Induction

Screening of Gestational diabetes mellitus

Published on: 4th April, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7586666202

Gestational diabetes mellitus is becoming a very common medical disorder associated with pregnancy especially so in the Middle East and more so in Saudi Arabia, thus putting the women and fetuses at an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Screening for Gestational diabetes mellitus was recommended because of its asymptomatic nature and good proportion of patients with no classic risk factors. We recommended universal screening because of the beneficial effect of screening, diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The most recent study done in Security Forces Hospital showed a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality with application of the new values of screening, in spite of the increase of incidence of Gestational diabetes mellitus from 14.5 % in 2005 study, to 23.9 % in the recent study in 2015. Objectives: To highlight and determine the best screening method values of FBS and 2hrspp used to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus. Maternal & neonatal out come and associated risks for patients who had Gestational diabetes mellitus, where scrutinized. The study was done in the period from June 1st 2013-31 of May 2014. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary centre (Security Forces hospital _Riyadh_Saudi Arabia). Patients: Out of 6849 patients who had their delivery in Security Forces Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014 (one year), 6340 patients (92.5 %) were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus, and out of these 1516 patients (23.9 %) were labeled as Gestational diabetes mellitus after exclusion of cases of IDDM and NIDDM. Main outcome measured: The purpose of this study is to advise on using new values for diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to assess the outcome of pregnancy after new values are implemented in security forces hospital for diagnosis. The outcome included ages of mothers, parities, number of abortions, associated medical disorders, and estimated blood loss. Control methods were also reviewed, gestational age of induction of labor. Associated intrapartum complications as well as fetal outcome were also reviewed. The weight of babies, congenital abnormalities, admission to neonatal intensive care unit were also studied. The different values used , and percentages of diagnosed values of last 3 studies done in Security Forces Hospital in comparison to the most recent study with new values(2014-2015) as shown in table 11. Results: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus increased from 14.5 % in the year 2003 - 2004 to reach 23.9 % in 2014, in the same institute (Security Forces Hospital), where the study was done using different values. In our study in Security Forces Hospital we recorded a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality on applying the new values. A significant reduction in the number of expired babies of mothers who were diagnosed as gestational diabetes with new values with a decrease from 5.6 % in previous years studied to reach 1.5 % in 2014, reflecting the effective control and the good catch for the new values. Conclusion: Universal screening, with whatever values to blood sugar used, is a better method screening than the selective one: Using 75 gram of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test proved to be cost effective, easily accessible, and with good pickup rate of up to 93 % of patients in Security Forces Hospital. Recommendations: To continue using the new values that will be universally implemented, with long term follow-up of mothers and newborn.
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The incidence of hemodynamic and respiratory adverse events in morbidly obese presenting for Bariatric surgery

Published on: 25th July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7795943426

Context: Perioperative management of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery is challenging. Lacking standardized perioperative protocols, complication rates may be high. This retrospective study aims to quantify the incidence of significant blood pressure decreases on induction of anesthesia and intraoperative hypoxemia, before implementation of a standardized protocol designed for bariatric surgery. Design: Retrospective, observational study. Setting: A 250-bed county hospital in northern Sweden. Subjects: 219 morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery between 2003 and 2008. Main outcome measures: Incidence of systolic blood pressure (SAP) falls to less than 70% of the preoperative baseline during induction of anesthesia and incidence of perioperative hypoxemia. Results: The incidence of confirmed SAP falls to below 70% of baseline at induction of anesthesia was 56.2% (n = 123/219). This incidence rose with increasing age (p < 0.001) but not with body mass index (BMI). 3.7% (n = 8/219) of cases were marked as difficult intubations. A transient period of hypoxemia was observed in 6.8% (n = 15/219) and was more common with increasing BMI (p = 0.005). Fourteen different drug combinations were used in the study population. Of those administered an induction anesthetic drug, 72.6% (n = 159/193) were given an overdose when calculated by lean body weight, but this did not correlate significantly to SAP falls (p = 0.468). Conclusion: The incidence of a significant blood pressure fall upon induction of anesthesia was common. The incidence of airway and ventilation problems were low. Overdosing of anesthetics and excessive variation in applied anesthesia methods were found.
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Anaesthetic management of an elderly patient with ischaemic heart disease and previous MI undergoing elective inguinal hernia repair: Case report

