Concussion occurs with some frequency in a variety of sports. Any trauma to the brain can also result in temporary or chronic olfactory dysfunction. The relationship between sports concussion and olfactory dysfunction is not well studied, nor do we know whether only more severe injuries result in smell impairments. Three sports players who had previously experienced either a moderate or severe concussion were compared to matched controls. Only the player with a previous severe concussion had a current olfactory impairment. We tentatively suggest that the distinction between moderate and severe concussion may represent a possible cut-off between the presence and absence of olfactory impairment in sports players.
Background: SCI Action Canada partnered with researchers to adapt an evidence-based leisure-time physical activity (LPTA) counselling service (Get-in-Motion (GIM). A satellite GIM service called Passez à l’action was established within a French-speaking context for persons with physical disabilities. An understanding of the determinants that infl uenced the implementation and functioning of the GIM service within the Adaptavie context are required to maximize the potential of other community-based LTPA services being successfully introduced in similar organizations.
Purpose: The case study objectives are to: 1) describe the characteristics and implementation contexts of two leisure-time physical activity counselling services for Canadians with a physical disability and the adoption process that took place when the protocol was translated to a new context, and 2) elucidate, from the point of view of the service providers, the organizational determinants that could have facilitated and/or hindered the implementation and functioning of these services.
Methods: Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, focus groups were held with the directors and staff of each service. Mixed-content and thematic analyses were then used to determine overarching themes.
Results: Findings suggest that the presence of service innovators fosters ownership of the service and facilitates ongoing staff training and support. A thoughtful implementation plan should be included as a component of translation between contexts.
Conclusions: Lessons learned and recommendations for future translation of similar evidence-based services to additional contexts are discussed.
In recent years, the increasing number of patients with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders seeking timely, intensive, prolonged and task oriented hospital- and home- based physical rehabilitation, and the decreasing numbers of trained therapist to provide the needed care, have left a palpable gab. These have resulted in several preventable deformities with associated complications leading to social and economic burdens. Although the introduction of some robotic devices has addressed some of these concerns, the shortfalls from the use of these devices limit their effectiveness. The newly introduced hand rehabilitation board (Dominic’s Board) was prospectively evaluated in 82 patients with ULMDs of different etiologies to assess its therapeutic efficacy in rehabilitation of ULMDs. Additive, but complementary effect was observed when used along with conventional hospital-based therapy and at home, suggesting the effectiveness of this device in preventing or ameliorating the complications associated with ULMDs.
Background: Experimentally-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness of large muscle groups is frequently used in as an injurious model of muscle pain. We wanted to develop an experimental model of DOMS to to mimic overuse injuries from sports where repeated finger flexion activity is vital such as rock climbing. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a ‘finger trigger device’ to induce DOMS in the fingers, hands, wrists and lower arms.
Methods: A convenient sample of six participants completed an experiment in which they undertook finger exercises to exhaustion after which measurements of pain, skin sensitivity to fine touch, forearm circumference and grip strength in the hand, wrist and forearm were taken from the experimental and contralateral non-exercised (control) arms.
Results: Pain intensity was greater in the experimental arm at rest and on movement when compared with the control arm up to 24 hours after exercise, although the location of pain varied between participants. Pressure pain threshold was significantly lower in the experimental arm compared with the control arm immediately after exercises locations close to the medial epicondyle but not at other locations. There were no statistical significant differences between affected and non-affected limbs for mechanical detection threshold, forearm circumference or grip strength.
Conclusion: Repetitive finger flexion exercises of the index finger by pulling a trigger against a resistance can induced DOMS. We are currently undertaking a more detailed characterization of sensory and motor changes following repetitive finger flexion activity using a larger sample.
