Elderly

Perception of Nutrition and Exercise as a Tool in Controlling Cardiovascular Diseases among the Elderly in Anambra State

Published on: 3rd November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286355386

The research investigated the perception of nutrition and exercise as a tool in controlling Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) among elderly civil servants in Anambra State of Nigeria. A total of 250 respondents comprising 150 elderly academic staff Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka and 100 senior civil servants in the Anambra state civil service, who willingly, volunteered to participate in the study. Their ages ranged between 55-65 years purposively selected. The instrument for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire, with a reliability value of 0.73 using the test retest method. All data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and chi square tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study showed that nutrition (diet) and exercise have significant effect in the prevention/control of (CVDs) among the elderly. It is therefore recommended that at the civil service secretariats, universities and other establishments/parastatals, should establish high standard eateries (restaurants) where qualified caterers, would regularly provide nutritious diet, at subsidized rate for workers in this category. In order to enable these class of workers have at least one good meal per day, in addition to a mandatory one- work-free afternoon (2.00pm-4.00pm) for routine/regular physical exercises for these class of workers.
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Administration of Non-Pharmachologic Intervention in the control of Hypertension among selected volunteer retirees in Awka Metropolis Anambra State Nigeria

Published on: 6th November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286357213

High blood pressure under medical palance is associated with a variety of circulatory diseases, and it has been estimated that over 12% of all deaths in the world is directly or remotely connected with hypertension. It is said that one out of every five persons, can expect to have high blood pressure at one time or the other, during one’s life time. Based on hemodynamic equation, the mean arterial pressure is equal to cardiac out-put, times resistance (p means=Q x R). Hence hypertension is usually as a result of either an increased cardiac output and/or an increased resistance. The most common form of high blood pressure in humans is called “essential hypertension”, while is said to have no known cause. However this research aims at showing how a 12-week moderate exercise with bicycle egometer (i.e., use of non-pharmacologic approach to reduce the resting heart rate and blood pressure of 6 volunteer retired civil servants from Anambra state civil service and 6 retired academic staff of Nnamdi Azikiwe university in Awka. The paired T-test analysis of data obtained revealed a statistical significant effect of the moderate 12-week exercise on bicycle egometer, on the resting heart rate and blood pressure of the experimental group of the respondents. Hence it could be concluded that the administration of moderate exercise on bicycle egometer could be an effective use of non-pharmacologic intervention in the control and prevention of high blood pressure or hypertension among the elderly.
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An observational study of the occurrence of anxiety, depression and self-reported quality of life 2 years after myocardial infarction

Published on: 17th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7893782705

Background: Patients with myocardial infarction (MI) often experience anxiety, depression and poor quality of life (QoL) compared with a normative population. Mood disturbances and QoL have been extensively investigated, but only a few studies have examined the long-term effects of MI on these complex phenomena. Aims: To examine the levels and associated predictors of anxiety, depression, and QoL in patients 2 years after MI. Methods: This was a single center, observational study of patients with MI (n=377, 22% women, median age 66 years). Two years after MI (2012-2014), the patients were asked to answer the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaires. Results: Most patients experienced neither anxiety (87%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 83-90%) nor depression (94%, 95% CI: 92-97%) 2 years post-MI. Elderly patients experienced more depression than younger patients (p=0.003) and women had higher anxiety levels than men (p=0.009). Most patients had “no problems” with any of the EQ-5D-3L dimensions (72-98%), but 48% (95% CI: 43%-53%) self-reported at least “some problems” with pain/discomfort. In a multiple logistic regression model (EQ-5D-3L) higher age (p<0.001) and female sex (p<0.001) were associated with more pain/discomfort. Female sex (p=0.047) and prior MI (p=0.038) were associated with anxiety/depression. History of heart failure was associated with worse mobility (p=0.005) and problems with usual activities (p=0.006). The median total health status of the patients (EQ-VAS) was 78 (95% CI: 75-80)
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Primary prevention of SCD with ICD in the elderly

Published on: 30th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8576353351

Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are electronic devices that can prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) caused by arrhythmic events in patients. The latest ESC/EAS and ACC/AHA Guidelines deem the placement of an ICDs appropriate in patients with heart failure class NYHA II and III in the presence of an ejection fraction less than or equal to 35% [1,2]. ICDs are usually not indicated in either class I or IV patients. The Guidelines recommendations for primary prevention of SCD with ICD implantation do not take into account the age of the patients but only their life expectancy which must be at least 1 year. Our patients usually are over eighty years old with heart failure and severely reduced ejection fraction. We must consequently decide if it is right to implant these patients with an ICD. Is the use of ICD in the patients over 80, in particular over 90 years old, really make sense becomes particularly important considering demographic changes that await us in the coming decades.
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Conservative treatment versus invasive approach in elderly patients with myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation

Published on: 30th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588723372

Myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation is one of the most common causes of hospitalization of the elderly patient [1]. Coronarography followed by revascularization, is performed in the vast majority of cases of myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation, in the regions with a well-developed health system. The decision to perform the procedure, the type of approach (early/late) and the selection of the type of myocardial revascularization depend on numerous factors such as: associated comorbidities, clinical presentation, the risk group in which the patient is framed, fragility, cognitive status, life expectancy etc. [2,3]. Older patients often present with various comorbidities, having a higher risk of complications and an unfavorable evolution. Thus, it was observed that invasively treatment is less commonly used in elderly patients with comorbidities, even if, the current guideline recommends that the invasive strategy should be considered in all patients with NSTEMI, regardless of age. At the same time, this subgroup of patients is not so well represented in the studies performed so far, the type of treatment chosen, being most often at the discretion of the attending physician [1,2]. Objective The present study aims to analyze the evolution of a subgroup of patients ≥ 70 years of age, with different comorbidities, with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation, according to the type of treatment applied: conservative versus invasive strategy (diagnostic coronarography ± revascularization, if appropriate).
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Effects of Fast-Walking on Muscle Activation in Young Adults and Elderly Persons

Published on: 20th January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286424597

Coactivation of agonist and antagonist muscles participates in the regulation of joint stiffness and postural instability. Alterations on muscle activity have been revealed as an important falling risk factor. It is unclear the effects, and age-related differences, of a prolonged demanding task on the muscular coactivation levels. We compared muscle activation amplitude and coactivation of the vastus medialis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius medialis from surface EMG in 16 young adults (age 21-33) and 8 elderly adults (age 66-72) while fast-walking at 70% of their maximum heart rate. Overall, the elderly demonstrated higher coactivation indexes than the young individuals. Ankle coactivation decreased in the first half of the swing phase, while coactivation at the knee increased in the latter half of the swing phase in our elders. Alterations of muscle activation and coactivation on the knee and ankle were more prominent close to landing and in the swing phase. Our results suggest that these alterations may suggest potential concerns with respect to the risk of falls.
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Foot Arch Differences in Elderly People at Standing: Considering Gender and Age

Published on: 13th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286424220

Background: The foot is an important and complex structure that provides support, balance and propulsion to locomotion, thus, its proper care can help to have a better life quality avoiding pain. The medial longitudinal arch is an important structure that is related to injury risks when it shows some impairment. The purpose of this study was to characterize the foot arch index in people in relation to age and gender. Methods: The sample was composed of a total of 122 subjects, 79 healthy young subjects (40 women and 39 men) and 43 healthy elderly subjects (32 women and 11 men). Ten seconds of standing barefoot plantar pressure was measure through Tekscan F-Scan device, and the data processing, filtering, and arch index (AI) calculation were performed using MATLAB™ 7.0. Findings: The elderly group presented a lower arch (AI-0.23) than the young group (AI-0.13) (p=0.000); young female and male groups show similar AI, while the elderly female group showed lower arch (AI-0.23) than the elderly male group (AI-0.18) (p=0.033). Interpretation: The foot arch has a trend to be lower with aging, and even lower within elderly female subjects, probably due to some decrease within plantar muscle’s stiffness, that in turn may be related to lower physical activity and footwear choices.
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Anaesthetic management of an elderly patient with ischaemic heart disease and previous MI undergoing elective inguinal hernia repair: Case report

Published on: 25th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8615126196

Ischemic heart disease may occur in isolation, or in combination with the pathological process of vascular ageing, arteriosclerosis. These two conditions have differing impacts on the haemodynamic changes in response to anaesthesia and surgery. Hypertension is not a feature of ischemic heart disease, and vice versa, but where the two conditions co-exist, hypertension aggravates and accelerates the pathological processes of ischemic heart disease. Patients older than 40 yrs. presenting for anaesthesia and surgery must therefore be considered at risk of any combination of these three conditions. Anaesthetic techniques must also be chosen to minimize haemodynamic changes which in the normal healthy patient cause no serious morbidity, but which, in the patient with ischemic heart disease, can lead to serious morbidity or death. Here we report a 70 years old (BMI of 23.3) elderly, hypertensive Male patient with ischemic heart disease with previous MI (EF of 40% - 5%) undergoing elective Inguinal hernia repair. We Opted Spinal anesthesia over General anaesthesia as it should be an asset in cardiac patients undergoing non-cardiac lower abdominal surgeries to reduce preload and after load, stress response, coagulation responses, improves coronary perfusion, provides better postoperative analgesia, reduces incidence of perioperative MI, maintains myocardial oxygen supply demand ratio and avoids harmful effects of GA such as hypotention due to intravenous induction drugs, tachycardia and hypertension due to pressor response during direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
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Prostatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: 2-case report with literature review

