular antiplatelet and thrombolytic therapy).
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Fibrinolytic therapy with tPA failed because it was based on a flawed concept

Published on: 16th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628672035

Fibrinolytic therapy has become synonymous with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) based on the belief that tPA alone was responsible for natural fibrinolysis. Although this assumption was belied from the outset by disappointing clinical results, it persisted, eventually causing fibrinolysis to be discredited and replaced by an endovascular procedure. Since time to reperfusion is the critical determinant of outcome, which in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) means within two hours, a time-consuming hospital procedure is ill-suited as first line treatment. For this purpose, fibrinolysis is more fitting. The assumption that tPA is responsible for fibrinolysis is contradicted by published findings. Instead, tPA ‘s function is limited to the initiation of fibrinolysis, which is continued by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and that has the dominant effect. tPA and uPA gene deletion and clot lysis studies showed the activators have complementary functions, requiring both for a full effect at fibrin-specific doses. They are also synergistic in combination thereby requiring lower doses for efficacy. A clinical proof of concept study in 101 AMI patients who were treated with a 5 mg bolus of tPA followed by a 90 minute infusion of prouPA, the native form of uPA. A near doubling of the 24 h TIMI-3 infarct artery patency rate was obtained compared to that in the best of the tPA trials (GUSTO). In further contrast to tPA, there were no reocclusions and the mortality was only 1% [1]. A sequential combination of both activators, mimicking natural fibrinolysis, holds promise to significantly improve the efficacy and safety of therapeutic fibrinolysis.
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Efficacies of 11% Lactoferricin and 0.05% Chlorhexidine Otological Solution compared, in the treatment of microbial otic overgrowth: A randomized single blinded study

Published on: 4th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325011971

Background:Topical therapy with antimicrobial agents is used in otitis treatment. Due to increase of antibiotic resistance, new strategies are needed. Antiseptics are used but they may induce contact dermatitis. Natural antimicrobial peptides may represent future effective drugs. Objectives:The objectives were to test the efficacy of an 11% lactoferricin otological solution (LCF) in bacterial and yeasts otic overgrowth and compare LCF with a commercial one containing chlorhexidine (CLX) 0.05%. Materials and methods:Forty-one dogs diagnosed with bacterial or yeasts otitis overgrowths were included according to general good practice. They were randomly assigned to lactoferricin or chlorhexidine group for treatment. Otological solution were applied twice a day for a week and then daily for another week. Clinical and cytological score was assessed at day 1 and day 14. At the end of the study, the owners had to express an opinion on the overall efficacy of the products. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilkoxon’s test and T test for paired samples. Results in lesional and cytological score were significative with a p<0.05. Results:Forty dogs completed the study. All cases, receiving lactoferricin or chlorhexidine, were successfully treated with clinical signs remission and regression of infection (p<0.05). The owners’ judgment was good in 87%, mild in 13% for LCF group. For CLX they scored good in 41%, mild in 24% and unuseful in 35% of cases. Conclusions:Lactoferricin, an antimicrobial natural peptide, showed the same efficacy of chlorhexidine in the treatment of otitis characterized by bacterial or/and yeast overgrowth.
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Ocular surface Rose Bengal staining in normal dogs and dogs with Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca: Preliminary findings

Published on: 30th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325075478

Dry eye or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is commonly seen in the dog. Veterinary ophthalmologists diagnose this aqueous tear deficiency using the Schirmer tear test (STT), but this measures tear production and does not indicate ocular surface pathology. The vital dye Rose Bengal is commonly used in the diagnosis of dry eye in human patients but until now has not been reported in veterinary patients. Here we corelate the degree of Rose Bengal staining with the STT value and find a reasonable association between dye staining of the ocular surface and tear production, although clearly other factors are also important in the genesis of ocular surface damage in dry eye.
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Review of Stereotactic and Neuronavigation Brain Biopsy Methods in the Dog

Published on: 1st November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7912354081