Time-efficient screening of lower extremity biomechanics to identify potential injurious movement patterns is crucial within athletic medicine settings. When considering biomechanical risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injuries, several screening tests have been used to assess dynamic knee valgus. Current methods involving 3-dimensional motion capture systems are considered gold standard for such assessment; however, these methods are time consuming and require expensive materials. This study investigated the use of 2-dimentional kinematic evaluation during a standardized vertical jump athletic assessment to screen for potential lower extremity risk of injury. 50 collegiate athletes, 25 male and 25 female, from various sports participated in the study. The vertical jump was chosen because it is a common performance evaluation test that is regularly performed several times a year, providing consistent opportunities for screening while not creating additional obligations for the student athletes. Results showed that the 2-dimentional evaluation method had strong correlations (P<0.0001) with the gold standard 3-dimensional evaluation, suggesting that an accelerated 2-dimentional screening process can be used as a first step to screen for potential injurious lower extremity movement patterns.
Background: There is paucity in studies reporting long-term results following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. A UK national ligament registry (NLR) designed to collect demographic, clinical and outcome data on patients undergoing ACL reconstruction was launched in 2013. There was therefore an emergent question on the role of such registry as an additional source of evidence.
Study aims: A framework analysis aimed to provide a basis for the evaluation of outcomes following ACL management and formulate a structure of the evidence, which can be derived from the registry.
Methods: A systematic approach was adopted to select relevant studies. Qualitative thematic and meta-narrative analyses were conducted. Level-1 registry data were recorded for all primary ACL reconstruction procedures from January to June 2016. Registry data content and validity were evaluated.
Results: Seven studies were suitable for analyses yet none defined the pattern of meniscal injury following initial treatment. When reported the incidence varied markedly between 23% and 80%. There was evidence of collection of at least one principal outcome measure in at least 85% of participants across all studies. Thematic analysis identified four key domains of outcome measures (1) intervention selection, (2) Knee stability evaluation, (3) Patient reported outcomes, (4) Radiographic evaluation and risk of secondary osteoarthritis. Graft choice, rate of meniscal and chondral injuries and cumulative risk of revision surgery had incomplete and inconsistent reports. Comparison of demographic and clinical data with the first registry report demonstrated: predominately younger patient population; older female patients at time of intervention; and higher incidence of meniscal tears.
Conclusions: Registry data driven quality and research improvement open a new paradigm in ACL reconstruction evidence base and future practice. Early observations have consolidated the importance of associated meniscal injuries in the management of ACL rupture. Further work is needed to improve registry data completeness, accuracy and validity. A proposed data migration process using available technologies can help harmonise data collection without the added burden on clinical services.
Background: With the development of sports science and badminton equipment, the roles of badminton shoes, such as to alter lower - extremity biomechanical parameters, prevent sports injuries and enhance performance, were confirmed by a mass of studies.
Methods: In this study, a serial of methods including literature review, visualization analysis, mathematical statistics, are used to describe the progresses of the badminton shoes relate to exercise in some training aspects, which can be searched by CNKI and SCOPUS databases.
Results: Among the exiting research, most mainly focused on evaluation and design of badminton shoes, sports injuries and performance, some have tested and verified the roles mechanism of badminton shoes. However, there are still some disadvantages to can’t ignore, such as the quantities of studies the designed level and the mechanism exploration.
Conclusions: To sum up, the roles of the badminton shoes in sports training still need to be explored and confirmed.
Background: To determine the spectrum of shoulder pathologies suffered by surfers.
Methods: Prospective descriptive study. Surfers with shoulder injuries who were referred to a sub-speciality orthopaedic shoulder private practice situated on the Northern beaches of Sydney (Australia) were recruited over a three-year period.
Results: 42 shoulders in 37 subjects were included-12 acute injuries (29.3%), 9 acute on chronic (22%) and 20 chronic injuries. Average age 48 years (range 20-72 years). Seventeen subjects (46%) had manual occupations and 20 subjects (54%) had office-based occupations. Spectrum of pathologies included rotator cuff tendon tears, long head of biceps tendon pathology, labral tears, acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis.
Discussion: There is a wide spectrum of acute and chronic shoulder injuries sustained by surfers. The most common presentation was for chronic pathology. The average age of 48 suggests that age may play a role in attritional/degenerative change and therefore an increased likelihood of injury.
