Erythrocyte

Endogenous sensitizer of beta-adrenergic receptors (ESBAR) and its analogs (review)

Published on: 29th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929276791

The results of the 20 years studies of the presence in blood serum and other body fluids of endogenous modulators of adrenergic and M-cholinergic impact as a component of humoral link of autonomic nervous system. The article is devoted to the endogenous sensitizer of beta-adrenergic receptor (ESBAR) - water-soluble low molecular weight substances, analogs of which are histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine, mildronat and preductal. It is shown, that separate dilutions of human serum and animal (as a source of ESBAR) and analogs of ESBAR ways to enhance the effectiveness of activation of beta-adrenoceptors (AR) of smooth muscle (uterus, coronary and renal arteries, trachea, stomach), myocardium, erythrocytes and platelets (respectively influenced of histidine and tryptophan). It is reported that content of ESBAR in human serum (according to the titers of its dilution) depends on the sex and the presence of somatic diseases, and at women are also on the stage of reproduction and obstetric complications It is discussed possible mechanisms of ESBAR action, its physiological role, including as a component of beta-adrenoceptor inhibitory mechanism for myometrium, as well as the prospect of the use of analogs of ESBAR, including for the prevention of preterm labor, and for the treatment of bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, hypertension and heart failure.
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Impact of alloimmunization on transfusion-dependent patients

Published on: 16th November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286352883

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization can be a life-threatening complication for patients with thalassemia major and sickle cell disease (SCD) who must receive chronic therapeutic transfusions. Chronic transfusions can lead to erythrocyte alloimmunization, patients continue to develop alloantibodies due to the transference of the immunogenic antigens on the donor RBCs. Many complications are possible. Difficulty in finding compatible match units for the patients can cause transfusion delays delayed, or present alternative risks to the patients from delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. This review discusses the possible mechanisms, risk factors associated with alloimmunization formation and the hemolytic transfusion reactions and also describe the guideline for transfusion management of these patients, including opportunities and emerging approaches for minimizing this life-threatening complication.
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Blood disorders: Touching of erythrocytes

Published on: 30th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8999929058

In general, Erythrocytes may referred to as corpuscle (Red Blood Cells). These erythrocytes will play a significant role in our body. It carries the element round the body and produce dioxide back to lungs. It acquire the element from the lungs then move towards the guts wherever the pure blood is then passed round the body. Erythrocytes covers nearly 1/2 your blood. The mature human erythrocytes is small, Circular, and biconcave; it seems dumbbell-shaped at Look. 
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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in COVID-19 patients, the « transmissible » direct Coombs test

Published on: 7th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8999916981

Background: Like other viruses, the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) appears to be responsible for several autoimmune complications. The occurrence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia has been described in several case reports. This AIHA was also noticeable by the important number of blood transfusions required for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients. By investigating RBC coating autoantibodies, this article attempts to clarify the autoimmune aspect of the anemia in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: A large population of COVID-19 patients selected at Saint-Luc University Hospital showed an average of 44% DAT positivity. In this population, the intensive care patients were more prone to DAT positivity than the general ward patients (statistically significant result). The positive DAT appeared « transmissible » to other RBCs via COVID-19 DAT-positive patient’s plasma. Conclusion: The strongest hypothesis explaining this observation is the targeting of cryptic antigens by autoantibodies in COVID-19 patients.
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Peculiarities of photon emisson of whole non-diluted human blood obtained from healthy donors and patients with some diseases

Published on: 31st December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7991708311

Blood plays an important role in oxygen absorption and its transfer to organs and tissues in vertebrates, as well as in a number of invertebrate species. Numerous interactions between cellular and non-cellular blood components constantly occur. A special role in these interactions belongs to erythrocytes and leukocytes, between which oxygen is constantly exchanged and activated, which we showed directly in whole blood. Blood is a liquid tissue, which is a complex cooperative system and has many inherent functions and the most important one is the ability to maintain the homeostasis of the body. Our experience has shown that despite its high optical density, undiluted blood of humans and animals can be a source of radiation due to the transformation of the energy of electron-excited (EEE) states and secondary processes occurring in the whole blood system. Parameters of this radiation - ultra-weak photons emission (UWPE) from blood - depend upon its physiological properties and reflect the physiological state of a donor. Analysis of UWPE from non-diluted blood is a simple and sensitive method that allows to monitor the course of treatment of a patient. In spite of high opacity of non-diluted blood it may be a strong source of UWPE both in the presence and absence of UWPE enhancers. Analysis of patterns of UWPE from blood reveals its highly non-linear, stable non-equilibrium and cooperative properties. Characteristic of a living system.
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Progress in the development of Lipoplex and Polyplex modified with Anionic Polymer for efficient Gene Delivery