Objective: To perform a review of brain biopsies in the canine species and determine if it is possible to compare the stereotactic and neuronavigation results. Method: A search was performed in NCBI’s PubMed database for stereotactic or neuronavigational canine brain biopsy publications and articles which met at least one of the inclusion criteria and not any of the exclusion criteria were selected. The inclusion criteria were: 1) assessment of the specificity of the biopsy, 2) assessment of system accuracy, 3) assessment of the biopsy results, and 4) duration of the procedure. Results: Only one article met all the inclusion criteria. Eleven articles that partially met the criteria were used for comparison. Authors used different stereotaxic methods and two used neuronavigation equipment. The authors of the stereotactic studies either adapted devices from human medicine or developed their own devices; the level of accuracy was variable (errors of 0.0 mm to 5.1 mm), and the two articles that used animals with spontaneous lesions had a diagnostic specificity rate higher than 90 percent. The accuracy of the neuronavigation studies was approximately 3.3 mm; however, no live animals were used. Conclusions: It was not possible to properly compare stereotactic and neuronavigation techniques. To do so, the methodologies and the assessed parameters need to be standardized.
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Nebulization as complementary therapy for dogs with respiratory tract infections

Published on: 4th October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8299739396

Respiratory tract infections in dogs pose a significant problem and often require prolonged treatment. The effectiveness of pharmacological therapy can be improved through the administration of nebulized compounds to liquidize mucus and promote its evacuation from the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nebulized 0.9% NaCl in dogs with respiratory tract infections. Respiratory functions were assessed based on the results of arterial blood gas analyses, and the patients’ clinical status was determined by evaluating the severity of symptoms on a point grading scale. Inhalation of nebulized 0.9% NaCl significantly accelerated improvement in the patents’ clinical status (normalization of body temperature, decreased cough frequency, decrease/elimination of nasal and ocular discharge, improved appetite) and improved pulmonary gas exchange by reducing partial pressure and total content of carbon dioxide and increasing partial pressure and total content of oxygen in blood.
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Gestational hypercholesterolemia helps detect familial hypercholesterolemia and prevent late pregnancy complications

Published on: 2nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192146777

Introduction: In this retrospective study, we comment on the cause and diagnostic potential of the elevated serum total cholesterol and some non-cholesterol sterols in a population of healthy pregnant women from Prague, Czech Republic. Methods: Based on a total of 21,000 clinical biochemistry tests of healthy pregnant women with hypercholesterolemia observed during pregnancy, a testing group of 84 women with a total cholesterol (TC) above 7.0 mmol/l was established to analyze their non-cholesterol sterols (NCS) by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. Lathosterol (Lat) and desmosterol (Des) were evaluated as markers of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, whereas campesterol (Cam) and sitosterol (Sit) were analysed as markers of intestinal absorption. Results: In the basic population, the frequency of gestational hypercholesterolemia with the serum TC levels > 7.0mmol/l was 1 to 136.The mean values were: TC 6.8 mmol/l, LDL-C 4.6 mmol/l, and HDL-C 2.2 mmol/l. In the selected testing group of 84, the mean values were: Lat 7.8+/-1.7 μmol/l, Des 4.7+/-0.9 μmol/l, Cam 9.8+/-2.6 μmol/l, and Sit 9.6+/-3.8 μmol/l. Lat correlated with TC (r = 0.53), LDL-C (r = 0.36), and non-HDL-C (r = 0.35). No such correlations were observed for Cam or Sit. Conclusion: Our findings prove that gestational hypercholesterolemia is caused by increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis via lathosterol. Subsequently, we demonstrate how a single cholesterol test taken in the fifth to sixth month gestation can efficiently help detect familial hypercholesterolemia, and prevent related late pregnancy circulatory complications.
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Regeneration of deep intrabony periodontal defects with enamel matrix derivative: A case report

Published on: 19th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9029521328

A clinical case of treatment of two severe intrabony defects on the aesthetic zone is reported and followed for one year. The biomaterial of choice was enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®; Straumann™) alone with a preservation papilla flap and a minimally invasive surgical technique. After surgical treatment, the patient was kept in a supportive periodontal therapy programme with 6-month interval between appointments. In the one year after surgery appointment, clinical and radiographic changes were observed, showing periodontal health and stability. 
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Amyotropyc Lateral Sclerosis and Endogenous -Esogenous Toxicological Movens: New model to verify other Pharmacological Strategies