Published on: 29th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7991649051

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is rarely seen in the prostate. Most of prostatic tumors are benign. However, local aggressively invading the adjacent organs and recurrence are frequent. Rarely, the malignant transformation and metastasis occurs, especially in elderly patient. The definitive diagnosis in a small biopsy is challenging. The correct diagnosis preoperatively will help to avoid unnecessary radical prostatectomy. Interval follow up is recommended. Here we reported two cases of prostatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with literature review.
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Localized intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma: A case report

Published on: 5th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272363213

Introduction: Desmoplastic Malignant Mesothelioma (DMM) is a rare histological subtype of sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma arising most frequently in the pleura or peritoneum and less frequently in the lung parenchyma. Patient concerns: A 52-year-old female with no apparent asbestos exposure was referred for consultation in our center after 1 month of cough and no concomitant symptoms of chest. Diagnosis: Chest computed Tomography (CT) revealed a localized mass measuring 4.5 x 3.9 cm in the right lung middle lobe with inhomogeneous enhancement following injection of contrast, and without pleural lesions, considered a primary intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma. Interventions: Surgical intervention was performed. Outcomes: Following complete tumor resection, the patient declined to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The final diagnosis of intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. In addition, no local tumor recurrence was observed within 10 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Even elderly female patients with localized pulmonary masses without significant pleural lesions should not excluded the possibility of malignant mesothelioma in the lungs.
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Biomechanical analysis of Sit-To-Walk movement in Parkinson’s patients

Published on: 27th April, 2018

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ankle-knee-hip interaction during sit-to-walk (STW) movement and clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs in Parkinson’s patients. Methods: Twenty male patients, ages ranged from 55 to 70 years, stage ΙΙ & ΙΙΙ according to modified Hoehn and Yahr (1997) classification of disabilities and ten male healthy elderly subjects, ages ranged from 55 to 70 years, participated in this study. All subjects were assessed for; clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs, ground reaction force (GRF) & spatiotemporal data and range of motion (ROM) of hip, knee and ankle joints during STW movement. Results: The results showed very significant differences in the GRF among the normal subjects and Parkinson’s patients during STW movement. There were significant differences in hip, knee and ankle joints ROM during STW. There were significant differences in spatiotemporal findings during STW movement. The Parkinson’s disease patients did not merge the two tasks of STW while the elderly subjects merged it. There was impairment in clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs in Parkinson’s patients. Conclusion: A continuum of STW performance and clinical functional abilities whereby the healthy elderly people performed the task more efficiently than PD patients.
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Nicotinamide as a treatment option of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Published on: 21st September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317653751

Age related macular degeneration is a severe disease of mainly elderly people and leads to central vision loss because of the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium [1]. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the accumulation of extracellular material and deposit formation near the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer, which leads to loss of photoreceptors and induction of chronic inflammation. The deposits are composed of lipids and proteins including many complement proteins, indicating the involvement of the complement system in the degenerative process and chronic inflammation [2]. So far there is no treatment for the dry form of AMD, except nutritional supplementation with antioxidants and vitamins [3]. Combined with a prolonged lifetime expectation in developed countries, AMD is developing to a social and economic burden. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a treatment of AMD that can delay disease manifestation and progression for several years. 
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Evaluation of outcomes of 8-week therapy with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir or glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in veterans with hepatitis C infection

Published on: 13th November, 0219

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8333016947

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is usually treated with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for 12 weeks. In treatment naive patients with genotype (GT) 1 infection without cirrhosis and baseline viral load < 6 million, 8 weeks of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) is an option. Eight weeks with Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) is an option for patients with GT 1 through 6 without cirrhosis. Our objective was to evaluate achievement of Sustained Virologic Response (SVR) after 8 weeks of LDV/SOF or GLE/PIB in our HCV-infected veterans. Patients with HCV infection that received GLE/PIB or LDV/SOF for a planned 8 weeks of therapy in the past four years were reviewed (January 2015-September 2018). Treatment outcomes were evaluated through medical record review. Two hundred sixty-five veterans were initiated on 8 weeks of therapy with either GLE/PIB or LDV/SOF. Of these, 231 (87%) were initiated on 8 weeks of LDV/SOF and 34 (13%) were initiated on 8 weeks of GLE/PIB. The majority of patients had GT 1 (93%) infection. One hundred and ninety-five veterans who completed 8 weeks of LDV/SOF and 30 veterans on GLE/PIB had follow-up viral loads. The overall SVR was 95%. Treatment with GLE/PIB resulted in a higher SVR rate (100%) compared to LDV/SOF (95%). Elderly patients had similar SVR rates. Treatment with 8 weeks of DAA is effective in our veteran population and showed an SVR rate similar to literature reports. The SVR for patients treated with 8 weeks LDV/SOF was slightly lower than the SVR for GLE/PIB; however, the GLE/PIB population was smaller
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Immune system and quality of life following aerobic exercise versus resistance exercise training among Alzheimer’s

