Epidural

Current anesthesıa for Cesarean Sectıon

Published on: 29th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7923860444

The choice of anesthesia for cesarean section should depend on the urgency of the procedure, in addition to the condition of the mother and fetus. It is widely accepted that regional anesthesia for cesarean section is preferable to general anesthesia. Regional techniques have several advantages. They lessen the risk of gastric aspiration, avoid the use of depressant anesthetic drugs and allow the mother to remain awake during delivery. The most common type of regional anesthesia for cesarean section is spinal anesthesia because of its simplicity, cost-effectiveness and speed of onset. It is suitable for cases of an emergent cesarean delivery. Hypotension during spinal anesthesia is a common that is associated with morbidity for both mother and fetus. Epidural anesthesia is preferred when physicians want to minimize the maternal hypotension or when intense motor blockage of the thoracoabdominal segments is not desired. General anesthesia still leads to a higher maternal mortality and should be reserved for absolute emergencies and cases where neuroaxial blockade is contraindicated.
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Quantification of the pressures generated during insertion of an epidural needle in labouring women of varying body mass indices

Published on: 1st December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597133

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to measure pressure generated on a Tuohy needle during the epidural procedure in labouring women of varying body mass indices (BMI) with a view of utilising the data for the future development of a high fidelity epidural simulator. High-fidelity epidural simulators have a role in improving training and safety but current simulators lack a realistic experience and can be improved. Methods: This study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South Central, Portsmouth (REC reference 11/SC/0196). After informed consent epidural needle insertion pressure was measured using a Portex 16-gauge Tuohy needle, loss-of-resistance syringe, a three-way tap, pressure transducer and a custom-designed wireless transmitter. This was performed in four groups of labouring women, stratified according to BMI kg/m2: 18-24.9; 25-34.9; 35-44.9 and >=45. One-way ANOVA was used to compare difference in needle insertion pressure between the BMI groups. A paired t-test was performed between BMI group 18-24.9 and the three other BMI groups. Ultrasound images of the lumbar spine were undertaken prior to the epidural procedure and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed within 72h post-delivery. These images will be used in the development of a high fidelity epidural simulator. Results: The mean epidural needle insertion pressure of labouring women with BMI 18-24.9 was 461mmHg; BMI 25-34.9 was 430mmHg; BMI 35-44.9 was 415mmHg and BMI >=45 was 376mmHg, (p=0.52). Conclusion: Although statistically insignificant, the study did show a decreasing trend of epidural insertion pressure with increasing body mass indices.
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Effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia during hepatectomy on intraoperative and post-operative patient outcomes

Published on: 13th November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929291912

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with balanced general anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamics and fluid requirement, and on postoperative patient outcome. Design: The study design was a retrospective data analysis of patients undergoing open hepatectomy at a single tertiary care center from May, 2013 to June, 2016. Patients undergoing hepatectomies were separated into two groups: patients not receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (either no epidural or epidural catheter not used intraoperatively) were designated the control group and patients receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (bolus and/or continuously). Patients were excluded if they underwent laparoscopic or non-elective procedures. Results: 103 patients were included in the data analysis: Control n=14, Epidural = 89 patients. There were no major differences in demographics between groups. Epidural patients did not have higher requirements in intraoperative intravenous fluid administration, blood loss, or vasopressor use compared to control patients. Patients who received epidurals required less intravenous opioids with better post-operative pain scores initially and also on post-operative day 2. There were no differences in length of time to ambulation, or post-operative acute kidney injury amongst groups. Conclusions: This study shows that patients undergoing hepatectomies using combined epidural and general anesthesia: 1) have no increased requirement for intraoperative crystalloid, colloid, or blood component therapy, 2) require lower total intravenous opioid dose, and 3) subjectively report better pain control. Therefore, intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia may be advantageous for ERAS protocol based oncological procedures.
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Pneumocephalus following labour epidural analgesia, a rare case report

Published on: 5th May, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9041187138

The lumbar epidural analgesia is commonly used for labour analgesia. The “loss of resistance to air” LORA technique is commonly used for recognition of epidural space. One of the rare complications of this technique is Pneumocephalus (PC). We want to present a case of Pneumocephalus which the mother developed during epidural analgesia in labour. The patient complained of severe headache immediately after attempt at epidural catheter insertion. The symptoms progressively worsened following delivery. A postnatal anaesthetic review was performed and an urgent CT scan of the brain was arranged that showed pneumocephalus. A conservative management pathway was followed with liberal analgesia, oxygen inhalation and keeping the patient mostly in supine position. Her symptoms regressed in severity over the next three days and subsided after one week. We believe that the amount of air used for LORA should be minimized; LORA should not be used after dural puncture and the use of normal saline would alleviate the risk.
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A unique case of metastatic spinal epidural abscess associated with liver abscess following ascending cholangitis and Escherichia coli bacteremia

Published on: 6th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8301352650

Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a life-threatening infection that may develop as a result of an underlying hepatobiliary disease. A possible complication of PLA is metastatic spread, resulting in distant seeding of infection in other organs, and occasionally in the epidural space. Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare infection with severe potential complications. We describe a 71-year-old patient who presented with ascending cholangitis that was complicated by micro PLA, with a subsequent Escherichia coli bacteremia and metastatic SEA. An emergent surgical intervention with laminotomy and drainage of the epidural collection was performed. The patient was treated with a prolonged antibiotic regimen, with uneventful recovery and no neurologic sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a SEA following E. coli PLA.
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