Published on: 25th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8615126196

Ischemic heart disease may occur in isolation, or in combination with the pathological process of vascular ageing, arteriosclerosis. These two conditions have differing impacts on the haemodynamic changes in response to anaesthesia and surgery. Hypertension is not a feature of ischemic heart disease, and vice versa, but where the two conditions co-exist, hypertension aggravates and accelerates the pathological processes of ischemic heart disease. Patients older than 40 yrs. presenting for anaesthesia and surgery must therefore be considered at risk of any combination of these three conditions. Anaesthetic techniques must also be chosen to minimize haemodynamic changes which in the normal healthy patient cause no serious morbidity, but which, in the patient with ischemic heart disease, can lead to serious morbidity or death. Here we report a 70 years old (BMI of 23.3) elderly, hypertensive Male patient with ischemic heart disease with previous MI (EF of 40% - 5%) undergoing elective Inguinal hernia repair. We Opted Spinal anesthesia over General anaesthesia as it should be an asset in cardiac patients undergoing non-cardiac lower abdominal surgeries to reduce preload and after load, stress response, coagulation responses, improves coronary perfusion, provides better postoperative analgesia, reduces incidence of perioperative MI, maintains myocardial oxygen supply demand ratio and avoids harmful effects of GA such as hypotention due to intravenous induction drugs, tachycardia and hypertension due to pressor response during direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
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Comparison of oocyte maturity rates in recombinant Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and triptorelin acetate triggers: A prospective randomized study

Published on: 13th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691250260

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) like exposure in the mid cycle for inducing the oocyte maturation is the very crucial step in the success of ICSI treatment. Introduction of LH surge endogenously by GnRH-agonist for final oocyte maturation induction, may be more physiological compared with the administration of HCG. Since GnRH agonist would induce FSH surge also along with LH surge, as happens in natural cycle. However, the effects of giving HCG trigger for inducing only LH surge and giving GnRH agonist trigger for inducing both LH and FSH surge, in patients treated for ICSI with GnRH antagonists need more research. Sub fertile patients planned for ICSI, meeting the requirement of inclusion criteria, were started with recombinant FSH from day 2 of menstrual cycle. GnRH antagonists were started from day 6 of stimulation. FSH dose was adjusted according to the individual response. Trigger was planned when the lead follicle reaches 24 mm. For triggering, 100 patients were randomized to receive Recombinant HCG trigger and Triptorelin acetate trigger. Oocyte retrieval was done 36 hours after Recombinant hCG Trigger and 35 hours after Triptorelin acetate trigger. The oocyte maturity rate was assessed by the number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved.
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Role of T-Helper cells (CD4+ T Cells) in human immune system against some microbial infection: A mini review

Published on: 11th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8601982623

The human immune system consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which both provide protective immunity to microbial infection. The adaptive immune system consists of T and B cell which act as second line defense through production of neutralizing antibody by B cells and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells. The CD4+ T-cell performs a central role in the immune responses. These cells also known as T4 or helper/inducer T lymphocytes recognize antigens presented by antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and monocytes. Once antigens such as bacteria and viruses are presented, CD4+ T lymphocytes orchestrate the body’s antigen-specific immune response by Coordinating B-lymphocyte production of antibodies to these antigens, producing cytokines and induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. The paper was aimed to review the role of T-helper cells (CD4+ T cells) in human immune system against some microbial infections.
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Equine Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATGAM) administration in patient with previous rabbit Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Thymoglobulin) induced serum sickness: A case report

Published on: 23rd March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7666273824