Published on: 24th July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317598455

Nucleic acid-based therapy has become an increasingly important strategy for treating a variety of human diseases. In systemic therapy, a therapeutic gene must be delivered efficiently to its target tissues without side effects. To deliver a therapeutic gene such as plasmid DNA (pDNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) to target tissues by systemic administration, cationic carriers such as cationic liposomes and polymers have been commonly used as a non-viral vector. However, the binary complex of therapeutic gene and cationic carrier must be stabilized in the blood circulation by avoiding agglutination with blood components, because electrostatic interactions between positively charged complexes and negatively charged erythrocytes can cause agglutination, and the agglutinates contribute to high entrapment of the therapeutic genes in the highly extended lung capillaries. One promising approach for overcoming this problem is modification of the surface of cationic complexes with anionic biodegradable polymers such as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, or polyglutamic acid. As another approach, we recently developed a sequential injection method of anionic polymer and cationic liposome/therapeutic gene complex (cationic lipoplex) for delivery of a therapeutic gene into the liver or liver metastasis. In this review, we describe recent advances in the delivery of therapeutic genes by lipid- and polymer-based carrier systems using anionic polymers.
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European Clinical Laboratory, Molecular and Pathological (ECMP) criteria for prefibrotic JAK2V617F-Thrombocythemia and Polycythemia Vera versus MPL515- and CALR-Thrombocythemia and Myelofibrosis: From Dameshek to Michiels 1950-2018

Published on: 1st March, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8056299472

The broad spectrum of heterozygous versus homozygous JAK2V617F mutated MPN consists ET, ET with early features of PV (prodromal PV), classical PV, masked PV, advanced PV and post-PV myelofibrosis. Combined use of bone marrow histology and increased erythrocyte counts above 5.8x1012/L can replace increased red cell mass at time of presentation as the pathognomonic clue for the correct diagnosis of hetero/homozygous or homozygous mutated PV. Erythrocyte counts are in the normal range below 5.8x1012/L in heterozygous JAK2V617F mutated ET and prodromal PV but above 5.8x1012/L in heterozygous-homozygous or homozygous mutated PV. The bone marrow cellularity and morphology in pre-fibrotic ET, prodromal PV and PV carrying the JAK2V617F mutation are overlapping showing clustered increase of large mature pleomorphic megakaryocytes (M) with no increase of cellularity (<60%) in ET. The bone marrow is hypercellular (60%-80%) due to increased erythropoiesis megakaryopoiesis (EM) in prodromal and classical PV and trilinear hypercellular (80%-100% due increased megakaryopoiesis, erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis (EMG) in advanced PV and masked PV. Bone marrow cellularity ranging from normal (<60%) in ET to increased erythropoiesis (EM) in prodromal PV to hypercellular (80-100%) in advanced PV and masked PV largely depends on increasing JAK2V617F mutation load from low to high on top of other biological MPN variables like constitutional symptoms during long-term follow-up. MPL515 mutated ET is featured by an increase of clustered small and giant megakaryocytes with hyper-lobulated staghorn-like nuclei in a normal cellular bone marrow. The third entity of pronounced JAK2/MPL wild type ET associated with primary megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation (PMGM) without PV features proved to be caused by calreticulin (CALR) mutation. CALR mutated thrombocythemia is characterized by dual proliferation of megakaryocytic and granulocytic bone marrow proliferation of dense clustered large to giant immature dysmorphic megakaryocytes with bulky (bulbous) hyperchromatic nuclei, which are not seen in MPL515-mutated Thrombocythemia and JAK2V617F-Thrombocythemia, prodromal PV and classical PV. 
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Primary myelofibrosis is not primary anymore since the discovery of MPL515 and CALR mutations as driver causes of mono-linear megakaryocytic and dual megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation and secondary myelofibrosis

Published on: 15th April, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8164054496

Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a distinct clinicopathological myeloproliferatve disease (MPD) not preceded by any other MPD ET, PV, CML,... Combined use of bone marrow histology and increased erythrocyte counts above 5.8x1012/L can replace increased red cell mass at time of presentation as the pathognomonic clue for the correct diagnosis of hetero/homozygous or homozygous mutated PV. Erythrocyte counts are in the normal range below 5.8x1012/L in heterozygous JAK2V617F mutated ET and prodromal PV but above 5.8x1012/L in heterozygous-homozygous or homozygous mutated PV. The bone marrow cellularity and morphology in pre-fibrotic ET, prodromal PV and PV carrying the JAK2V617F mutation are overlapping showing clustered increase of large mature pleomorphic megakaryocytes (M) with no increase of cellularity (<60%) in ET. The bone marrow is hypercellular (60%-80%) due to increased erythropoiesis megakaryopoiesis (EM) in prodromal and classical PV and trilinear hypercellular (80%-100% due increased megakaryopoiesis, erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis (EMG) in advanced PV and masked PV. Bone marrow cellularity ranging from normal (<60%) in ET to increased erythropoiesis (EM) in prodromal PV to hypercellular (80-100%) in advanced PV and masked PV largely depends on increasing JAK2V617F mutation load from low to high on top of other biological MPN variables like constitutional symptoms during long-term follow-up. MPL515 mutated ET is featured by an increase of clustered small and giant megakaryocytes with hyper-lobulated staghorn-like nuclei in a normal cellular bone marrow. The third entity of pronounced JAK2/MPL wild type ET associated with primary megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation (PMGM) without PV features proved to be caused by calreticulin (CALR) mutation. CALR mutated thrombocythemia is characterized by dual proliferation of megakaryocytic and granulocytic bone marrow proliferation of dense clustered large to giant immature dysmorphic megakaryocytes with bulky (bulbous) hyperchromatic nuclei, which are not seen in MPL515-mutated Thrombocythemia and JAK2V617F-Thrombocythemia, prodromal PV and classical PV. 
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The PVSG/WHO versus the Rotterdam European clinical, molecular and pathological diagnostic criteria for the classification of myeloproliferative disorders and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPD/MPN): From Dameshek to Georgii, Vainchenker and Michiels 1950-2018

Published on: 17th April, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8164019922

The present article extends the PVSG-WHO criteria into a simplified set of Rotterdam and European Clinical, Molecular and Pathological (RCP/ECMP) criteria to diagnose and classify the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The crude WHO criteria still miss the masked and early stages of ET and PV. Bone marrow histology has a near to 100% sensitivity and specificity to distinguish thrombocythemia in BCR/ABL positive CML and ET, and the myelodysplastic syndromes in RARS-T and 5q-minus syndrome from BCR/ABL negative thrombocythemias in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). The presence of JAK2V617F mutation with increased erythrocytes above 6x1012/L and hematocrit (>0.51 males and >0.48 females) is diagnostic for PV obviating the need of red cell mass measurement. About half of WHO defined ET and PMF and 95% of PV patients are JAK2V617F positive. The combination of molecular marker screening JAK2V617F, JAK2 exon 12, MPL515 and CALR mutations and bone marrow pathology is 100% sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of latent, early and classical ECMP defined MPNs. The translation of WHO defined ET, PV and PMF into ECMP criteria have include the platelet count above 350 x109/l, mutation screening and bone marrow histology as inclusion criteria for thrombocythemia in various MPNs. According to ECMP criteria, ET comprises three distinct phenotypes of true ET, ET with features of early (“forme fruste” PV), and ET with a hypercellular erythrocythemic, megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation (EMGM or masked PV). The ECMP criteria clearly differentiate early erythrocythemic, prodromal and classical PV from congenital polycythemia and idiopathic or secondary erythrocytosis. The burden of JAK2V617F mutation in heterozygous ET and in homozygous PV is of major clinical and prognostic significance. JAK2 wild type MPL515 mutated normocellular ET and MF lack PV features in blood and bone marrow. JAK2/MPL wild type hypercellular ET associated with primary megakaryocytic granulocytic myeloproliferation (PMGM) is the third distinct CALR mutated MPN. The translation of WHO into ECMP criteria for the classification of MPNs have a major impact on prognosis assessment and best choice for first line non-leukemogenic approach to postpone potential leukemogenic myelopsuppressive agents as long as possible in ET, PV and PMGM patients.
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Effect of fresh red grape juice and grape fermentative product on oxidative-stress in human erythrocytes in vitro

Published on: 26th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9403421666

Introduction: Oxidative stress is a phenomenon induced by an imbalance between production and the biological system's ability to readily detoxify oxygen reactive species (ROS) in cells. It has been shown that grape juice can reduce oxidative stress due to the presence of polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fresh red grape juice and grape fermentative product on oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.Methods: 5 ml of blood from 125 healthy individuals as control group collected in EDTA containing tubes. To perform biochemical assays, erythrocytes were incubated at 37 ºC for different times including 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours in the presence or absence of grape juice and grape red wine in amounts of 5 ml. Results: Grape juice and grape red wine reduced lipid peroxidation and increase of thiol groups, and total antioxidant capacity after 24 hours of treatment (p < 0.05). Also, the activity of catalase enzyme was increased 4 and 24 hours after treatment with red wine and grape juice, respectively. Conclusion: Grape juice and grape fermentative product may improve the antioxidant power of erythrocytes. This may lead to reducing the risk of free-radical damage and chronic diseases. However, more research with a higher number of samples is necessary to confirm the antioxidant effect of grape juice and red wine on human erythrocytes.
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