Infection

Spontaneous rupture of a giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm after acute Myocardial Infarction

Published on: 21st June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286358318

Coronary artery aneurysm is commonly defined as a localized dilatation exceeding the diameter of adjacent normal coronary segments by 50% [1]. Coronary artery aneurysms may be fusiform, involving the full circumference of the coronary artery, or saccular, involving only a portion of the circumference [2]. Causes of coronary artery aneurysms include atherosclerosis (accounting for 50% of cases), Kawasaki disease, polyarteritis nodosa, infection, trauma, coronary dissection, percutaneous coronary angioplasty, and congenital malformations [3]. The abnormal blood flow within the coronary artery aneurysm may lead to thrombus formation, embolization, rupture, myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction [4]. Here we present a case of a giant fusiform coronary artery aneurysm who passed away due to coronary rupture after acute myocardial infarction.
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Not-motorized Implantable Cardiac Assistance (NICA): Hemodynamic concepts and clinical perspectives

Published on: 13th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165317457

The considerable improvements in cardiac support systems technologies have not solved until now the problem of connecting the cardiac assistance devices (CAD) to external energy sources, which makes these Patients at risk of lethal infections and dependent on external batteries with few hours of autonomy. Authors illustrate and discuss the hemodynamic concepts and clinical that underlie the mechanics of the first not-motorized implantable cardiac assistance device (NICA).
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Acute viral myocarditis due to Influenza H3N2 infection resembling an acute coronary syndrome: A case report

Published on: 20th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192816978

A 16-year-old man with history of two weeks-flu like symptoms with intermittent fever. He came to the emergency department with 2 hours-chest pain that radiates to the back and upper extremities. At the admission he was hemodynamically stable with normal blood pressure The ECG showed sinus rhythm and ST segment elevation of 0.5 mV in all leads (Figure 1A). The cardiac enzymes were elevated (Troponin 12.19 ng/mLland creatine kinase-MB fraction 63.25 U/L). He was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and later transferred to our medical unit to continue with study protocol. The transthoracic echocardiogram (Figure 1B) reported normal left ventricular systolic function with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 68%, global longitudinal strain -18%, TAPSE 30 mm, and normal systolic pulmonary artery pressure (30 mmHg).
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Cardiomyopathies - The special entity of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy

Published on: 1st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192807959

Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease with structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, and congenital heart disease. However, it has become clear that diverse etiologies and clinical manifestations (e.g. arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D), ARVD/C, left-ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC)) are responsible for the clinical picture of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The American Heart Association (AHA) classification grouped cardiomyopathies into genetic, mixed and acquired forms, while the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) classification proposed the subgrouping of each major type of cardiomyopathy into familial or genetic, and nonfamilial or nongenetic, forms [1-4]. Cardiomyopathies are clinically heterogeneous diseases, and there are differences in sex, age of onset, rate of progression, risk of development of overt heart failure and likelihood of sudden death within each cardiomyopathy subtype [5]. Because of the complex etiology and clinical presentation, the diagnostic spectrum in cardiomyopathies spans the entire range of non-invasive and invasive cardiological examination techniques including genetic analysis. The exact verification of certain cardiomyopathies necessitates additional investigations. So, histological, immunohistological and molecular biological/virological investigations of endomyocardial biopsies are the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis of an inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi) [6-10]. This review focuses on myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathies underlying an immune-mediated process or persistent viral infection.
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Occluded superior vena cava and failed epicardial pacing: An unorthodox solution

Published on: 13th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8514668207

