Extract

Occluded superior vena cava and failed epicardial pacing: An unorthodox solution

Published on: 13th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8514668207

Permanent pacemaker implantation is conventionally done via upper limb veins. But in 1% - 6% cases, usual sub clavicular approach is either not possible or contraindicated due to complete occlusion of superior vena cava (SVC) or bilateral subclavian vein and/or bilateral implant site infection or thin skin [1]. Alternative approaches are warranted, including leadless pacemaker or complex lead extraction techniques, before considering surgical epicardial lead placement as a last resort because it has own hazards. We report a patient with complete heart block, total SVC obstruction, and a previously implanted malfunctioning epicardial lead presenting with pacemaker end of life. In view of exhaustion of the surgical option and in a resource constrained situation for lead extraction or leadless pacemaker, transiliac endocardial pacemaker implantation was done and a repeat surgery was averted. Learning objective: Complete venous occlusion is not very often encountered after pacemaker/ICD implantation. Apart from the risk of general anesthesia and invasive surgery, epicardial leads increase battery drain, and have a shorter operating life compared to an endocardial lead. The sparingly utilized iliac venous approach for permanent pacemaker implantation is a valuable, safe and minimally invasive alternative, when the conventional percutaneous access is unavailable, and surgery is undesirable or not possible. 
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Assessment of cardiovascular and renal functions during treatment with Desmodium adscendens therapy

Published on: 9th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873221073

Desmodium adscendens is a rain forest medicinal herb used in managing quite a number of medical conditions. Its efficacy in the treatment of several diseases has made it a first line herb for doctors, especially in managing all forms of spasm. It is however common knowledge that some of these medicinal herbs impact severely on the normal functioning of some vital organs of the body during their administration. The present study was carried out to assess the renal and cardiovascular performance in subjects undergoing treatment with Desmodium adscendens with a view to advising against its indiscriminate use. The parameters used for the assessment of renal functions were serum creatinine and urea concentrations and their clearance. Also, changes in electrolyte concentration of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride concentration were used to assess cardiovascular performance. The histology of the kidney and heart tissues was also done to determine if the extract has impact on the cyto-architecture of the organs. Twenty-four (24) wistar rats were used for the experiment. The rats were grouped randomly into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 served as control, and the rats in the group were given normal rat feeds and water. Group 2 served as low dose group, and rats in this group were administered with low dose of extract 300 mg/kg. Group 3 served as medium group, and rats in this group were treated with medium dose of extract, 450 mg/kg. Group 4 served as high dose group, and rats in this group were treated with high dose of extract 600 mg/kg. The extract was administered for 28 days. Result showed that the extract did not impact negatively on the normal function of the renal and cardiovascular system of the treated groups, rather it enhanced their performances. It can therefore be concluded that the extract is beneficial to renal and cardiovascular functions if used within the treatment dosage. 
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Canine Distemper Virus detection based in Hemaglutinine Gene as target in Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction

Published on: 27th December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7964755439

Canine Distemper have become a major concern within the veterinary clinical work. Thus, the appearance of many cases of canine distemper in adult animals with their vaccination plan up to date has alarmed veterinarians. Many cases of canine distemper have become a major concern within the clinical veterinary task. The purpose of this work was to detect the gene of hemagglutinin of the virus canine distemper, by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction associated with Reverse transcription (RT-PCR), as confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of disease. For this, peripheral blood samples of animals were used clinically patients and were grouped according to their date of extraction and using vaccines commercial as control. The results allow to demonstrate a high sensitivity of the technique, besides allowing the use of samples up to seven days of storage at 4°C, despite the fragility of RNA viral. Detection of canine distemper virus haemagglutinin gene in field samples and its high sensitivity, suggests studying its use as a diagnostic tool complementary to the clinical diagnosis of canine distemper in our country.
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External Root Resorption associated with Impacted Third Molars: A Case Report

Published on: 26th April, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286358319

