EAE

A review on efficacy of Cissus quadrangularis in pharmacological mechanisms

Published on: 4th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8870455099

Cissus quadrangularis a succulent vine belongs to Vitaceae family is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world and used frequently to various disorders. The plant has been reported to contain flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols, glycosides and rich source of calcium. This study aims to bring a systematic review of C. quadrangularis in various pharmacological mechanisms. Evidence from the previous studies suggested the efficacy of C. quadrangularis with antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, bone turnover, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective activities. In conclusion, Cissus quadrangularis appears worthy of pharmacological investigations for new drug formulations.
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Chemical constituents and biological activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus lam (Jackfruit): A review

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8987258409

Artocarpus (Moraceae) is a deciduous tree with appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit and is widely used in folk medicines. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus heterophyllus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds. This review indents to compile various studies on A. heterophyllus and critically evaluates its ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological properties. Several pharmacological studies from A. heterophyllus have conclusively established their mode of action in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Based on the available data, it is concluded that Artocarpus as a promising source of useful products and opens up new avenues for novel therapeutics.
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Cytokine Modulatory Effects of Sesamum Indicum Seeds Oil Ameliorate Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Published on: 30th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347013998

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nerve system (CNS), which affects the brain and spinal cord. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly applied experimental model for studying the MS. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sesamum indicum seeds oil on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Methods: Sesame oil was administrated intraperitoneally three days before immunization. IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β levels and mRNA expression in supernatant of and within cultured mononuclear cells were assessed. Results: According to our results, sesame oil treated mice demonstrated significant disease severity reduction (P=0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Treated EAE mice also represented statistically significant delay in the onset of symptoms in comparison with control group. The average IFN-γ levels and mRNA of sesame oil treated EAE mice were less than untreated EAE group. IL-10 and TGF-β levels and mRNA did not differ significantly in sesame oil treated EAE mice in comparison to untreated EAE group. IL-17 levels and mRNA were also found to be decreased significantly in treated mice in comparison to untreated mice. Conclusions: Even thoughTH1 and TH17 cells through secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17, respectively, are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and EAE, but IL-10 has been shown to exhibit suppressive effects on these disorders. It can be concluded that sesame oil is able to induce TH2 and TH17-related immune responses and suppress TH1 type in EAE
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Life history strategies of the armored scale, Aulacaspis alisiana (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) on the Japanese silver tree Neolitsea sericea (Bl.) Koidz. (Lauraceae) in Fukuoka, Japan

Published on: 29th August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7856145140

The armored scale Aulacaspis alisiana, is a serious invasive pest of the Japanese silver tree, Neolitsea sericea, causing serious damage to the tree in Japan. However there are currently no control approaches available for it, complicated by shortage of information on the pest. We studied life history strategies of A. alisiana on N. sericea in Fukuoka Prefecture with a view to providing a basis for formulating sustainable control based on an understanding of the behavior of the pest and potential role of its natural enemies. We established that A. alisiana had three overlapped generations in Fukuoka, with generation times ranging between 65 and 71 days. The adults were relatively fecund, with each female producing between 60 and 67 eggs, with high hatchability, >78%. The pest settled on the lower side of leaves, and although it generally preferred younger leaves, it did not attack newly emerged leaves. Natural enemy groups comprising ants, spiders and beetles (coccinelids) played an important role in regulation of the pest population, with natural mortality of about 30%. They could thus form a critical component of an integrated management approach for the pest in Fukuoka.
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Metabolic profiling and antibacterial activity of Eryngium pristis Cham. & Schltdl. - prospecting for its use in the treatment of bacterial infections

Published on: 3rd November, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9331573236