Thymoglobulin is a rabbit-derived anti-thymocyte antibody directed at T-cells and commonly used for induction immunosuppression therapy in solid organ transplantation, especially in immunologically high risk kidney transplant recipients. Despite its frequent use and efficacy, the heterologous makeup of thymoglobulin can induce the immune system resulting in serum sickness which typically presents with rash, fever, fatigue, and poly-arthralgia in the weeks following drug exposure. ATGAM is another anti-thymocyte antibody, targeting the same epitopes, but differs from thymoglobulin by the animal in which the preparations are generated (equine vs. rabbit). Herein, we present a case of a patient with a known history of thymoglobulin-induced serum sickness, who presented with evidence of acute cellular and vascular rejection at their 12-month post-operative visit. Given their immunologically high risk status, they were successfully treated with ATGAM with improvement in their rejection and kidney function. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of successful administration of ATGAM in a patient with a documented history of thymoglobulin induced serum sickness, demonstrating a possible treatment option for acute rejection in patients with reactions to thymoglobulin. 
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Micronutrient deficiency, a novel nutritional risk factor for insulin resistance and Syndrom X

Published on: 30th November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8465489491

Emerging evidence indicates that micronutrient deficiency could play a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of many chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, kidney disease, cancer, anemia and other cardio-metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases through the induction of Insulin resistance (IR). However, there are still gaps in our scientific knowledge regarding the links between micronutrient deficiencies, IR, and cardio metabolic disorders. This review provides current information on recent advances and a global perspective regarding the relationship between micronutrient deficiency, IR, and cardio metabolic disorders. Empirical evidence indicates that deficiencies in either micronutrients associated with insulin activity (such as Chromium, manganese, magnesium, and iron) or antioxidant enzyme cofactors (such as vitamin A, copper, zinc, and manganese) could impact several physiological processes leading to a cascade of metabolic and biochemical derangements such as B-cell apoptosis, loss of islet cell mass, defective tyrosine kinase activity, oxidative stress, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, reduction in lean body mass, defective insulin signaling mechanism, elevated protein kinase C activity, and excess intracellular calcium. Collaboratively, these states of metabolic malfunctioning are associated with IR, which triggers the onset of many cardio metabolic diseases. Undoubtedly, the prevention of micronutrient deficiency may indeed ameliorate the incidence of IR and cardio-metabolic disorders in those at risk and in the general population.
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Nicotinamide as a treatment option of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Published on: 21st September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317653751

Age related macular degeneration is a severe disease of mainly elderly people and leads to central vision loss because of the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium [1]. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the accumulation of extracellular material and deposit formation near the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer, which leads to loss of photoreceptors and induction of chronic inflammation. The deposits are composed of lipids and proteins including many complement proteins, indicating the involvement of the complement system in the degenerative process and chronic inflammation [2]. So far there is no treatment for the dry form of AMD, except nutritional supplementation with antioxidants and vitamins [3]. Combined with a prolonged lifetime expectation in developed countries, AMD is developing to a social and economic burden. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a treatment of AMD that can delay disease manifestation and progression for several years. 
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Targeted and non-targeted effects of radiation in mammalian cells: An overview

Published on: 12th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026724302

Radiation of different wavelengths can kill living organisms, although, the mechanism of interactions differs depending on their energies. Understanding the interaction of radiation with living cells is important to assess their harmful effects and also to identify their therapeutic potential. Temporally, this interaction can be broadly divided in three stages – physical, chemical and biological. While radiation can affect all the important macromolecules of the cells, particularly important is the damage to its genetic material, the DNA. The consequences of irradiation include- DNA damage, mutation, cross-linkages with other molecules, chromosomal aberrations and DNA repair leading to altered gene expression and/or cell death. Mutations in DNA can lead to heritable changes and is important for the induction of cancer. While some of these effects are through direct interaction of radiation with the target, radiation can interact with the surrounding environment to result in its indirect actions. The effects of radiation depend not only on the total dose but also on the dose rate, LET etc. and also on the cell types. However, action of radiation on organisms is not restricted to interactions with irradiated cells, i.e. target cells alone; it also exerts non-targeted effects on neighboring unexposed cells to produce productive responses; this is known as bystander effect. The bystander effects of ionizing radiations are well documented and contribute largely to the relapse of cancer and secondary tumors after radiotherapy. Irradiation of cells with non-ionizing Ultra-Violet light also exhibits bystander responses, but such responses are very distinct from that produced by ionizing radiations.
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Integration of GC-MS in identification of possible final metabolites from phytase production in Pichia Pastoris based on sorbitol induction optimization