Permanent pacemaker implantation is conventionally done via upper limb veins. But in 1% - 6% cases, usual sub clavicular approach is either not possible or contraindicated due to complete occlusion of superior vena cava (SVC) or bilateral subclavian vein and/or bilateral implant site infection or thin skin [1]. Alternative approaches are warranted, including leadless pacemaker or complex lead extraction techniques, before considering surgical epicardial lead placement as a last resort because it has own hazards. We report a patient with complete heart block, total SVC obstruction, and a previously implanted malfunctioning epicardial lead presenting with pacemaker end of life. In view of exhaustion of the surgical option and in a resource constrained situation for lead extraction or leadless pacemaker, transiliac endocardial pacemaker implantation was done and a repeat surgery was averted. Learning objective: Complete venous occlusion is not very often encountered after pacemaker/ICD implantation. Apart from the risk of general anesthesia and invasive surgery, epicardial leads increase battery drain, and have a shorter operating life compared to an endocardial lead. The sparingly utilized iliac venous approach for permanent pacemaker implantation is a valuable, safe and minimally invasive alternative, when the conventional percutaneous access is unavailable, and surgery is undesirable or not possible. 
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Femoral venous closure: A single-centre retrospective analysis in real world all comers with MynxGrip® vascular closure device

Published on: 18th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628667812

Background: Vascular closure devices (VCD) are routinely used to achieve haemostasis following percutaneous arterial procedures. The extravascular polyethylene-glycol based MynxGrip® device (Cardinal Health) received FDA approval for use in the closure of femoral veins, but so far limited data is available on its use, especially with concomitant use of anticoagulants. Method: This is a retrospective analysis of data from a single-centre on the effectiveness and complication rates following the use of the MynxGrip® device for femoral venous closure in patients undergoing diagnostic/interventional (temporary pacing during balloon aortic valvuloplasty, or electrophysiology) procedures utilising 5-7F sheaths. Results: 85 patients (mean age 74 years) underwent femoral venous closure with the MynxGrip® device. 51.8% were male. The rate of concomitant anticoagulant or antiplatelet use was 52.9%. Device deployment was 100% successful with full haemostasis in all cases. There were no major vascular complications (bleeding, thrombosis, or infections). There was one case of a minor small venous hematoma which did not require treatment. The mean length of stay was less than 1 day (67.1% patients discharged the same day) and overnight stay only indicated by interventional procedure. Conclusion: These data support safety and efficacy of the MynxGrip® device for femoral venous closure with same-day discharge, even with concomitant aggressive antiplatelet and anticoagulant use. It has the potential for use in other large bore venous access sites. 
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Acute ischemic stroke management in a patient with ventricular assist device

Published on: 23rd December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872699685

Ventricular assist device is a portable machine which is also called an artificial heart for the patients who have terminal heart failure. The device maintains the heart’s vital functions until the suitable donor is found for the heart transplantation. It can be applied to either ventricles or both (biventricular). Although the device provides independence for the patient, it also has life-threatening complications. Such as infection, stroke secondary to thromboembolism, hemorrhage depending on anticoagulant use, right heart failure… and most of the time it is really hard to manage those complications. We will present a case, who had ischemic stroke as a complication of VAD even though he has been using aspirin, warfarin and had effective INR value.
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Perinatal Morbidity & Mortality following repeat Cesarean section due to five or more previous Cesarean Section done in Tertiary centre in KSA

Published on: 31st July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7815122185