Morbidity and mortality of the infected patients by multidrug-resistant bacteria have increased, emphasizing the urgency of fight for the discovery of new innovative antibiotics. In this sense, natural products emerge as valuable sources of bioactive compounds. Among the biodiversity, Eryngium pristis Cham. & Schltdl. (Apiaceae Lindl.) is traditionally used to treat thrush and ulcers of throat and mouth, as diuretic and emmenagogue, but scarcely known as an antimicrobial agent. With this context in mind, the goals of this study were to investigate the metabolic profile and the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract (EE-Ep) and hexane (HF-Ep), dichloromethane (DF-Ep), ethyl acetate (EAF-Ep) and butanol (BF-Ep) fractions from E. pristis leaves. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed to stablish the metabolic profile and revealed the presence of 12 and 14 compounds in EAF-Ep and HF-Ep, respectively. β-selinene, spathulenol, globulol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and lupeol derivative were some of phytochemicals identified. The antibacterial activity was determined by Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using the broth micro-dilution against eight ATCC® and five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical strains. HF-Ep was the most effective (MIC ≤ 5,000 µg/µL), being active against the largest part of tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, including MRSA, with exception of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and (ATCC 27853). These results suggest that E. pristis is a natural source of bioactive compounds for the search of new antibiotics which can be an interesting therapeutic approach to recover patients mainly infected by MRSA strains.
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Genetic variability, divergence, and path coefficient analysis of yield and yield related traits of Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum l. var. Durum) genotypes at Jamma district, south wollo zone, amhara region, Ethiopia

Published on: 4th July, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9575033076

Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) is a member of the Poaceae family and tetraploid (genomes of AABB) with 28 chromosomes (2n=4x=28). Narrow genetic variability was a problem to develop genotypes with better adaptation to different agro-ecologies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability, divergence, and path coefficient analysis of durum wheat genotypes by using morphological traits and identifying essential yield-related traits of durum wheat, and to identify promising candidate genotypes to be used in future durum wheat breeding program. The study was carried out on 81 genotypes and the experiment was laid out in a triple lattice design with an arrangement of 9 x 9 x 3 treatment, which made 243 experimental units. Results obtained on genetic variability, path coefficient, and genetic divergent analysis among yield-related traits are presented here under the present study. Generally, the present study revealed the existence of significant genetic variability among the tested genotypes for different traits helpful for direct and indirect selection.This study recommended that the potential durum wheat genotypes 214552, 208150, 238516, 5645, Mekuye, 236984, 7960, 7152, 231599, and 208242 could be used for durum wheat breeding programs for yield and yield component traits improvement under similar agro-ecologies.
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The “manna” extracted from the ash trees still cultivated in Sicily from mythical food to pharmaceutical and nutraceutical resource

Published on: 30th August, 2022

“Manna” is the product obtained from the solidification of the elaborate sap that comes out of the incisions made during the summer season on the stem and on the main branches of some species of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae). The cultivation of manna ash trees dates back to ancient times in Sicily and elsewhere ash trees – known as sacred trees, a symbol of abundance and therefore auspicious – was increasingly widespread until the middle of the last century. Subsequently, however, the crop underwent a progressive decline, remaining relegated to restricted areas of Sicily, in particular in the Madonie district (Palermo, Italy). In this brief review, the essential characteristics of the manna and the ash trees from which it is extracted are summarized. The aspects of the current productivity of manna in the Sicilian territory and the implications of a potential recovery and increase of an ancient craft, ash tree cultivation, are also reported in a perspective of sustainable development and green economy for the Mediterranean area and beyond. Finally, the authors remember what has been done to ensure the conservation not only of the active cultivation of manna ash but also of all the relative agro-biodiversity. The conservation of the living germplasm of the ancient cultivars recovered in the Madonie area (Palermo, Sicily) represents one of the most qualifying results.
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Determination of the in vivo activity of leaves extract of Zanthoxylum Chiloperone var. Angustifolium (Tembetary hú) orally and intralesionally administered to BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania

Published on: 23rd November, 2022

Natural products are becoming increasingly important as an unlimited source for obtaining chemical substances with possible pharmacological potential. Current existing drugs for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniosis produce major side effects; therefore the search for new drugs is justified. The stem bark of Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. Angustifolium Engl. (Rutaceae) is traditionally used in Paraguay for its antiparasitic properties. The leaf extract was evaluated for the first time to determine its leishmanicidal activity in BALB/c mice infected with amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (PH8). The mice were treated orally with the extract at three concentrations (100, 50 and 10 mg/mL), intralesional (50 mg/mL), and subcutaneously using glucantime as a control (100 mg/mL). The percentage of decrease in parasite load was measured and with intralesional 50 mg/kg a reduction of 72% occurred, with the reference drug (Glucantime) a reduction of 62% was obtained with the same oral dose a reduction of 50%, while with an oral dose of 10 mg/mL the percentage of reduction was 55%. When the oral dose was increased to 100 mg/mL, the reduction percentage of the parasitic load was only 16%. These results indicated that the leaf extract of Z. chiloperone var. angustifolium Engl. at low oral concentrations (50 and 10 mg/mL) had very good activity against L. amazonensis, and it was even more efficacious intralesionally at 50 mg/mL but at the oral dose of 100 mg/kg has very reduced antiparasitic activity. This study showed the efficacy of the extract leaves of Z. chiloperone in reducing the parasite load in an in vivo test, so its use as a potential leishmanicidal could be suggested to develop and evaluate new drugs for the oral treatment of leishmaniosis disease with fewer side effects and lower cost.
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Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) on Strawbery (Fragaria vesca L., Rosaceae) in Silifke, Mersin, Turkey

Published on: 23rd December, 2022

Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae), called “wild strawberry”, “woodland strawberry”, “Alpine strawberry”, “Carpathian strawberry” or “European strawberry” is grown naturally throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere and produces fruits. The plant can be spread mostly by stolons as well as by the seeds to establish new populations.
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Detection of extended-spectrum betalactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Tunisia

Published on: 15th March, 2023

The emergence of dramatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by the members of the Enterobacteriales is an important public health problem in the community as well as in Tunisian hospitals. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). Based on decreased susceptibility to β-lactams antibiotics and analyzed for the presence of ESBL and carbapenemase genes by Real Time- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 56 uropathogenic isolates of E. coli (n = 36) and K. pneumoniae (n = 20) were confirmed positive for ESBLs. The CTX-M-type β-lactamases were mostly detected in E. coli isolates (21 strains, 58.33% [95% CI 38.09% - 72.06%]) followed by blaSHV-like (18 strains, 50% [95% CI 32.92% - 67.07%]), blaTEM-like and blaCMY-2-like simultaneously (15 strains, 41.67% [95% CI 25.51% - 59.24%]). Furthermore, the RT-PCR system on the K. pneumoniae strains demonstrated that blaSHV-12-like was the most predominant (16 strains, 80% [95% CI 56.33% - 94.26%]) followed by blaTEM-like (14 strains, 70% [95% CI 45.72% - 88.10%]), blaCTX-M belonging to groups 9 and 1 (11 strains, 55% [95% CI 31.52% - 76.94%]) and finally blaCMY-2-like (10 strains, 50% [95% CI 27.19% - 72.80%]). In addition, E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains harbored a carbapenemase gene blaOXA-48-like with 22.2% [95% CI 10.11% - 39.15%]; 20% [95% CI 12.83% - 43.66%], respectively.Our results confirm the need to monitor the resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams and to carbapenems among enterobacteria in Tunisia.
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Conservation Threats to Ethnomedicinal plants in Kore District, South Eastern, Ethiopia