Arlene Silverio, Scott Briggs, Lisena Hasanaj, Jeffrey Hurd Jr, Max Lahn, Liliana Serrano, Lucy Cobbs, Jenelle Raynowska, Rachel Nolan, Joel Birkemeier, Dennis Cardone, Steven L Galetta and Laura J Balcer*
Identifying concussion and initiating removal from play is challenging for even the most diligent youth sports organizations. Empowering parents to implement removal from play protocols and sideline testing may be the most practical plan at community levels to protect young athletes. We developed paradigms for community-based youth sports teams that incorporated both standard concussion protocols and research investigations. The research studies were designed to determine how sideline tests of vision, cognition and balance augment the capacity for parents and other responsible adults to identify youth athletes with concussion in ice hockey, football, lacrosse and cheerleading. Research-based sideline tests were performed at pre-season baseline sessions and during the season at the time of injury or as soon as symptoms were recognized by trained volunteer parent team testers. The combination of standard concussion protocols and research studies were performed for 510 athletes, aged 5-17 years, over 2.5 years through 5 athletic seasons. To implement the protocols and studies, approximately 80 student volunteers and parents were educated and trained on early concussion recognition and on baseline and sideline test administration. Over 80% of parent-identified head injuries were physician-confirmed concussions. Of the sideline tests performed, over two-thirds were administered within 24 hours of injury; the rest were performed within an average of 2.6 days post-injury since some athletes had delayed development of symptoms. Removal from play guidelines and standard concussion evaluation protocols were maintained in the context of the sideline testing research investigations. Based on this observational study, parents of youth athletes can be successfully empowered to perform rapid sideline tests in the context of existing concussion protocols. Implementation of objective testing may improve concussion identification and shift the culture of advocacy and responsibility towards parent groups to promote safety of young athletes. Ongoing investigations will further examine the impact of these programs on concussion management in youth sports.
Blunt chest trauma leads to a wide range of lesions, relatively minor parietal injuries to potentially fatal cardiac lesions, making diagnosis and management difficult. The diagnosis is currently facilitated by imaging, however, these lesions may go unnoticed and be discovered late through complications.
We report the case of a neglected heart wound revealed by a heart failure. This case is notable due to a favourable outcome despite a delay in diagnosis due to a lack of pericardial effusion and the absence of cardiac symptoms, and a long delay from injury to appropriate treatment in the presence of a penetrating cardiac wound deep enough to cause a muscular ventricular septal defect and lacerate the anterior mitral leaflet.
Approximately 30,000 ankle injuries occur every day in the United States. With the incidence estimated at more than 3 million a year and at a rate of 2.15/1,000 in the U.S. alone, medical specialists and other healthcare providers caring for the foot and ankle must take notice. Despite the millions of ankle injuries sustained annually, the true incidence may be underestimated, as fewer than half of individuals with ankle sprains seek medical attention from healthcare professionals. The economic burden associated with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is close to $4 billion annually. Ankle sprains account for half of all sports injuries and remains a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is critical as 40% of ankle sprains are misdiagnosed or poorly treated leading to chronic ankle pain and disability. Implementing evidence supported diagnostic and treatment strategies is the goal for ensuring safe and rapid return to play.
The Lateral Ankle Sprain (LAS) is among the most common type of ankle sprains suffered during athletic activities. Up to 80% of LAS are of the inversion type, and 75% lead to recurrence and instability. Although most individuals experiencing a LAS return to activity within six weeks, many report continued pain, diminished function, and instability.
The purpose of this review is to highlight the epidemiology, pathoetiology, pathoanatomy, and biomechanics of the LAS, enabling sports physicians to implement the best practice guidelines and protocols to manage this common enigma.
Despite its high incidence and the great development of literature, there is still controversy about the optimal management of Achilles tendon rupture. The several techniques proposed to treat acute ruptures can essentially be classified into: conservative management (cast immobilization or functional bracing), open repair, minimally invasive technique and percutaneous repair with or without augmentation. Although chronic ruptures represent a different chapter, the ideal treatment seems to be surgical too (debridement, local tissue transfer, augmentation and synthetic grafts). In this paper we reviewed the literature on acute injuries.
Statement of the problem: Anterior tooth fracture, as a result of traumatic injuries, frequently occurs in dentistry. This leads to necrosis of pulp and periapical pathology. The goal of endodontic and restorative dentistry is to retain natural teeth with maximum function and pleasing esthetics.