Published on: 12th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026744354

The isolation of phytase using Pichia Pastoris under methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction technique was investigated. The biological activity of extracellular phytase after optimization with co-substrates induction in 4 liters fermentor (NBS) increased to 13250 U/ml. This led to a 509 fold increases in comparison to the other type of phytase. This effect was studied via induction with sorbitol/methanol in fermentation by Pichia Pastoris GS115 (Mut+) at 20 °C. The interference of by products; methylal, hexamine and (S)-(+)-1,2-propanediol with release of phytase in Pichia Pastoris under methanol induction were detected and cannot be repressed by methanol induction alone. The TLC was used for glycerin analysis under methanol/sorbitol induction and the results were lesser compare to that obtained during phytase production under methanol induction alone. This work showed the higher expression of heterologous proteins and by fed batch fermentation; the expression identified an advantage of producing a significant activity of phytase. Practical applications Plant derived products including sorbitol have been used as alternative medicines for the therapeutic treatment of various diseases, food supplements and could be used in many manufacturing processes. It serves as a culture media for bacteria, and helps to distinguish the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 from its most other strains. Cells growing on methanol require high oxygen consumption. Sorbitol was used as an alternative cheap co-feeding for the production of proteins and is a non-repressing carbon source for AOX1 promoter with no effect on the level of r-protein at its induction phase. This report describes the isolation of phytase using Pichia Pastoris under methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction techniques, and sorbitol showed to be a promising co-substrate, as it could enhance both cell growth and targeted protein productivity. This co-feeding and fed-batch induction technique was used for recombinant phytase production in a small and large scale production and the metabolites were analyzed.
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Induction therapy with Erlotinib (E) and Gemcitabine/Platinum (GP) in stage III NSCLC

Published on: 28th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8913463613

Background: In 2004 we started a phase II trial in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC), stage III, with erlotinib followed by a combination with a platinum-based doublet in unselected patients to identify molecular subgroups benefitting from an EGFR targeting approach. Patients and methods: Induction with erlotinib (E, 150 mg, d1-42) was followed by three cycles of gemcitabine (G, 1250 mg/m², d1+d8, q3w) and cisplatin (P, 80 mg/m², d1, q3w). Patients with at least stable disease after E were treated with a GP + E combination. Induction was followed by surgery and radiation. The trial was conducted as a prospective, multi-center, open label, exploratory phase II study to determine pathological response rate (pRR), as well as secondary endpoints disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Of 38 prescreened patients 16 were included in the main study. Due to slow recruitment the study had to be terminated early. Combination of E and GP was well tolerated, surgery was feasible after induction therapy in 12 of 16 patients, 7/12 (58%) patients had a major pathological response (MPR). Median overall survival for patients with MPR was 57.7 months (confidence interval (CI), 37.4 to 78.0; n = 7) and for patients without MPR 11.9 months (CI, 6.4 to 17.4; n = 5). 2/16 patients had an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Conclusion: Before discovery of distinct molecular mechanisms in NSCLC our study was an attempt to identify clinical and pathological subgroups that would benefit from E induction. Two patients with an EGFR mutation were identified. MPR was a predictor of long term disease free and overall survival.
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Depression as a civilization-deformed adaptation and defence mechanism

Published on: 2nd March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8544395440