The indications for impacted third molar extraction include the prevention of dental reabsorption on the adjacent tooth. Resorption can be classified as physiological (when deciduous teeth are exfoliated) or pathological (when caused by injury or irritation to the periodontal ligament). Many causes can trigger external root resorption (ERR), the most common cause of which is orthodontic forces. The most common cases of ERR involve impacted third molars which, due to the lack of space for their eruption, generate a greater chance of ERR on the distal portion of the second molar. This pathology is becoming progressively more frequent in clinical dental care. Periapical and panoramic radiographs are used to aid in diagnosis, as is cone beam computed tomography. In cone beam computed tomography scans, radiolucent areas with irregular gaps are detected; these gaps represent a significant loss of dental material. The objectives of this article were to report a case of second molar resorption triggered by an impacted third molar and to perform a review of the literature on the causes of external root resorption. Ideally, this information will aid dental clinicians (and orthodontists in particular) in understanding the features of this pathology so that they may recommend preventive third molar extraction when necessary.
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Esthetic recovery of permanent Mandibular Lateral Incisor using biological post after non-surgical healing of Periradicular Lesion: A Case Report

Published on: 22nd June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286353205

Statement of the problem: Anterior tooth fracture, as a result of traumatic injuries, frequently occurs in dentistry. This leads to necrosis of pulp and periapical pathology. The goal of endodontic and restorative dentistry is to retain natural teeth with maximum function and pleasing esthetics. Purpose of the study: This study aimed at proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth through the procedure known as “Biological Restoration.” Materials and methods: Biological post obtained through natural, extracted teeth from another individual represents a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of damaged anterior teeth that provides highly functional and esthetic outcomes. Conclusions: This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of mandibular left lateral incisor after non-surgical healing of periradicular lesion.
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Enamel demineralization with resin modified gic and conventional composite resin - a comparative in vivo study

Published on: 31st July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286352515

Background & Objectives: Fluoride releasing bonding agents can help the orthodontist to minimize enamel demineralization independent of patient cooperation. This in vivo study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) on reducing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets and confirm the superior caries-preventive effect of RMGIC by assessing the mutans streptococci (S. mutans) in plaque samples in vitro. Methods: 60 subjects (aged 14-20 years) scheduled to have premolar extractions as part of the orthodontic treatment plan were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 each (group 1: the brackets were bonded on the teeth using light cure composite resin and group 2: the brackets were bonded using RMGIC). Plaque scores (modification of plaque index by Silness and Loe) were recorded and plaque samples were collected before bonding, one week and one month after bonding. S.mutans colonies were recorded from the plaque samples inoculated on MSB agar plates, incubated under 95% N2 and 5% CO2 for 48 hours at 370C in a CO2 jar. After 1 month, the right maxillary and mandibular first premolars were debonded, extracted and depth of enamel demineralization area was estimated using polarized light microscope. Results: After statistical analysis, a significantly higher mean depth of demineralized lesions was noticed in group 1 as compared to group 2. A significant difference between occlusal and gingival depth was seen only in group 2, thus illustrating a wedge effect. In group 1, a statistically significant increase in the mean colony forming units (CFU) of S.mutans has been noticed at different time intervals whereas in group2, a significant increase was observed only at 1month. Unlike at 1 month, a statistically significant difference in mean CFU between group 1 and group 2 has been observed at 1 week (P<0.05). Conclusions: Enamel lesions adjacent to the bracket base on teeth bonded with the RMGIC were smaller than those on teeth bonded with a composite resin. The high “burst effect” of fluoride release for the first few days of RMGIC after bonding is confirmed by statistically significant reduction in CFU counts of S. mutans in plaque.
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Osteogenic Accelerated OrthodonticsTM for treatment of a Skeletal Class II patient with moderate crowding