Published on: 30th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588736449

Background: Globally, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects millions of elderly individuals are affected with AD who suffer from decline in cognitive ability. However, immune system dysfunction has a role in AD pathogenesis. However, pharmacological therapeutic intervention for caring of ADis not available. Therefore there is a need to develop novel therapeutic modalities for AD individual care. Objective: The objective of the this trial was to detect immune system and quality of life (QOL) response following aerobic versus resisted exercise training among AD subjects. Methods: Fifty older with AD disease the range of age ranged was 61 to 73 years enrolled in the current study. However, smoking, liver, chest, renal, metabolic and cardiac dysfunction considered as exclusion criteria. Participants were randomly enrolled into group (A) who applied aerobic exercise intervention, while group (B) applied resisted exercise intervention for period of six months. Results: The SF-36 which measure QOL along with in the immunological parameters (CD3 count, CD4 count, CD8 count and CD4/CD8 ratio) showed significant improvement following aerobic and resisted exercise. However, comparing between both groups showed significant differences with greater significant improvement in all measured parameters following aerobic exercise training (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is the most appropriate exercise to improve immune system and quality of life among elderly Alzheimer’s.
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The impact of skin disorders on patients’ quality of life in Malaysia

Published on: 24th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7997941944

Background: Skin diseases is a common worldwide problem. It affected every aspect of patients’ quality of life (QOL) mainly physically, socially and psychologically. Objectives: to assess the impact of skin disorders on patients’ quality of life and to identify factors associated with it. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatient dermatology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. A random sample of 145 patients with acne, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were interviewed using DLQI questionnaire during their scheduled follow-up appointments at dermatology clinic. Main outcome measure: Self-reported patients’ QOL due to their skin diseases. Results and discussion: Out of three skin diseases psoriasis patients had the highest prevalence (39.3%) followed by AD (34.5%) and acne (26.2%). Patients’ QOL was highly influenced by their skin conditions especially on working/schooling domain. Furthermore, several factors were identified, namely age, working environment, concurrent skin diseases, usage of supplement for skin diseases and type of food as aggravating factors—that may influence patients’ QOL. QOL among females and younger adults was found to be more significantly influenced as compared to males and elderly. With respect to working environment, those who had both indoor and outdoor working environment showed the highest impact of their skin conditions on their QOL. Single patients were more influenced by their skin conditions when compared to those who are married, however it was not significant. Conclusion: Our findings revealed skin disease had negatively impacted individual QOL with different level of aspects. Among the three diseases, AD patients had the worst impact on QOL. Significant predictors of QOL did not relate solely to skin diseases but also other factors such as type of food and working environment.
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Psychological phenomena in the doctor- Elderly patient relationship

Published on: 8th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8572406620

The doctor-patient communication and the aging of the patients attended by the general practitioner are two important concepts that constantly impact medical consultations. This article raises some reflections and conceptualizations about the main psychological phenomena that have a special importance in the doctor-elderly patient communication and relationship: 1) Stereotypes and prejudices; 2) Regression; 3) Transference, countertransference and resistance; 4) Rapport; 5) Empathy; and 6) Paternalism. The GP must be alert about what affecting the communication with the old man and he should put the means to get a warm relationship. Consequently, to achieve effective communication with an older adult: The GP have to take it easy; to be patient; avoiding stereotypes and prejudices; allowing the patient to establish a benign regressive relationship, until if it is possible due to the biopsychosocial context of the elderly patient, he can begin the non-regressive relationship again; recognizing fact of transference, which put the doctor in another place, is inevitable, but taking into account that it greatly affects his relationship with the patients; avoiding countertransference; considering that the therapeutic alliance or rapport is particularly fragile in elderly patients with chronic diseases; giving greater importance to empathy; knowing that the elderly patient frequently accepts the authority of the doctor, but avoiding falling into an iatrogenic paternalism; and smile.
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Implications on mental health by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: The role of general practitioner