Purpose of the study: This study aimed at proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth through the procedure known as “Biological Restoration.”
Materials and methods: Biological post obtained through natural, extracted teeth from another individual represents a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of damaged anterior teeth that provides highly functional and esthetic outcomes.
Conclusions: This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of mandibular left lateral incisor after non-surgical healing of periradicular lesion.
Background and Purpose: Injuries for the pre-adolescent female Irish Dancer (FID) are not well recognized. The purpose of this case study is to report imaging assisted diagnosis and management of atypical medial and plantar foot pain (MPFP) in an 8-year-old FID.
Description: The patient presented with chief complaint of diffuse left MPFP. The patient was initially evaluated by a Physical Therapist for persistent foot pain. The patient experienced minimal pain in non-weightbearing (NWB). Pain intensified in weightbearing (WB) escalating with a heel raise. The patient experienced pain with resistance testing, ankle passive range of motion (PROM) and first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) PROM. Diffuse tenderness with palpation over the medial column of the left foot was noted. The patient was unable to complete single leg dynamic activity on the left foot. There was suspicion for a metatarsal stress fracture (MSF). Radiographs were ordered and read as negative. The patient was treated with immobilization in a walking boot, WB as tolerated and relative rest including cessation of dance. The patient returned for re-evaluation 2 weeks after reporting no change in symptoms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was then ordered.
Outcome: Results of the MRI identified 2 stress fractures in the first metatarsal. The treatment plan changed to NWB status with immobilization for an additional 6 weeks. The patient returned to full WB status and participated in all dance activity 15 weeks after the initial presentation to the Physician and 27 weeks after the initial onset of MPFP.
Discussion/Conclusion: In this pre-adolescent FID, the presentation of MPFP can be misinterpreted as a soft tissue injury. It is important to consider the diagnosis of first MSF in a pre-adolescent FID to allow appropriate management.
Background: Proximal humerus fractures (PHFs) are common injuries particularly in older adults. Evidence-based protocols for PHF rehabilitation are lacking and physiotherapists use a variety of interventions.
Purpose: To determine practice patterns and perceptions of physiotherapists who treat adults with PHF in Ontario, Canada.
Method: A paper and pencil survey asking about respondent demographics and management of Neer Group 1 (minimally/nondisplaced) and complex (displaced 3- and 4-part) PHF was mailed to 875 randomly selected physiotherapists who were registered with the College of Physiotherapists of Ontario in 2013/2014 and working in practice areas likely to be accessed by adults with PHF.
Results: The response rate was low (10%); 83 physiotherapists completed the survey - 80% had experience managing PHF. Respondents treated 1-5 individuals with PHF annually; more treated Neer Group 1 PHF (89%) than complex PHF (68%). Most individuals with PHF were older than 60 years (64%), female (76%) and accessed physiotherapy through a doctor’s referral (91%) more than 1 month post injury (33%).
Main findings: Physiotherapists manage PHF using multi-component interventions and a minimum of 76% include the following elements: education and progression of passive, active assisted, active range of motion exercises and muscle retraining to build coordination and strength. Use of other elements was variable. The main factors influencing the treatment plan were the ability of the individual with PHF to comply, bone quality, and fracture type. Most respondents were unsure that there is sufficient PHF rehabilitation literature to guide treatment.
Conclusions:This environmental scan is the first North American study to document practice patterns and attitudes of physiotherapists providing PHF rehabilitation. Elements used by physiotherapists in Ontario treating small numbers of individuals with Neer Group 1 or complex PHFs each year align well with the limited PHF rehabilitation literature available.
Potential implications:Multi-disciplinary collaborations to design and conduct large, high quality, multi-centre prognostic studies and RCTs that evaluate the effectiveness of key aspects of non-surgical PHF rehabilitation in various patient groups are needed. Meanwhile, consensus guidelines should be developed in the context of region-specific physiotherapy service models to inform best practice in PHF rehabilitation management.
Introduction: Ankle sprain is a widespread impairment in sport groups; this impairment leads to an absence from the workplace. The ankle sprains incidence rates are induced by height, weight, BMI, physical fitness, level of match, classification of sport, and personal exposure to sport.
