Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and affects people of all ages. But having an asthma patient with a good overall fitness level helps reduce the chances of getting a seizure. Aqua-aerobic exercises is appropriate programs for the treatment of asthma. The aim of this study was to propose a rehabilitation program using aqua-aerobic exercises and to determine its effect on some functional parameters (forced Expiratory Volume in first Second Fev1, Peak Expiratory Flow PEF, and the Forced Vital Capacity FVC), and improve the respiratory functions to reduce the intensity and severity of asthma attacks for asthmatic children.
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive disease without treatment that leads to death. Therefore, to control its progression to pulmonary hypertension is still a challenge. Moreover, there is no study that has investigated the Renin-Angiotensin System in patients with IPF.
Objective: Verify the plasma concentrations of Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II (AngII), Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang- (1-7)] and Alamandine in patients with IPF.
Methods: Ten IPF patients, with or without PH, were included, and ten controls matched by sex and age. Quantitative plasma peptide concentrations (PPC) were expressed as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile range. The Student Newman-Keuls t test was used for parametric data, Mann-Whitney for nonparametric data and, to compare proportions, the Fisher exact test was performed. The associations between clinical variables and the PPC were evaluated by Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The Alamandine plasma concentration was significantly (365%) lower in the IPF group and positively associated (r = 0.876) with pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). In addition, only in control group, the forced expiratory volume (FEV1%) was positively associated (p = 0.758) with Ang-(1-7).
Conclusion: This study showed, for the first time, that there is a decrease in Alamandine participation in patients with IPF. The ACE-AngII-AT1 axis may be more active in this disease. In addition, our results suggest that Alamandine might be compensating the increase in PAP, as well as the Ang-(1-7) is improving the forced expiratory volume.
Background: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) effects can shift immune responses toward anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic phenotypes, potentially helping patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS).
Methods: We evaluated the effect of infusing allogeneic MSC intravenously in 9 patients with moderate BOS refractory to standard therapy who were not candidates for retransplant, dividing them into 3 dosing groups: Group 1, 1×106 MSC/kg (n=3); Group 2, 2×106 MSC/kg (n=3); and Group 3, 4×106 MSC/kg (n=3). We recorded pulmonary function tests, laboratory variables, and serum biomarkers pre- and post-MSC infusion.
Results: These patients had significant decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over 1 year pre-MSC infusion (mean ± SD) FVC, 3.11±0.98 L, and FEV1 1.99+0.64 L versus FVC 2.58±1.03 and FEV1 1.61±0.52 just before infusion (P<0.05); representing a mean loss of 530 mL in FVC and 374 mL in FEV1 over 12 months. One year post-MSC infusion, mean FVC and FEV1 increased to 2.66±1.01 L and 1.63±0.55 L, respectively (changes no longer significant compared to before MSC infusion). Patients in Group 1 showed elevation of tolerance-inducing T regulatory cells and increased levels of epidermal growth factor. Tolerance-inducing Th-2 cytokines increased in Groups 1 and 2. These changes were not significantly different in these small sub-groups.
Conclusion: MSC infusion appears to slow down or reverse the progressive decline in lung function in some patients with moderate BOS, possibly by inducing anti-inflammatory effects and promoting cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
Objective: To determine the association between serum magnesium level and asthma, by establishing the difference in serum magnesium level between children with asthma and controls.
Method: Serum magnesium levels of 44 children with acute asthma and 44 controls of the age group of 6-16 years was determined and statistically compared. Lung function tests (FEV1%) were done and correlated with serum magnesium levels using Pearson’s comparison coefficient.
Results: The mean serum magnesium value of cases (1.9136±0.44) is lower than the controls (2.0042±0.26), with 32 cases showing a deficiency of serum magnesium. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, reveals positive correlation between FEV1% with serum magnesium levels, r=0.819, P<0.001.
Conclusions: This study reveals that the serum magnesium levels, even if in normal range, are statistically lower amongst asthmatics. It also brings out the relationship between magnesium levels and lung function tests, showing an improvement in the latter with increase in the former.
Introduction: There is currently no strategy for identifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients whose pulmonary function could benefit from inhaled corticosteroids. We investigated whether a 28-day regime of inhaled corticosteroids improved pulmonary function test results among COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion.
Methods: This single-centre one-arm pre–post trial included COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion treated at our institution from September 2018 to August 2019. Patients were administered budesonide (200 μg, 8 puffs daily) for 28 days. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at baseline and after 28 days of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. Secondary outcomes included differences in COPD Assessment Test scores, %FEV1, and that between the percent forced vital capacity (%FVC) at baseline and after 28 days of treatment.
Results: Twenty patients completed the 28-day inhaled corticosteroid regime. The mean difference in FEV1 between day 1 and day 28 was 340 mL (95% confidence interval: −100 to 770 mL; p = 0.122). The mean differences in secondary outcomes were: %FVC, −0.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: −2.84 to 2.53%; p = 0.905); %FEV1, 1.63% (95%CI: −4.56 to 7.81%; p = 0.589); COPD Assessment Test score, −2.50 (95%CI: −5.72 to 0.72; p = 0.121).
Conclusion: The 28-day course of inhaled corticosteroids yielded no significant difference in FEV1 for COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion.
Trial registration: University Hospital Medical Information Network Center, UMIN000034005. Registered 3 September 2018.
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a hallmark of persistent asthma measured using direct or indirect airway bronchial challenge testing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the putative relationships between type 2 inflammatory biomarkers, airway geometry (FEV1 and FEF25-75) and specific IgE (RAST or skin prick) to AHR. We performed a retrospective analysis of our database (n = 131) of patients with asthma. Of these subjects, 75 had a histamine challenge and 56 had a mannitol challenge. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) but not blood eosinophils were significantly higher in patients with AHR to either histamine or mannitol. FEV1 % and FEF25 - 75 % were significantly lower in patients with AHR. Elevated Type 2 biomarkers including FeNO and specific IgE but not blood eosinophils were associated with AHR.