Objectives: To highlight and determine the maternal and neonatal outcome and associated risks for patients who have undergone their 6th and more caesarean sections. Design: Case control study. Setting: Tertiary Centre (Security Forces Hospital – Riyadh – Saudi Arabia). Patients: 80 patients selected to study group who have undergone their sixth and more caesarean sections in Security Forces Hospital. Between June 2006 and May 2010. This group was compared to 80 patients who have undergone their third to fifth caesarean sections during the same time period and immediately following the studied case. Main outcome measured: Age and parity of women in study and the control group were correlated with the number of previous caesarean sections. Intra operative and post-operative maternal complications including presence and grade of adhesions, intra partum and postpartum hemorrhage, use of measurement and methods (both medical and surgical) to control bleeding such as Bakry balloon, Internal iliac artery ligation, etc., were highlighted. Bowel injury, blood transfusion, admission to surgical intensive care, incidence of placenta previa and accreta, post-operative complications like paralytic ileus, wound infection were also noted. Further, neonatal outcome including birth weight, Apgar score, and need for neonatal intensive care unit admission were reviewed. Results: Patients in the study group had higher incidence of extensive adhesions (41.25%) compared to (12.25%) in the control group. Bowel injury was (2.5%) in study group with none in the control group. The incidence of placenta previa was (8.75%) in the study group as compared to (2.5%) in the control group, with placenta accreta complicating (28.57%) of placenta previa seen only in the study group. Blood transfusion was higher in the study group (20%) as compared to (5%) in the control group. Neonatal admission to NICU was higher in the study group (27.5%) in comparison to the control group (12.5%). Also birth weight was lower in the study group. Conclusion: The more the number of caesarean sections, the more the maternal and neonatal morbidity. Patients should have proper counselling during antenatal follow up about the risks of repeated caesarean sections, and offered bilateral tubal ligation after the third or fourth caesarean sections.
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Investigation on Theileria lestoquardi infection among sheep and goats in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan

Published on: 6th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325431938

This study was conducted in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan during August-September 2015 to study the seroprevalence of ovine and caprine theileriosis and to identify the tick infesting sheep and goats. For this purpose, total of 150 samples (ticks, blood smear and sera) were collected from sheep (n=61) and goats (n=89) of different age groups, breed and both sex. Three age groups were included: less than one-year-old, one-two years-old and more than two-year-old. Two diagnostic techniques were used, blood smears, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Out of 150 samples, 9 (6%) were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in blood smears, and 81 (54%) were positive for Theileria lestoquardi antibodies. Out of 61 sheep, 3 (4.9%) were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms, and 25 (41%) were positive for T. lestoquardi antibodies. Out of 89 goats, 6 (6.7%) were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms, and 56 (62.9%) were positive for T. lestoquardi antibodies. The highest prevalence of T. lestoquardi was recorded among sheep and goats more than two-year-old. Two genera and 4 species of ticks were infested sheep and goats. These included Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, R. s. sanguineus, Amblyomma variegatum and A. lepidum. The study concluded that the malignant ovine theileriosis is endemic in Nyala town.
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Efficacies of 11% Lactoferricin and 0.05% Chlorhexidine Otological Solution compared, in the treatment of microbial otic overgrowth: A randomized single blinded study

Published on: 4th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325011971

Background:Topical therapy with antimicrobial agents is used in otitis treatment. Due to increase of antibiotic resistance, new strategies are needed. Antiseptics are used but they may induce contact dermatitis. Natural antimicrobial peptides may represent future effective drugs. Objectives:The objectives were to test the efficacy of an 11% lactoferricin otological solution (LCF) in bacterial and yeasts otic overgrowth and compare LCF with a commercial one containing chlorhexidine (CLX) 0.05%. Materials and methods:Forty-one dogs diagnosed with bacterial or yeasts otitis overgrowths were included according to general good practice. They were randomly assigned to lactoferricin or chlorhexidine group for treatment. Otological solution were applied twice a day for a week and then daily for another week. Clinical and cytological score was assessed at day 1 and day 14. At the end of the study, the owners had to express an opinion on the overall efficacy of the products. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilkoxon’s test and T test for paired samples. Results in lesional and cytological score were significative with a p<0.05. Results:Forty dogs completed the study. All cases, receiving lactoferricin or chlorhexidine, were successfully treated with clinical signs remission and regression of infection (p<0.05). The owners’ judgment was good in 87%, mild in 13% for LCF group. For CLX they scored good in 41%, mild in 24% and unuseful in 35% of cases. Conclusions:Lactoferricin, an antimicrobial natural peptide, showed the same efficacy of chlorhexidine in the treatment of otitis characterized by bacterial or/and yeast overgrowth.
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Zoonotic potential of Giardia lamblia and control of giardiasis