Published on: 18th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286353388

Introduction: A 17 years old male patient was treated at the University orthodontic department. He had the chief complaint of unaesthetic appearance of his teeth, mostly for anterior crowding. The pretreatment records showed a Class II skeletal relation, moderate upper and lower anterior crowding, 0.5mm of overbite and 2mm of overjet. Materials and Methods: It was suggested Osteogenic Accelerated Orthodontics (OAOTM), the treatment option was very attractive to the patient although it required a surgical procedure and a more expensive type of treatment. Results: The overall treatment time was 6 months, facial balance was improved and the final occlusal relationships from the functional and aesthetics perspective were good. Conclusion: OAOTM is a good alternative to reduce extractions rate as it increases the scope of tooth movement and strengthen the periodontal tissues thru bone grafting, although these claims require more scientific data to be validated.
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Corticotomy facilitated correction of skeletal class II malocclusion

Published on: 26th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7379412270

Selective alveolar decortication and periodontal augmentation with a bone graft were the two procedures used for the correction of the skeletal class II malocclusion in the case reported. A 25-year-old male patient presented with a skeletal class II malocclusion with increased bi-maxillary dento-alveolar protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite and imbricated and rotated mandibular incisors with bilateral presence of supernumerary teeth in the maxillary right and left premolar regions. Extraction of supernumerary in the maxillary right and left premolar region, and impacted UL5 was done. Pre-adjusted edgewise appliance, Roth’s prescription (0.022x0.028-inch slot), was bonded and a week later full thickness labial and lingual flaps were reflected in the maxillary and mandibular arches. Circumscribed corticotomy cuts was done and subsequently augmented with a bone graft. Orthodontic treatment was commenced immediately after surgery and orthodontic adjustments were performed every 2 weeks. The entire orthodontic treatment was completed in 9 months. Regional acceleratory phenomenon, triggered by the alveolar decortication, was responsible for the rapid correction of the malocclusion and the augmentation with the bone graft provided adequate bone volume for housing the teeth, thereby decreasing the possibility of subsequent relapse. 
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Evaluation of novel culture media prepared from plant substrates for isolation and identification of Cryptococcus Neoformans Species Complex

Published on: 14th August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7844645048

Background: Melanin production due to phenoloxidase activity is a distinctive property of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex yeasts. Therefore, an agar medium containing a precursor of melanin pigment is potentially useful to identify and differentiate cryptococcal colonies from other yeasts. Background: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the ability of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolates to produce brown-pigmented colonies when grown on media prepared from various plant leaves or seeds extracts. Material and Methods: Forty-six C. neoformans species complex isolates which were obtained from various environmental and clinical samples were inoculated on different media containing coriander, cumin, soybean, lupine, flax, pumpkin, basil, peppermint, and marjoram, were observed for the rate of growth and pigment production during a five-day period. Results: All isolates were pigmented on all media within 24-48 hours, and brown or dark brown colonies were observed in less than five days, while C. albicans grew but did not produce any pigment. Conclusion: The differential media tested in the present study are simple and inexpensive, and represent alternative valid tools for presumptive identification of C. neoformans species complex from clinical and environmental samples
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A Review on filaricidal activity of phytochemical extracts against filariasis and the Parasites Genomic Diversity

Published on: 26th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7912403155

Filariasis is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) known to be of serious public health importance and pose devastating socio-economic burden especially among the poor people in tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The parasite is responsible for lymphatic filariasis affecting about 1.3 billion people in 72 countries worldwide. The major parasitic agents of the infection are three closely related nematodes of clade Onchocercidaei namely Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori that are transmitted to human through bites by mosquitoes of genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. The disease is targeted by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination by 2020 through the use of chemically synthesized drugs used as therapeutic agents to cure the disease but there are some setbacks. Phytochemical extracts are viewed as alternative therapy in the management of the disease. Additionally, the species have many ecological variants and are diversified in terms of their genetic fingerprint. This diversification in terms of genomic sequences as well as rapid infection rate warrant the lymphatic filarial parasites to respond differently to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Thus understanding the genomic diversity of the parasite will help in efficient therapeutic management of the disease, thereby eliminating it to prevent unnecessary suffering and contribute to the reduction of poverty. In this review, we have highlighted on the used for phytochemical extracts in the therapeutic management of the lymphatic and the molecular genetic diversity of the parasite was delineated.
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Development of ELISA based detection system against C. botulinum type B