Highlights: FeNO and specific IgE but not blood eosinophils are raised in patients with airway hyperresponsiveness.
Two of the most recent LABA/ICS combinations for treatment of persistent asthma are Fluticasone furoate/Vilanterol 92/22 µg (Ellipta) and Beclomethasone dipropionate/Formoterol 100/6 µg (Nexthaler).
Objective: To compare once-daily Fluticasone/ Vilanterol combination with twice daily Beclomethasone/ Formoterol association in moderate asthma, in terms of quality of life and lung function.
Methods: Fourty patients with moderate asthma treated with Beclomethasone/Formoterol 100/6 µg or Fluticasone/Vilanterol 92/22 µg. We revalued patients in terms of lung function and Asthma Control Test, at 4, 8 and 12 weeks to assess any differences between the two groups. After 4 weeks, thirty-one of the fourty patients were evaluated in terms of respiratory function at predetermined time intervals.
Result: In patients treated with beclomethasone/formoterol FEV1 presented a mean value of 78% at the third visit and of 79.1% during the final check, compared with 74.5% and to 75.8% in patients in treatment with fluticasone/vilanterol (p 0.01). Mean values of IC and MMEF25-75% were higher in patients treated with beclomethasone/formoterol compared with fluticasone/vilanterol. For the dyspnea it was a difference at the third observation. For the nocturnal symptoms and the use of rescue drug there was a significant difference, except at the beginning. For the perception of control by patients, there was a difference in the two groups at the beginning, after 4 and 8 weeks. Total ACT score showed a significant difference after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. In the group treated with beclomethasone/formoterol FEV1 value was significantly higher at a distance of four hours after drug administration (p 0.04) and after the second dose (p 0.02) compared with the group treated with fluticasone/vilanterol.
Discussion: Patients in treatment with beclomethasone/formoterol showed improved asthma control and nocturnal symptoms and more stable respiratory function compared with patients receiving fluticasone/vilanterol.
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of illness and death. Pulmonary function test PFT has assumed a key role in epidemiological studies investigating the incidence, natural history and causality of lung disease.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in The National Ribat Teaching Hospital and Jabir Abualiz Specialized Diabetes Center in Khartoum state to measure the respiratory muscle power in 31 diabetic patients (case group) and 30 non-diabetics patients (control groups). Pulmonary function tests were measured by using Digital Spirometer-Micro-Plus version.
Results: Lung function parameters between diabetic patients and their matched control group show no significant differences between the means of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. However, diabetic patients showed significant reduction in PEFR.
Conclusions: Exercise and well control of diabetes helped in preserving normal respiratory muscle power. Continuous reasonable exercise with good control is highly recommended for all diabetics.
Background: Azithromycin (AZM) is a macrolide antibiotic with distinct pharmacokinetic properties and is increasingly used as maintenance treatment in patients with bronchiectasis in order to reduce infectious exacerbations and improve pulmonary symptoms. The exact mechanism of action is not known and the relation between azithromycin dose level, local and systemic drug levels and clinical effect however, has not been extensively studied yet.
Objectives: To explore the relation between AZM serum and sputum concentrations, clinical effect parameters and side effects.
Methods: Azithromycin concentrations were measured in serum and sputum samples of bronchiectasis patients receiving one year of AZM treatment (250mg OD) enrolled in the Bronchiectasis and Azithromycin Treatment (BAT) trial, a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Results were correlated with data on AZM dose level, exacerbation frequency, lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), quality of life and symptoms collected within the same year.
Results: 83 sputum samples from 31 patients and 151 serum samples from 43 patients were available for analysis. Mean AZM dose-level ranged from 18.8 to 39.8 mg/kg body weight/ week, generating mean AZM concentrations of 7.57 mg/L (SD 9.49) in sputum and 0.11 mg/L (SD 0.085) in serum. No correlation was found between side effects and AZM dose level, sputum- or serum concentrations. Significant correlation was found between AZM sputum concentration and CRP-level (r= -0.6).
Conclusion: High and stable AZM sputum levels were reached during long term treatment, as opposed to low AZM levels in serum. Apart from CRP-levels to AZM sputum concentration, no other outcome parameter showed significant correlation to AZM serum- or sputum levels. AZM dose- or exposure levels were not predictive for the occurrence of side effects.
Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be reduced in patients diagnosed with stroke, which reasonably justifies the use of respiratory muscle training in this population. This study determines the comparative efficacy of inspiratory, expiratory, and combined respiratory muscle training on the pulmonary functions and chest expansion in acute stroke survivors.
Method: Forty-five acute stroke survivors (15 in each group) completed all protocols of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to any one of three groups. In addition to the conventional exercise therapy, participants received any one of the three respiratory muscle training protocols (inspiratory muscle training, expiratory muscle training or combined respiratory muscle training). Chest expansion was assessed using tape measure and pulmonary function parameters were assessed using a spirometer.
Results: Paired t-test analysis showed significant improvements in the chest expansion and the pulmonary function parameters following training in each group. One-way ANOVA showed significant improvements in the pulmonary function parameters across the three groups but not in the chest expansion with p - value = 0.405. Least significant difference (LSD), post-hoc analysis shows that the significant difference for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC lies between inspiratory muscle training group and expiratory muscle training group.
Conclusion: When the three training methods were compared, it was found that expiratory muscle training was the most beneficial in improving the pulmonary functions and chest expansion in acute stroke survivors.
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