Published on: 7th February, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8005444774

Giardia is the most common pathogenic intestinal flagellate protozoan in the world. The most studied species is Giardia lamblia (syn. Giardia intestinalis, Giardia duodenalis) that infects mammals, including humans. About the other seven species the scientific literature is very scarce and little is known about its characteristics and epidemiological importance. The exception is Giardia muris species that is frequently used in experimental infection to attempt to understand the parasite-host interaction in G. lamblia infection [1].
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Use of the Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for differential detection of two lineages of the canine distemper virus in Chile

Published on: 4th March, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8056345040

Worldwide, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infection is a highly prevalent disease with high morbidity and mortality. CDV causes a multisystemic disease in a wide range of hosts including 9 families of mammals among them some primates, cetaceans and numerous carnivores. It presents a high tropism for lymphoid, neurological and epithelial tissue, leading to an infection of almost all systems, so the clinical signs observed are very varied. The diagnosis is made based on the clinical presentation of the disease, which considers a variety of signs and must be confirmed by a laboratory diagnostic method. The molecular technique called Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to characterize viral strains based on the basis of genetic differences on the hemagglutinin (H) gene of CDV has allowed the identification of 14 circulating lineages in the world. Two lineages, namely the America-1 and the Europe-1/South America-1 have been described in Chile. The goal of this work was to implement a multiplex RT-PCR protocol, which was built on the in silico design of primers based on the H gene nucleotide sequences stored in the Genbank® database. This method was capable of detecting the previously described two circulating genetic lineages of CDV in a differential way providing a supporting diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies in the country. These results suggest that the primers described here are extremely selective for the above-mentioned lineages. In addition, our initial screening indicated that most analyzed clinical samples corresponded to the America-1 lineage, stressing the need for a continuous surveillance in order to properly address the prevalence of both lineages in Chile.
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Prevalence and seasonal variations of eggs of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of goats from smallholder farms in Mozambique

Published on: 23rd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8206561393

A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and seasonal variations of eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats in four provinces of Mozambique, from November 2016 to October 2017 in Tete and Cabo Delgado, and from November 2016 to October 2018 in Maputo and Gaza. In each province, flocks were selected from both lowlands, located within the valleys of the rivers, and uplands which are located outside the valleys. Faecal samples were collected at monthly intervals to monitor faecal egg counts fluctuations. The modified McMaster technique was used for quantitative analysis of nematode eggs and for detecting cestode eggs in faecal samples. The sedimentation technique for detecting trematode eggs in faecal samples was used. A total of 2 703 samples were examined for nematode eggs and 2 587 for trematode eggs. Faecal examination indicated that between 18% and 100% of goats sampled were infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes. The prevalence varied according to the season of the year and the ecological conditions. The highest prevalence and worm egg counts were recorded at about the peak of the rainy season. Strongyloides papillosus, Calicophoron spp., Fasciola spp. and Schistosoma mattheei eggs were also found. Moniezia expansa and Moniezia benedeni eggs were found in all the four study areas but its prevalence was low and irregular. Based on the results of this study, which showed a clear seasonal pattern, strategic anthelmintic medications to effectively control helminth infections in goats in the different ecological zones of Mozambique are suggested.
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Immediate postplacental insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device (copper 375) and its complications in term of expulsion, infection and perforation

Published on: 27th December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7964701690