Published on: 5th August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7900030522

In 1874 J.M. Charcot was the first to describe ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a disease with an high non response therapy rate also to the actual therapy. ALS is not clearly associate to only single etio-patogenetic movens but many process seem involved. Also the strange geographic diffusion of different forms contribute to a complex syndromic pathology. The introducing of new theories and approach can help to find more efficacy therapeutic strategies. In this work the different neuronal damage movens and new therapeutic strategies are analyzed to produce a Unic global response to the pathologic process useful in next clinical application. Genetic factors must be considered also added to environmental movens but also to the endogenous microenvironment of motoneuron involved. A toxicological-biochemical-imunological approach can be useful tool to find new therapeutic strategies. Or to improve local availability of pharmacological molecules.
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In vitro antimicrobial activity of a black currant oil based shampoo versus a chlorhexidine 4% shampoo on bacteria strains isolated from canine pyoderma: A comparative study

Published on: 14th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875582641

Over the last few years, antimicrobial shampoo therapy has been increasingly used to treat skin infections in order to reduce systemic use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to compare the In vitro bactericidal effect of a black currant oil based shampoo (S1) to a chlorhexidine 4% shampoo (S2) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Escherichia coli (EC) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolates. A collection of 50 bacterial strains from skin swabs of dogs with superficial recurrent pyoderma was selected: 10 MSSP, 10 MRSP, 10 SA, 10 EC and 10 PA. The two shampoos were blindly tested in duplicate with a microdilution plate method, with scalar concentrations from 1:2 to 1: 256. The MBC was performed for each dilution. A linear regression was used to detect a statistically significance between the two shampoos. All isolates were completely killed at 1:2 up to 1:16 dilution of the two antiseptic products. At the 1:32 dilution the first bacterial growths were observed, in particular for 2 and 4 strains of MRSP by S1 and S2 respectively. The first lethal dilution for SA was at 1:64 for S1/S2 and only for S2 against SP. No significant difference was observed between the two shampoos according to the results of linear regression significant for: i) MRSP, PA and EC (p < 0.05); ii) MSSP and SA (p < 0.1). This study showed that both black currant oil based shampoo and chlorhexidine 4% shampoo have a similar In vitro bactericidal activity.
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Comparison of oocyte maturity rates in recombinant Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and triptorelin acetate triggers: A prospective randomized study

Published on: 13th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691250260

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) like exposure in the mid cycle for inducing the oocyte maturation is the very crucial step in the success of ICSI treatment. Introduction of LH surge endogenously by GnRH-agonist for final oocyte maturation induction, may be more physiological compared with the administration of HCG. Since GnRH agonist would induce FSH surge also along with LH surge, as happens in natural cycle. However, the effects of giving HCG trigger for inducing only LH surge and giving GnRH agonist trigger for inducing both LH and FSH surge, in patients treated for ICSI with GnRH antagonists need more research. Sub fertile patients planned for ICSI, meeting the requirement of inclusion criteria, were started with recombinant FSH from day 2 of menstrual cycle. GnRH antagonists were started from day 6 of stimulation. FSH dose was adjusted according to the individual response. Trigger was planned when the lead follicle reaches 24 mm. For triggering, 100 patients were randomized to receive Recombinant HCG trigger and Triptorelin acetate trigger. Oocyte retrieval was done 36 hours after Recombinant hCG Trigger and 35 hours after Triptorelin acetate trigger. The oocyte maturity rate was assessed by the number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved.
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A flow perfusion bioreactor with controlled mechanical stimulation: Application in cartilage tissue engineering and beyond

Published on: 13th June, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7815003397