Methods: A longitudinal case-control study was executed to verify the outcome of risk factors for ankle sprain at a Military Male School between 2012 and 2013 of 4987 people at risk for ankle sprain, a total of 234 cadets sustained new ankle sprains during the study, 432 non-injured cadets randomly selected as the control group.
Results: Regarding to the total people at risk in our study the incidence rate was approximately 5/1000 ankle sprain-years. Cadets with ankle sprains had higher weight, BMI and higher scores in Army Physical Fitness test than the control group. Ankle sprain occurred most commonly during athletics (51.4%). Ankle sprain incidence rate did not significantly vary from different athletic competitions after controlling for athlete-exposure. Soccer and Ball Games had the highest ankle sprain incidence rate.
Conclusion: Higher weight, increased BMI, greater physical conditioning and athlete exposure to selected sports were all risk factors for ankle sprain.
Background: Corneal injuries are significant contributors to blindness. Cornea being the most anterior structure of eye is exposed to various hazards like airborne debris and blunt trauma. By understanding different types of injuries to which cornea is exposed, the practitioner maybe more capable in managing injuries to minimise structural and visual sequelae.
Objectives: To study various patterns of corneal injuries and its visual outcome among patients of ocular trauma in a tertiary care hospital.
Methods: Study of 100 cases of corneal injuries wherein patients were treated according to injury type and followed up for 4 months. Results: Majority of patients belonged to working population between age groups 21-65 years. Most patients suffered from corneal abrasions while the least common were perforating and lacerating injuries. Alkali injuries were more common than acid injuries. Most patient presented within 24 hours and had only epithelial defects. Therefore, the number of patients receiving conservative management was higher than those receiving surgical intervention.
Conclusion: Most common causes of blindness and low vision in our study was full thickness corneal laceration and corneal abrasions, foreign body injuries affecting the pupillary area and involving anterior or mid stroma causing nebular or macular grade opacities hampering vision.
Background: Corneal abrasions are a common result of eye trauma. Corneal injuries are very common in both the adult and pediatric population and account for a significant proportion of the workload of most emergency departments. Although abrasion heals well with preservative treatment, it still causes pain and job lost. The abrasion result from the scrabble of the corneal epithelium. These injuries cause pain, tearing, lids spasm, light scare, foreign body sensation, decreased visual acuity/blurring, and a gritty feeling. The light, friction & wink was worse the condition. Most abrasion cure within 24-27 hours and seldom proceed to erosion or infection. The study aims to use bandage soft contact lens [BSCL] as a primary treatment for traumatic corneal abrasion [TCA] instead of traditionally use pressure patch [PP].
Patients and methods: The present prospective study has been conducted on 50 patients attending the out-patient department of ophthalmology in an Alyarmouk teaching hospital for six months after taking ethical permission. Before subjecting the patient to the treatment of bandage soft contact lens therapy, a detailed clinical history and thorough local examination have been done. A history indicating the occurrence of recent ocular trauma followed by severe pain, redness, lids spasm, photophobia, and tearing of the involved eye is suggestive of a corneal abrasion. Always we ask about contact lens wear as this can complicate the presence of an abrasion. To confirm the diagnosis of traumatic corneal abrasion we examine the cornea by slit-lamp under cobalt-blue filtered light after the application of tetracaine eye drops & fluorescein strips. The treatment of 50 consecutive patients presenting with traumatic corneal abrasion has been treated with anesthetic eye drop (tetracaine 0.5%) to relieve pain and lids spasm, antibiotic eye drop (ofloxacin 0.3%), therapeutic bandage soft contact lens was applied to provide pain relief and once again act as a splint to promote epithelial healing, then visual acuity was measured by Snellen chart, a cycloplegic eye drop (cyclopentolate 1%) was applied to relieve ciliary spasm & then preservative-free lubricant eye drop were applied lastly. This criterion dramatically relieves most, if not all of the pain the patient may be experiencing (which is a big plus for the patient and earns instantaneous trust), but it also allows the patient to return to work/school or any other daily activities. Patients have been evaluated after 24hours, 72hours and after 1week regarding pain, visual acuity, and complications. Though pressure patch [PP] occasionally advice in abrasion therapy, it does not assist and may prevent recovery. Employ the protective eyewear can preclude the traumatic corneal abrasion.