Objective: To determine the complications (infection, perforation and expulsion rate) of immediate postplacental insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device (Multiload Copper375) in postnatal patients. Methods: A case series study was conducted between October 28, 2014 to April 30, 2018 in obstetrics and gynaecology department, Civil Hospital Karachi,-+ Informed consent was taken. Intrauterine contraceptive device (Multiload) was inserted immediately within 10 min after delivery of placenta. These women were observed to determine outcome (infection, perforation and expulsion) at the time of discharge and 6 weeks postpartum. Absence of all these were taken as satisfactory outcome. Results: A total of 435 women were included in this study. 165 (38%) were delivered through cesarean section and 270 (62%) were delivered through vaginally. There were 36 (8.3%) cases of infection. The cumulative rate of expulsion and perforation at the end of sixth week of post insertion was 39 (9%) and 0% respectively and 360 (82.8%) had satisfactory outcome. Post-placental placements during cesarean delivery are associated with lower expulsion rates than post-placental vaginal insertions without increasing rates of postoperative complications like perforation, slightly increase infection rate following vaginal delivery. Conclusions: Immediate postpartum insertion of IUCD is an effective, safe and easily reversible method of contraception. Rates of the complications (Infection, expulsion and perforation) are remarkably low.
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Nebulization as complementary therapy for dogs with respiratory tract infections

Published on: 4th October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8299739396

Respiratory tract infections in dogs pose a significant problem and often require prolonged treatment. The effectiveness of pharmacological therapy can be improved through the administration of nebulized compounds to liquidize mucus and promote its evacuation from the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nebulized 0.9% NaCl in dogs with respiratory tract infections. Respiratory functions were assessed based on the results of arterial blood gas analyses, and the patients’ clinical status was determined by evaluating the severity of symptoms on a point grading scale. Inhalation of nebulized 0.9% NaCl significantly accelerated improvement in the patents’ clinical status (normalization of body temperature, decreased cough frequency, decrease/elimination of nasal and ocular discharge, improved appetite) and improved pulmonary gas exchange by reducing partial pressure and total content of carbon dioxide and increasing partial pressure and total content of oxygen in blood.
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Infection Control Mechanisms Employed by Dental Laboratories to Prevent Infection of their Dental Technicians/Technologists

Published on: 30th November, 2016

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286428022

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance to infection control of various dental laboratories in Durban. Study design: This was a qualitative survey. Setting: Dental laboratories in Durban area, South Africa. Subject: Registered laboratory technicians. Study methodology: Convenient random sampling method was used. Results: There was poor compliance to infection control procedures by most dental laboratories. Majority, 66.67%, of the dental laboratories relied on dental clinics for disinfection of dental impressions; therefore, they did not disinfect the impressions. On the other hand, only 33.33% carried out disinfection of dental impressions on their own. A high number (53.3%) of the respondents had disinfection areas within their dental laboratories, 6.7% had no disinfection areas while 40% depended upon dental clinics for all disinfections. About 60% of the dental technicians had valid vaccinations against Hepatitis B Virus while 40% had no vaccination against HBV. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there was substantial nonconformity to infection control measure in all dental laboratories. There should be comprehensive inspection of dental laboratories prior to licensing and thereafter by the South African Dental Technician Council’s inspectors to ensure that all dental laboratories comply with the various infection control measures.
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Clinical Case: Necrotizing Fasciitis of the neck after surgery of a Mandibular Radicular Cyst

Published on: 24th November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7379455745

Necrotizing fasciitis is a quickly progressing soft tissue infection that can be described with diffuse necrosis of subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia. The cause of this can be infectious process of odontogenic origin, most commonly caused by mixed gram+ and gram- , aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that are found in patients that are predisposed to infections. In a case of undiagnosed illness, there is a possibility of life threatening complications. This case analysis introduces the diagnostic criteria of the disease and treatment plan, encouraging doctors to devote more attention to prevention of infections. 
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Assessment of the effect of cigarette smoking on the different denture base material

Published on: 13th August, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8235041431