To repair articular cartilage (AC) defects in osteoarthritic patients, one approach is to engineer three-dimensional grafts with physicochemical properties similar to endogenous AC. Such grafts can be grown in bioreactors that provide environmental conditions favoring chondrogenesis. Studies show mechanical stimulation during the culturing process greatly enhances development of functional engineered grafts. A review of literature on bioreactor options reveals a lack of capacity to simultaneously stimulate cells with a combination of shear stress and oscillating hydrostatic pressure, both of which are important parts of the in vivo AC environment. It is hypothesized that combining both forces in a new bioreactor design will contribute to better AC tissue growth. In this paper, we provide a brief review of bioreactors and describe a new computer-controlled perfusion and pressurized bioreactor system, and the novelty of its control programming features for service in a host of applications. We briefly summarize results on synergistic effects in employing perfusion, oscillating hydrostatic pressure in a scaffold free environment and with the addition of encapsulation for inducing chondrogenesis. We further describe efforts to modify the newly developed system to include a continuous flow and pressurized centrifugal mode to enhance further the capabilities for inclusion of very high shear stresses. Applications for several other cell and tissue engineering approaches are discussed. 
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Endogenus toxicology: Modern physio-pathological aspects and relationship with new therapeutic strategies. An integrative discipline incorporating concepts from different research discipline like Biochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology

Published on: 14th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7986003175

Many pathologic disease can be considered as related to an Endogenous toxicological moves and in time dependent way (kinetics and dynamic of the process). In this work starting from the analysis of relevant literature involved with different disease and related to the endogenous local micro- environment some global conclusion useful as new tools for innovative pharmacological strategies will be submitted to the researcher. Physiology, pathology concept linked to the endogenous toxicological local micro-environment status as new research instruments. The same carcinogenesis process can be related also to endogenous agents that may have a major contribution in spontaneously process. (Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in multiple cellular processes by physiologically transporting signal as a second messenger or pathologically oxidizing DNA, lipids, and proteins).
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Mindset kinetics and some depression status: A new quantitative model under biochemical - toxicology approach?

Published on: 24th July, 2018

Depression: According Pubmed Health: Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being (moderate or severe). Can we consider some depression status due to high amount of some stressant stimulus? Or continuous stress in a limited (or long) period? How can react mindset and brain in management an high amount of negative stressing thinking? Observing some relevant literature also mindset kinetics must be considered to better classify this kind of disorder under a specific endogenous –exogenous biochemical-toxicological aspect. Concept like Kinetics, reaction velocity limits, saturation of the systems, residual buffer properties are currently used in biochemistry and related discipline. This concepts can be applied also in some depression condition to better explain some phenomena?
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COPD and low plasma vitamin D levels: Correlation or causality?

Published on: 27th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7905962979

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death and its prevalence and incidence is also related to smoking behavior [1]. COPD is still a chronic inflammatory and progressive disease caused by multifactorial agents including environmental pollutants [2]. Besides that, it is emerging that endogenous epigenetic factors induced by lifestyle and environment [3] could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease [4]. In the last years, several authors suggested that low vitamin D levels seem to be related with the increase of COPD manifestations [5]. Moreover, a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial documented that vitamin D supplementation protects against moderate or severe exacerbation of the disease, but not by upper respiratory infections [6]. However, low levels of vitamin D can be extended to many other diseases, including multiple sclerosis, diabetes, colon rectal cancer, headache or drug use [7-11]. Moreover, it is also important to remember that Vitamin D deficiency is common in high latitude regions, such as northern Europe, New Zealand, northern USA, and Canada where weaker ultraviolet B rays is not able to produce enough vitamin D. Finally, methodological factors (using low sensitivity methods) could contribute to misleading evaluation of circulating vitamin D levels. In any case, here we shall remind that vitamin D has a fundamental role in immunity [12]. In particular, it has been reported that vitamin D is able to shift the pro-inflammatory T-helper cell 1 to anti-inflammatory T-helper cell 2 [13]. Therefore, benefits of vitamin D supplementation in chronic diseases which directly or indirectly affect immune system are obvious. Today, the burden of COPD in never smokers is higher than previously believed. Therefore, more research is needed to unravel the characteristics of non-smokers COPD [1]. Notably, vitamin D levels are reported to be significantly lower in smoker’ssubjects than in non-smokers ones [14]. Therefore, low plasma vitamin D levels in COPD seems to be more a causality than a correlation.
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