Results: A total of 50 cases were enrolled in our study during the study period of 6 months. Out of 50 patients, there were 30males and 20 females and the male/female ratio was 3:2. The patient’s age was ranged from 5-35years. The commonest cause of injury was direct minor trauma (80% of cases), with cosmetic & optical contact lenses related problems accounting for 20% of presentations, visual acuity was documented correctly in 90% of adult and pediatric group and difficult to documented in children less than 6-year-old 10%. Traumatic corneal abrasion treated with bandage soft contact lens has an apparent advantage over the traditional pressure patch in terms of reduced pain, speedier healing, and an advantage of faster rehabilitation, facilitation epithelial healing, and proper surface hydration. Evaluation of pain revealed sufficient comfort with this regimen, allowing 45 patients (90%) to go back immediately to their occupations. Moreover, visual function is retained without any complication. Healing of the traumatic corneal abrasion occurred within 1 to 3 days in all patients, with minimal or no pain. The infection did not occur at the time of the follow up. We remove the bandage soft contact lens after 1 week to allow epithelial migration and attachment without the interference of the shearing forces of the upper lid.
Conclusion: The use of bandage soft contact lens as a primary treatment for a traumatic corneal abrasion is a safe and effective method with anesthetic eye drop (tetracaine 0.5%), antibiotic eye drop (ofloxacin 0. 3%), cycloplegic eye drop (cyclopentolate 1%), preservative-free lubricant drop instead of traditionally pressure patch. Bandage soft contact lens causes dramatic improvement from pain, lid spasm, tearing & visual function is retained without any complication, and patients can immediately resume their regular activities.
Siekmann H*, Becherer L, Neef R, Kunath T and Florian Radetzki
Published on: 20th November, 2018
Introduction: Fractures of both the anterior and posterior pelvic ring are common injuries in polytrauma and the elderly that extend beyond those of simple low-impact trauma. While conventional X-rays predominantly show the ventral aspect of the injury, computed tomography often detect additional fractures of the sacrum. A large number of these fractures are B-injuries by AO, mainly compression fractures at an advanced age. In addition, the prevalence of pelvic insufficiency fractures caused by osteoporosis rather than subsequent to an obvious trauma is increasing, with such an injury often associated with pain that impairs mobilization. The standard sacroiliac screw fixation is often characterized by loosening and thus failure of the osteosynthesis especially in osteoporotic bone of elderly patients.
Method: A new alternative surgical minimal invasive technique, the “iliosacral bridging”, stabilizes the fractures of the sacrum with an internal fixation from S1 pedicle of the uninjured side to the ilium on the affected side. The combination of this internal fixation with the standard single sacroiliac screw on the injured side allows an immediate full weight bearing and pain free mobilization. We present a case series of 8 patients.
Results: The clinical and radiological analysis analogous to the pelvic-outcome-score brought forward that 2 patients showed an excellent and 2 patient a good result. The other 4 patients achieved sufficient results.
Conclusions: The “iliosacral bridging” we have introduced in the present study provides evidence of an expected increased stability of the pelvis after B-injuries
Due to laparoscopic cholecystectomy there is increase in the bile duct injuries. It was 0.2% to 0.4% during open opposed to 0.6% to 0.8% during laparoscopic. Included in the study were 22 patients, 19 patients with two redo operated upon. Between Feb. 1999 to Nov2017 and 3 referral cases. The treatment options were end to end anastomosis and hepaticojejunostomy. Regarding the injuries, according to Stresberg there were 2A .4D injuries with injury in the lateral aspect of the ducts, 8 E1, with hepatic stump > 2cm., 5 E2 with hepatic stump < 2cm. The three referral cases were choledochodoudonostomy E1, and E2. They were treated with si ligation of cystic in two cases, anastomosis in seven cases. The remaining fifteen cases with hepaticojejunostomy .Conclusions: The risk is more proximally. After complex injuries diversion is the best while with simple end to end was acceptable. The insertion of stents has to be individualized according to the situations of each patients and the experience of each surgeon.
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