Background: The present study was conducted to assess effect of cigarette smoking on different denture base material. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Prosthodontics. A total of sixty wax specimens in the shape of circular discs were prepared. These were divided into two groups. Group I (30) specimens were heat‑cured denture base materials and group II (30) specimens were flexible denture base materials. Both specimens were further divided into four subgroups of 15 each. Subgroup I was heat‑cured denture base material specimens (control group), subgroup II was flexible denture base material specimens (control group), subgroup III was heat‑cured denture base material specimens exposed to cigarette smoking (study group) and subgroup IV was flexible denture base material specimens exposed to cigarette smoking (study group). The initial (IRa) and final (FRa) surface roughness was measured before and after smoking test of the specimens. Results: It was observed that in group I, mean IR (µm) value was 0.182 and FR value was 0.572. In group II, mean IR (µm) value was 0.265 and FR value was 0.831. In group III, mean IR (µm) value was 0.195 and FR value was 1.892. In group IV, mean IR (µm) value was 0.291 and FR value was 1.892. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The surface roughness of the specimens fabricated from the flexible denture base material was found to be more compared to heat‑cured denture base specimens after exposure to cigarette smoke. There is need to educate the patients regarding cleanliness of denture to avoid infection in the oral cavity.
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Maternal mortality and factors affecting it, among pregnant women in Abeokuta South, Nigeria

Published on: 2nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8185504249

This observational study assessed the knowledge of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at two selected hospitals in Abeokuta South, Nigeria on the causes and risk factors of maternal mortality, identified barriers to knowledge acquisition, and examined the influence of parity of respondents on their knowledge of factors causing maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is extremely high in Nigeria, it is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Descriptive research design was used in this study and qualitative data from 136 respondents selected randomly, were obtained through a self-designed questionnaire that comprised three sections. Data were analyzed and indicated that parity of the pregnant women do not have an influence on their knowledge of factors responsible for maternal mortality. Findings revealed that majority (67.6%) of the respondents had high knowledge on the causes of maternal mortality – haemorrhage, sepsis, prolonged/obstructed labour, anaemia, unsafe abortion, infection, hypertensive disorders, care rendered by unskilled medical practitioners and its risk factors - parity, poverty, place of last delivery and low attendance at antenatal clinic. Educational background, marital status, irregular antenatal visits, socio-cultural practices and occupational status were identified as barriers to knowledge acquisition. This paper concluded that pregnant women may have a high knowledge about the factors responsible for maternal mortality. This is probably due to the fact that all respondents had formal education and because they were interviewed on antenatal clinic days, which suggests that they might have heard about the causes and risk factors for maternal mortality during their visits. Authors recommended that government should employ qualified health professionals and provide medical subsidy, it is hoped that this will ensure that pregnant women get quality care throughout the period of pregnancy and delivery.
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Management of temporomandibudar joint ankylosis with costo-chondral graft application: Case report and review of literature

Published on: 27th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560390804

Introduction: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is one of the most disruptive anomaly that affects the masticatory system and is referred as permanent movement disfunction of the mandible caused by bilateral or unilateral fibrous or bony adhesions and create problems. The etiology is congenital or idiopathic and include trauma, arthritis, infection, previous TMJ surgery etc. Management requires extensive resection of the ankylotic mass and reconstruction of the ramus-condyle unit with autogenous or alloplastic grafts. Most of the time, combination of surgical treatment with physiotherapy is needed in order to achieve maximum rehabilitation and functionality of the mandible. Purpose: The aim of this study is to present the surgical management of an unusual case of unilateral TMJ ankylosis and recent of literature review. Case report: A thirty-seven-year old patient reported unable moving his lower jaw. Clinical examination revealed unilateral TMJ ankylosis of congenital cause and the lateral movement of the mandible was impossible. The patient surgical treatment included resection of the newly formed bone mass, replacement of the condyle with costo-chondral graft and replaced of articular disc with the temporal fascia. Since and for ten years after surgery the patient shows no signs of relapse. Conclusion: The development of TMJ ankylosis may be congenital or acquired etiology. In order to manage it required a comprehensive clinical and radiographic examination. Surgical resection of the bone and coronoid process on the entire side is necessary and a graft that mimics the articular disc is placed, while it is necessary the immediate postoperative kinesiotherapy.
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