Geosynthetics used in landfills provides a technical and economic advantages over traditional clay liners. It may create stability issue and even lead to landfill failure due to its low interface or internal shear strength if improperly designed and/or constructed. The most common failure mechanism in geosynthetic-lined landfills is transitional failure involving waste and bottom liner (deep-seated failure) or only final cover system (shallow failure). Shear strengths of geosynthetic-geosynthetic and geosynthetic-soil have a wide range of variations. Shear strengths of interface from literature may be used in preliminary design. For final design, site-specific interface shear strengths shall be used. Internal shear strengths of unreinforced geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) are less than those of reinforced GCLs. Unreinforced GCLs are not recommended for slopes steeper than 1:10 (1 Vertical and 10 Horizontal). Peak shear strength of interface and internal GCLs can be used in bottom liner; residual shear strength of interface and internal GCLs shall be used for geosynthetic placed along the slopes. Site-specific shear strengths of waste are recommended to be used in the design. Landfill failure could be triggered by static loadings including excessive leachate, pore pressure above the bottom liners, gas pressure, and excessive wetness of the geomembrane-GCL, and earthquake loading. The factor of safety of 1.5 is recommended for static loading and 1.0 for earthquake loading. A higher factor of safety is recommended if a failure could have a catastrophic effect on human health or the environment, and if large uncertainty exists in input parameters to calculate the factors of safety. The main objective of this review article is to provide a comprehensive knowledge of slope failure mechanisms, causes, and probable remedies in one place.
I would like to thank JPRA for taking this decision. I understand the effort it represents for you. I'm truly happy to have the paper published in JPRA. And I'll certainly consider JPRA for my next publications as I was satisfied of the service provided, the efficiency and promptness of the interactions we had.
Publishing an article is a long process, but working with your publication department made things go smoothly, even though the process took exactly 5 months from the time of submitting the article till the time I have favourable response, the missing part is the peer review details, which is essential in self auditing and future improvement, overall experience was excellent giving your understanding of the situation of lack of financial institution support.
We appreciate the fact that you decided to give us full waiver for the applicable charges and approve the final version. You did an excellent job preparing the PDF version. Of course we will consider your magazine for our future submissions and we will pay the applicable fees then.
I was very pleased with the quick editorial process. We are sure that our paper will have great visibility, among other things due to its open access. We believe in science accessible to all.
Anderson Fernando de Souza
Your service is very good and fast reply, Also your service understand our situation and support us to publication our articles.
Palestine College of Nursing, Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, Palestine
Ayman M Abu Mustafa
Thank you very much for your support and encouragement. I am truly impressed by your tolerance and support.
Thank you very much
Diaverum: PADC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
I really liked the ease of submitting my manuscript in the HSPI journal. Further, the peer review was timely completed and I was communicated the final decision on my manuscript within 10 days of submission which is really appreciable. I strongly recommend all the scientists and researchers to submit their work in this journal”
We appreciate your approach to scholars and will encourage you to collaborate with your organization, which includes interesting and different medical journals.
With the best wishes of success, creativity and joy in life, prosperity in the medical field.
Ivano- Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine
Your service is excellent. Processing and editing were very fast. I hope to publish more of my works in your journal.
You are such a nice person. Your journal co-operation is very appreciable and motivational.
Department of Biotechnology, Uttaranchal college of Applied and Life Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India