Published on: 30th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8562108005

Botulism is the disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins. It is produced by an obligate anaerobic bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. There is no immuno-detection system available in the world for the detection of C. botulinum. Secretory proteins of cooked meat media grown C. botulinum type B were extracted by TCA precipitation method. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against secretory proteins. Cytokine profiling of secretory proteins were done. An immunodetection system was developed to detect the C. botulinum type B using Secretory proteins of C. botulinum type B.
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The effect of NLP-based approach to teaching surgical procedures to senior OBGYN residents

Published on: 4th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8886000867

Each individual has a unique way of learning which is based on personal background [1]. Neuro Linguistic Programming is an ideology of communicating with an individual. It can be applied in social relations like teaching fields [2]. Each medical student deals with a set of new information in his unique way. For example with regard to the following text on vacuum extraction, one learner focuses on definition, while the other focuses on spelling, and the third one just on shapes [3] (Figures 1-3).
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Chemical constituents and biological activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus lam (Jackfruit): A review

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8987258409

Artocarpus (Moraceae) is a deciduous tree with appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit and is widely used in folk medicines. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus heterophyllus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds. This review indents to compile various studies on A. heterophyllus and critically evaluates its ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological properties. Several pharmacological studies from A. heterophyllus have conclusively established their mode of action in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Based on the available data, it is concluded that Artocarpus as a promising source of useful products and opens up new avenues for novel therapeutics.
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Effect of drying methods on the physicochemical properties and Fatty Acid composition of Moringa Seeds Oil

Published on: 30th August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286350676

Effect of drying methods (sun-drying and cabinet oven drying) on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oils extracted from moringa seeds was investigated. Oil from the seeds was extracted using solvent (hexane) after drying. Drying increased the yield from 30.30-33.11%. The oil samples were less dense than water with specific gravities of 0.9032, 0.9075 and 0.9030 respectively. A significant difference exists in the moisture contents (0.11-0.21%); smoke point (202-2250C), flash point (310-3170C) and fire point (360-3690C). Sun-drying and cabinet oven drying brought about a decrease in the acid value (1.80-1.08mgKOH/g), saponification value (174.87-105mgKOH/g), Iodine value (16.10-13.90wijs) and peroxide value (11.24-2.3-Meq/kg). The decrease is an indication of quality improvement of the oils. More unsaturated fatty acids were present in the samples between 76.61% and 81.66%. Oleic acid was predominant (44.92% raw, 45.71% sundried and 43.60% cabinet oven dried). Sun-drying and cabinet oven drying did not have much significant effect on the physical, chemical and fatty acid compositions of the oil. The results obtained from this study showed that the three oil samples are good as edible oil and for commercial purpose.
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Development and quality evaluation of Jam from Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) and Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) juice

Published on: 28th November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286356937