Published on: 5th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588739409

Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic gives rise to a significant number of psychological consequences and health problems. The GP must recognize the feelings generated in their patients and address them. This task includes 4 areas: 1. Knowing and managing the epidemic of anxiety and fear in patients; 2. Assessing possible de-compensation of patients with previous mental problems; 3. Knowing and managing effects of quarantine and social distancing; and 4. Knowing and managing possible truncated mourning. The recommendations for GPs intervention are: 1) In the clinical interview (identify maladaptive thoughts and emotions; comprehensive health); 2) Health information (clear, evidence-based communication); 3) Health education (healthy behaviors); 4) Telecare (support, monitoring and attention over the phone, via WhatsApp or video calls); 5) Crisis interventions (psycho education, cognitive behavioral techniques or referral to specialist); 6) Bibliotherapy (free electronic copies for the public); 7) Special efforts directed at vulnerable populations (infected and sick patients, the elderly, with a compromised immune function and those living or receiving care in congregated settings and people with adverse medical, psychiatric or with substance use problems, their families and caregivers); 8) Psychosocial monitoring (stressors related to COVID-19: exposures to infected sources, infected family members, loss of loved ones and physical distancing, secondary adversities such as economic loss, psychosocial effects such as depression, anxiety, psychosomatic concerns, insomnia, increased use of substances and domestic violence, and vulnerability indicators such as pre-existing physical or psychological conditions); and 9) Follow-up of the “complicated” mourning (“accompaniment” and transmit compassion, love and affection).
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Demographic pattern of refractive anomalies in Niger Delta presbyopes - Implications for preventive eye care practice

Published on: 29th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8531090530

Background/Aim: In spite of global initiatives to provide sight for all by the year 2020, many middle-aged to elderly people in the Niger Delta still have significant visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive errors. The aim of this study is to assess the types of refractive anomalies that occur among presbyopic patients in Port Harcourt and determine the demographic pattern of these anomalies based on age and gender characteristics. Methodology: This is a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study in which sixty consecutive adult patients for refraction were seen. Every adult patient that came to get glasses during the study period was included in the study except where ocular or systemic contraindications were present. In addition to visual acuity, all patients had a detailed ocular examination and then refraction. The collected data was subsequently analysed using SPSS version 20. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.4 ± 9.4 years with a range of 35 to 80 years. A total of 60 patients were seen, comprising 30 males and 30 females. The commonest refractive error was presbyopia with hyperopic astigmatism and this accounted for 80% of all cases. Hyperopic presbyopia and presbyopia alone were the least common. Conclusion: There is a high level of cylindrical and spherical errors in Port Harcourt. The full optical correction should always be prescribed to presbyopic patients to fully correct the associated visual impairment and improve the patients’ well-being.
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Donor profile and trends of eye donation in Central India

Published on: 30th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9028067261

Background: The present study was conducted to study the donor profile and to assess the trends of cornea donation. Methodology: This was conducted as a hospital based cross sectional study at a tertiary care centre in Central India for a period of 5 years. Data was retrieved from 70 patients from eye bank who filled form of eye donation at Eye bank of our institution. Sociodemographic profile of donors, cause of death and time since death was recorded. Source of information regarding corneal donation and reason for not willing to donate the cornea for research purpose was recorded from the filled form. Further cornea enucleated were subjected to serology and their utilization for various purposes were recorded in questionnaire. Results: The present study retrieved data from a total of 70 donor forms with mean age of 65.84 ± 18.4 years. Cornea obtained from younger patients were mainly utilized for corneal transplantation whereas that from elderly age group > 60 years were mainly utilized for research/training purpose and the observed difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The corneas retrieved and utilized immediately after death were significantly used for optical or therapeutic purposes (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The present highlights the donor profile and trends of corneal donation at the tertiary care facility of Central India. It was observed that though the younger population and older population both are aware regarding corneal donation but still they are less aware on purpose for which cornea can be utilized. Quality of donor cornea is better when death to enucleation time interval was less.
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Vestibular-limbic relationships: Brain mapping

Published on: 16th March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7666356622

Vestibular disorders and anxiety are closely related, probably because they share some neuronal pathways. Ageing and patient comorbidities are important facilitating factors, and multiple vascular risk factors could contribute to the onset of a vestibular syndrome called vascular vertigo. White matter lesions (WML) are often seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly people and are related to various geriatric disorders, including dizziness. The cause of this correlation could be the disruption of neuronal networks that mediate higher vestibular cortical function. Numerous neuronal pathways link the vestibular network with limbic structures and the prefrontal cortex modulates anxiety through its connections to amygdala. The aim of the present work was to investigate the correlation between WML, amygdala and cognitive functions.
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