Depression is currently one of the main barriers to further civilizational development. Despite intensive efforts, it is a growing health, social and economic problem. We still lack clarity regarding the ethology of depression and treatment is still mainly symptomatic. The authors postulate that depression has similarities with anxiety and from an evolutionary perspective is an archaic defence mechanism. Formerly, through the agency of complex psychological, biological and social mechanisms, healing was facilitated in conditions of an intense, short-term nature. Adverse civilizational and environmental changes have caused pathological changes in both the mechanism of depression and corresponding defence mechanisms such as the induction of an anxiety state. Related to depression is the mechanism of thanatosis, concerning chronic biological and psychosocial dysfunctions. It is a mechanism for activating self-eliminating processes to free the community from the burden of a dysfunctional individual.
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The master regulator gene PRDM2 controls C2C12 myoblasts proliferation and Differentiation switch and PRDM4 and PRDM10 expression

Published on: 25th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317606260

The Positive Regulatory Domain (PRDM) protein family gene is involved in a spectrum variety of biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis: its member seem to be transcriptional regulators highly cell type and tissue peculiar, towards histones modifications or recruitment of specific interaction patters to modify the expression of target genes. In this study we analyzed the expression profile of different member of PRDM gene family focusing our attention on the role of PRDM2, PRDM4 and PRDM10 genes in mouse C2C12 cell line, during the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes and speculate about the role of the protein Retinoblastoma protein-interacting zinc finger protein 1-RIZ1, coded by PRDM2 gene, as a regulator of the proliferation/differentiation switch. Results showed a reduction of PRDM2, PRDM4 and PRDM10 expression level during the commitment of the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. The RIZ1 silencing stimulated myoblasts differentiation, similar to the effect of serum deprivation on these cells, associated with an increase of Myogenin expression level, which is considered to be involved in the differentiation of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. As demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, RIZ1 is associated with Myogenin promoter in proliferation condition and after 24h from differentiation induction, negatively controlling therefore Myogenin expression. Moreover RIZ1 silencing induced a reduction in PRDM4 and PRDM10 expression levels leaving us to speculate that the PRDM genes have a redundant role and they are hierarchically organized.
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Experimental research on the mechanism of chemical energy conversion to light energy under thermal induction

Published on: 2nd March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8941328053

Since the discovery of glare illuminators, considerable efforts have been devoted to achieving a breakthrough of high light intensity on the order of magnitude. In this paper, we prepared strong flash blinding agents for the first time by using aluminum powder, oxidant, and adhesive as the main materials, and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Al2Q3), triazoindolizine, or nano zinc oxide, etc. as electronic output brightener after mixing and granulation according to the developed formulation. It was discovered that the luminescence intensity was related to the thermal effect of the substance while the brightener only served as an auxiliary brightening effect to achieve energy non-destructive conversion. With the same formula, the luminescence intensities of glaze agents with ADN and potassium perchlorate as oxidants were slightly higher than that of ammonium perchlorate oxidant; the brightening effect of nano-zinc oxide was slightly higher than those of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Al2Q3) and triazoindolizine. The luminescence intensity of the substance with a high thermal effect value was high, but the luminescence time was slightly short. Under identical conditions, the luminescence effect of nano-aluminum powder was obviously better than that of micro-aluminum powder with the highest luminescence intensity of 3.9 × 1010 ~ 1.9 × 1011 cd and the luminescence time of 39 - 48 ms. The effects of shell material and structure and the effect of heat-induced mode on the luminescence intensity were also investigated. The luminescence intensity of the glare agent with a high shell strength was high, but the luminescence time was slightly short. Moreover, the energy level of the brightener is excited under the induction of high temperatures, which leads to a blue shift to promote the chemical reaction of the material in a favorable direction. Finally, the optical radiation of the thermally induced high-temperature combustion system was analyzed from the aspects of thermal effect, combustion temperature, and chemiluminescence effect. A way to improve the optical radiation intensity of a high-temperature combustion system was proposed.
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Lifestyle Diseases and the Hair Growth Cycle: A multidisciplinary approach using Nourkrin® with Marilex®, a proteoglycan replacement therapy, for anagen induction and maintenance