Published on: 4th August, 2023

The study aimed to investigate the threats to the biodiversity of ethnomedicinal plants and to find consensus information on conservation and management practices of ethnomedicinal plants to contribute sustainable utilization of ethnomedicinal plants in Kore district, Southeastern Ethiopia. The result of the survey revealed that sixty-one medicinal plants were reported by the informants from the study area. These plants are distributed in 59 genera and 37 families. Family Lamiaceae and Asteraceae were represented by 5 (8.2%) species for each family and this is the highest number of species and followed by 4 (6.5%) species of Solanaceae and Fabaceae for each family. Preference ranking analysis shows that Eucalyptus globulus scored 47, indicating that it is the most used plant for firewood in the community, followed by Olea europaea (45) and the least used plant for firewood is Juniperus procera scored 36. Paired comparison analysis showed that Olea Europeae ranked first followed by Podocarpus falcatus for the use of charcoal production in the study area. The major purposes of plant species in the study area were construction, Charcoal, Firewood, Furniture, and Fences as well as for medicinal uses. Based on direct matrix ranking analysis Juniperus procera, Eucalyptus globulus, Podocarpus falactus, Olea europaea, Hagenia abyssinica, Croton macrostachyus, and Cordia africana were the most preferred medicinal plants by local people in the study area. The analysis's findings indicated that anthropogenic influences are endangering medicinal plants. In this study area, only about 13% of medicinal plants are collected from home gardens. This shows that the effort made by the community to conserve medicinal plants is not satisfactory. Therefore, encouraging NGOs and Government offices to participate in the conservation of medicinal plants to encourage the local people to plant indigenous trees for domestic use is necessary.
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Impact of Biofertilizers & Different doses of NPK on Growth and Photosynthetic Pigments of Okra Plant (Abelmoschus Esculentus L. Moench)

Published on: 1st September, 2023

Okra is an herbaceous hairy annual plant that belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is cultivated in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions around the world. The present work was carried out to study the effect of biofertilizers (Azotobacter + Bacillus) and different concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium i.e.NPK on growth and photosynthetic pigments of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Okra can be named a multipurpose crop as its various parts such as leaves, buds, flowers, pods, stems and seeds can be used for different purposes [1]. Okra is rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, oils, etc. Application of hazardous fertilizers causes a nutrient imbalance in soil, With respect to reducing the causes due to chemical fertilizers, biofertilizers are suited best to maintain higher productivity and yield of crops. Random block design (RBD) was selected as an experimental design. The treatments combination taken are T0- Control, T1- Azotobacter + 50% NPK, T2- Azotobacter (2.5 kg/ha) + 100% NPK, T3- Bacillus (2.5 kg/ha) + 50% NPK, T4- Bacillus (2.5 kg/ha) + 100% NPK, and T5 with NPK 100%. The final result revealed, that the treatment combination with Azotobacter + 100% NPK (T2) showed the highest value of plant height (65.60 cm), number of leaves per plant(62.36), number of flowers per plant (27.40), and also carotenoid content (2.82 mg/g), chlorophyll a(2.47 mg/g) and chlorophyll b(3.25 mg/g) were observed maximum. So, it can be concluded through this paper that the combination of Azotobacter 2.5 kg/ha + 100% NPK (T2) is suitable for the okra plant for better growth and enhancement of photosynthetic potential in-field practices.
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Screening of Auxin-like Substances among Synthetic Compounds, Derivatives of Pyridine and Pyrimidine