The seasonal nature of most fruits available in the market coupled with inadequate storage and processing facilities has limited their consumption by majority of the people in the country. Jams made from fruits are good bread spread rather than any other food products because they serve as adequate balance diet and it contains antioxidant such as vitamin C and A which play an important role in preventing cancer, cardiovascular problem and improvement of eyesight. Pawpaw and watermelon fruits have been reported to be nutritive and high in antioxidant properties that can scavenge free radicals, thereby improving the antioxidant status of the body. It is therefore deemed fit to produce jam from these perishable commodities in other to make them available all through the year and as well as adding to varieties of food products. The aqueous extracts of watermelon with pawpaw juice were processed into jam and the physicochemical properties of the jam samples were analysed. The resulting jam samples showed moisture content ranging between 30.60-35.30%, protein 0.40-0.80%, fat 0.20-0.40%, ash 1.20-1.70%, crude fibre 0.10-0.30%, carbohydrate 62.10-67.16%, β-carotene 610-1350µg/100g and ascorbic acid 9.60-15.40mg/100g. The jam samples were found to be very nutritive and high in antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can scavenge free radicals, thereby can improve the antioxidant status of the body. Sensory evaluation tests showed that the samples were acceptable and compared favourably with the commercial imported brand while sample AA had the highest preference in all the sensory attributes evaluated by the panellists. Microbiological examination also showed that the jam samples had total plate count ranging from 4.10x101 to 2.00 x101 cfu/g, yeast and mould count ranged from 2.10x101 to 1.00 x101cfu/g with no observable coliform count.
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Lemongrass tea consumption and changes in Acid-Base Balance and Electrolyte homeostasis

Published on: 31st December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7991709231

The consumption of dietary herbs and supplements may be associated with several physiological consequences including, but not limited to disturbances of acid-base homeostasis, minerals and electrolytes wasting, gastrointestinal disturbances as well as hemodynamic changes. Plants food based nutritional studies are important for assessing the effect of plants on human health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in acid-base status and electrolyte homeostasis following the consumption of lemongrass tea. The acute and sub-chronic effects of infusions prepared from 2, 4, and 8g lemongrass leaf powder on serum and urinary pH, and electrolytes levels were assessed in 105 subjects using an interventional study design. The results post-treatment were compared with baseline values. Plasma pH decreased from baseline value of 7.37 ± 0.02 to 7.20 ± 0.03, and 7.30 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively for participants treated with infusion prepared from 2g of lemongrass leaf powder. For those treated with infusion prepared from 4g of lemongrass leaf powder, plasma pH decreased from baseline value of 7.35 ± 0.02 to 7.22 ± 0.02 and 7.29 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively. Treatment with infusion prepared from 8g of lemongrass leaf powder caused a decrease in plasma pH from baseline value of 7.38 ± 0.02 to 7.15 ± 0.02 and 7.18 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively. Corresponding changes in urinary pH were also observed. Furthermore, at days 10 and 30, plasma protein concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.05) in subjects treated with infusion prepared from 8g lemongrass leaf extract. There were also significant increases (p < 0.05) in urinary volume, urination frequency, and urinary electrolytes levels within the same period. The consumption of lemongrass tea may be associated with changes in acid-base balance and electrolyte homeostasis due to its varied biological constituents and their activities
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Quality Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor Stem Sheath Enriched with Spondias mombin Extract

Published on: 3rd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628641937

The nutritional compositions of sorghum stem sheath-Spondias mombin extract were evaluated. The enriched stem sheath extract were obtained by mixing sorghum stem sheath and Spondias mombin (iyeye) extract in varied proportions at 100:0; 0:100; 95:5; 90:10 and 85:15. The five samples were subjected to analysis: proximate, mineral, vitamin C, antinutrient composition. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that observable increases were noticed in proximate, vitamin C and mineral composition from 5% inclusion of Spondias mombin extract in sorghum stem sheath drinks. The anti-nutrient compositions: tannin, oxalate and saponin, ranged from (0.144 to 0.442, 0.303 to 0.385, 0.070 to 0.198) mg/100 ml, respectively for sorghum stem sheath- Spondias mombin extract which were within consumable safe limits. The study concluded that nutritious enriched drinks could be produced from sorghum stem sheath and Spondias mombin extract at ambient temperature.
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Which women uses social Internet networks during pregnancy?