Published on: 8th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317598559

Multiple studies have investigated the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and cardiovascular disease, including studies that have identified elevated rates of cardiovascular disease in patients with vertex hair loss, vertex and frontal hair loss, early onset hair loss and rapidly progressive hair loss. In addition, increased risks for hypertension, excess weight, abnormal lipids, insulin resistance, carotid atheromatosis and death from diabetes or heart disease have been reported in this population. Studies investigating an association between androgenetic alopecia and metabolic syndrome have yielded conflicting findings. Distinct guidelines for the detection and prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals with androgenetic alopecia have not been established. In addition to the traditional risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, included in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, several skin diseases have recently been shown to be markers of conditions relating to the patient’s overall health. Physicians should be aware of the possible connection between relatively frequent skin diseases, such as psoriasis and hair growth disruptions, including androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss and cardiovascular disease. This review is concentrated on the association between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease and hair growth disruptions as an early indicator of these underlying conditions. We have investigated the importance of robust primary clinical treatment measures to address the manifestation of hair loss due to a disruption caused by metabolic syndrome as an effective means to alleviate further stress induced hair loss, which can exacerbate the underlying cause.
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Comparision of intra cervical PGE2 gel and transcervical Foley’s catheter for pre-induction cervical ripening

Published on: 3rd May, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9497124492

Introduction: Induction of labour is a common obstetric intervention, occurring in approximately 25% of term pregnancies in developing countries. Pharmacological and mechanical methods commonly used are prostaglandin preparations (PGE1 and PGE2) and various intracervical catheters (single or double balloon), respectively.Material and methods: Study was conducted in Siliguri District Hospital, Siliguri, Darjeeling, west Bengal. 100 antenatal woman admitted in obstetrics ward with pog more than 37 weeks were taken for study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. 50 were induced with cerviprime gel and 50 with intracervical foley catheter. Statistical analysis done.Results: Mean interval between treatment initiation and delivery was not statistically significant, tachysystole was more common in group B women, rate of LSCS and NVD was similar in both groups.Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that Foley’s catheter (mechanical) and prostaglandin E2 gel [pharmacological] both are effective agents for preinduction cervical ripening which substantially improve the bishops score and increase the chances of successful labour induction. There is no significant difference in their efficacy, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome.
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The combination of very-small size proteoliposomes and alum is a safe adjuvant alternative for inducing anti-EGF antibodies: a preclinical study

Published on: 19th September, 2022

Immunization with human recombinant EGF chemically bound to the P64k protein of Neisseria meningitides (hrEGF-P64k) and adjuvanted in Montanide ISA 51 VG (Montanide) is an efficient strategy to induce polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) response targeting this self -antigen in cancer patients, which is the basis of the CIMAvax-EGF vaccine. The neutralizing potential of EGF-specific induced PAbs supports promising clinical data obtained to date with this vaccine. Herein, we evaluated a combination of very small-size proteoliposomes (VSSP) and aluminum hydroxide (Alum) as a novel adjuvant to induce specific PAbs with neutralizing and anti-proliferative properties on tumor cells, considering EGF as a model antigen. Toxicity at the injection site was not detected for the vaccine formulation containing VSSP/Alum, and it was immunogenic in BALB/c mice, as evidenced by the induction of high titers of EGF-specific polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). While schedule optimization increased the magnitude of the PAbs response induced by VSSP/Alum, induced PAbs’s avidity and intrinsic neutralizing potential were comparable to the humoral response induced by Montanide. Also, VSSP addition switched IgG subclasses distribution into a Th1-like pattern, as obtained with Montanide and desirable for a cancer vaccine. Finally, equivalent PAbs titers were induced by the vaccine formulations adjuvanted in VSSP/Alum or Montanide in tumor-bearing-mice, and immunosuppressed mice, suggesting the feasibility of the VSSP/Alum combined adjuvant for inducing anti-EGF antibodies in cancer patients at advanced stages of the disease.
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