Published on: 12th December, 2023

The effect of known synthetic compounds Ivin (N-oxide-2,6-dimethylpyridine), Methyur (sodium salt of 6-methyl-2-mercapto-4-hydroxypyrimidine), Kamethur (potassium salt of 6-methyl-2-mercapto-4-hydroxypyrimidine) and new synthetic compounds, derivatives of pyrimidine (No. 1 - 7) on the rooting of isolated stem cuttings of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Bilozernaya was studied. The growth regulatory activity of synthetic compounds Ivin, Methyur, Kamethur, and synthetic compounds, derivatives of pyrimidine (No. 1 - 7) was compared with the activity of auxins IAA (1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid) and NAA (1-naphthylacetic acid). The conducted studies showed that the regulatory effect of synthetic compounds Ivin, Methyur, Kamethur, and synthetic compounds, derivatives of pyridine (No. 1 - 7) on the rooting of isolated stem cuttings of haricot bean was similar to the auxins IAA and NAA. The synthetic compounds Ivin, Methyur, and Kamethur, and synthetic compounds, derivatives of pyrimidine (No. 1, 4, 5, and 7) showed the highest auxin-like activity. The indicators of the total number of roots (pcs) and total length of roots (cm) obtained on isolated stem cuttings of haricot bean immersed in a water solution of synthetic compounds Ivin, Methyur, Kamethur and synthetic compounds, derivatives of pyridine (No. 1, 4, 5 and 7), used at a concentration of 10-7 M, statistically significantly exceeded similar indicators obtained on control isolated stem cuttings of haricot bean immersed in distilled water. The practical use of synthetic compounds Ivin, Methyur, Kamethur, and synthetic compounds, derivatives of pyrimidine (No. 1, 4, 5 and 7) is proposed to improve the vegetative propagation of haricot bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other plant species of the family Fabaceae by stem cuttings.
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Trends of Antibiotic Resistance among Uropathogens in Medical vs. Non-Medical Departments of Al-Shifa Medical Complex in Gaza Strip: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Study

Published on: 12th January, 2024

Antibiotic resistance is a growing global crisis, straining healthcare systems and leaving us with limited options to combat drug-resistant bacteria. This retrospective, cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of antibiotic resistance patterns among urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Al-Shifa Hospital’s medical departments in comparison with non-medical departments using data from microbiology laboratory archives over a one-year period. From the examined urine cultures about 25% were obtained from internal medicine departments and double the number was obtained from non-medical departments. The positive rate was around 35% and about two-thirds of the samples were collected from female patients. Among all departments, Enterobacteriaceae spp. were found to be the most frequently isolated uropathogens, accounting for 80% of cases. However, resistance rates varied depending on the specific organism and antibiotic used. For instance, E. coli showed a resistance rate of only 5% against meropenem, while amoxicillin-clavulanic acid exhibited a resistance rate exceeding 95%.Importantly, the study revealed a significant disparity in resistance rates between medical and non-medical departments, specifically concerning third-generation cephalosporins. In internal medicine departments, resistance rates were alarmingly high, with cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime showing resistance rates of 75%, 75% and 66.5% respectively. In contrast, non-medical departments displayed lower resistance rates, approximately 60%, 60% and 40%, respectively.In summary, this research sheds light on the escalating problem of antibiotic resistance in UTIs and emphasizes the discrepancy in resistance rates between medical and non-medical departments. Urgent efforts are required to address this issue and find effective solutions to prevent the rise of untreatable bacterial infections.
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Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge on Using of Traditional Medicinal Plants to Cure Human Diseases in South Omo Zone Baka Dawla Ari District, Kure and Bitsmal South Ethiopia

Published on: 30th May, 2024

This ethnobotanical study aims to investigate and document the indigenous knowledge on using traditional medicinal plants to cure human diseases in southern Ethiopia, south Omo zone Baka dawla Ari district at Kure and Bitsmal community. In this study, 77 plant species that belong to 68 genera and 35 plant families were identified by 110 local community members and 10 traditional healers of the study area to treat 32 human diseases. According to the analyzed result of the study three families (Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, and Fabaceae) are equally leading families each with nine species (11.69%) followed by Euphorbiaceae with five species (6.5%) and Asteraceae with four species (5.2%) in the study area. The result of this study also shows that most of the traditional medicines were taken in the mouth (oral) at 61.5% followed by topical (26,4%) and inhalation form (12.1%). The findings of this study show that most traditional plants were collected from the forest (45.5%) followed by the backyard (26%) and herbs are the most popular (59%) followed by shrubs (27%) plant habits. According to the result of this study, leaves are the dominant traditional medicinal plant parts used (55%) followed by roots (11.2%). preference ranking of medicinal plants in the study shows Solanum incanum ranked first indicating that it was the most effective in curing stomach pain followed by Verbena officinalis and the highest informant consensus factor value (0.57) was recorded by Malaria, Evil eye, snake bite, sudden disease categories.
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