Published on: 31st March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9023198153

Internet has become an important part of our life, including during pregnancy where it is broadly used to find information (84%). The aims of this study were (1) to describe the proportion of women using Internet Social Networks (ISN) concerning their pregnancy, during pre or postpartum hospital stay, (2) to define how ISN users refer to their pregnancy and delivery on these social networks, (3) to compare anxiety level, social sustain level, sociodemographic characteristics of the both population (4) and to determine profiles of the ISN users with multiple correspondence analysis. Methods: 399 questionnaires were distributed in the postpartum wards of two academic hospitals in Paris, and 258 fully filled were retrieved. Tools: Anxiety scale (STAI- A and B), Cutrona Social Provisions Scale, sociodemographic and obstetrical questionnaire. Results: 76% (n = 195) were ISN users. We compared ISN users versus ISN non users women. Demographically, the two populations were comparable. Anxiety scores were similar in both groups, whereas social support scores showed a statistical difference in social integration. In the global population, 84% use Internet for information concerning pregnancy; this rate is higher for ISN users than ISN non users (tendency 0.058). ISN were used in priority for sharing with relatives, and 10% with other pregnant women. Concerning pregnancy, patients posted in priority the birth announcement (28%), the pregnancy announcement (23%), and the newborn’s pictures (12%). 6% posted their fetuses’ ultrasound pictures. Three clusters of ISN users were extracted with statistically different social support scores (p = 0.019) and comparable anxiety scores. The third one, with at risk profile, used ISN as social support. For all women, but specifically for younger and more socially fragile women, Internet gives to professional new perspectives to develop information and prevention tools during the perinatal period.
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Challenges of haemodialysis: A single centre experience in South West Nigeria

Published on: 28th March, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8049457944

Background: Haemodialysis is the commonest method of Renal Replacement Therapy in Nigeria. Despite an advancement in the technicality and better understanding of haemodialysis, a number of complications are known to be associated with this procedure.. Objective: We aimed to highlight our experiences and share some of the uncommon complications encountered during haemodialysis and present the outcome of our patients. Subjects and methods: A retrospective review of 101 patients during the last two years was done. Data extracted include: sociodemographic characteristic, aetiology of kidney disease, type of vascular access, intradialytic complication and outcome of treatment. Results: The total number of dialysis session during the period was 823. Males constituted a higher proportion (64.4%) and were found to be older than female patients 49.8 vs 42.8 years (P=0.001). Majority (89.1%) had chronic kidney disease while chronic glomerulonephritis was the main cause of CKD as seen in about 45% of the patient. Due to the cost implication, only 2(1.98%) were able to undergo 3 sessions of dialysis per week for up to 1 month. Vascular access was femoral (66.3%), internal jugular vein (25.7%), while only 2% used Artero-venous-fistula and one patient had femoral vessel pseudoaneurysm from frequent cannulation. The commonest complication was hypotension which was present in 15.8%. Twenty-eight deaths were recorded, 44(43%) were either lost to follow up or absconded while 5% were transplanted at a referral centre. Conclusion: Challenges of renal replacement therapy is overwhelming in our country due to poor human and financial resources. Early diagnosis and adequate government support are advocated.
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Evaluation of the effects of Leech Salivary Extract (LSE) on Haematological parameters in Rats

Published on: 19th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355940230

The effects of Leech Salivary Extract (LSE) on some haematological, immunological and organ weight parameters in rats, during a twenty eight days oral administration of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight doses, was investigated. LD50 and sub chronic toxicity was determined using standard methods. The oral LD50 was above 5000mg/kgbw. Oral administration of LSE (25mg/kgbw, 50mg/kgbw, 100mg/kgbw) for 28days had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the differential white blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils), red blood cell indices (RBC count, PCV, HB, platelets, MCHC and MCH), feed intake, body weight gain and relative organ weight of lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen and stomach of rats. However, the LSE evoked a significant (p>0.05) increase in the level of MCV in treated rats compared to the control. These results, indicating low toxicity and no negative significant effects of LSE on haemato-immunological indices in rats, suggest that the extract is safe for development and use as therapeutic for managing clinical conditions.
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