The RNA interference (RNAi) technique is a new modality for cancer therapy, and several candidates are being tested clinically. Nanotheranostics is a rapidly growing field combining disease diagnosis and therapy, which ultimately may add in the development of ‘personalized medicine’.
Technologies on theranostic nanomedicines has been discussed. We designed and developed bioresponsive and fluorescent hyaluronic acid-iodixanol nanogels (HAI-NGs) for targeted X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and chemotherapy of MCF-7 human breast tumors. HAI-NGs were obtained with a small size of ca. 90 nm, bright green fluorescence and high serum stability from hyaluronic acid-cystamine-tetrazole and reductively degradable polyiodixanol-methacrylate via nanoprecipitation and a photo-click crosslinking reaction. This chapter presents an over view of the current status of translating the RNAi cancer therapeutics in the clinic, a brief description of the biological barriers in drug delivery, and the roles of imaging in aspects of administration route, systemic circulation, and cellular barriers for the clinical translation of RNAi cancer therapeutics, and with partial content for discussing the safety concerns. Finally, we focus on imaging-guided delivery of RNAi therapeutics in preclinical development, including the basic principles of different imaging modalities, and their advantages and limitations for biological imaging. With growing number of RNAi therapeutics entering the clinic, various imaging methods will play an important role in facilitating the translation of RNAi cancer therapeutics from bench to bedside.
Cystoisosporiasis (formerly isosporiasis) is caused by Cystoisospora belli (erstwhile named Isospora belli) is encountered globally, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Cystoisosporiasis is a human intestinal disease whose etiology is the parasite Cystoisospora belli with infection frequent in immunocompromised subjects, principally HIV-infected and AIDS patients. This coccidium parasite infects the epithelial cells and lining of the villi of the small and large intestines. C. belli is the least frequent of the three intestinal coccidia, viz: Cryptosporidium, microsporidium and C. belli which perturb humans. The clinical presentation of cystoisosporiasis gives a semblance of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as other gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea, vomiting and diarhoea found in COVID-19, AIDS and HIV-infected patients. Research has not presented comorbid features of COVID-19 and cystoisosporiasis. The oocytes of C. belli are visualizable microscopically on wet mounts via bright-field, differential interference contrast (DIC) and epifluorescence. Trimethoprin sulfamethoxazole constitute the normal treatment of choice. C. belli,HIV-infected/AIDS and COVID-19 patients have clinicopathological correlates necessary to elucidate comorbidities and mechanisms of the diseases.
The intention of the present work is to validate an easy, better and reasonable approach for estimation of amoxicillin trihydrate in tablet formulation by opposite segment(reverse phase) HPLC –UV with advanced conditions and parameters for habitual use in Rwanda well known board in pharmaceutical laboratory in order to check if no substandard or counterfeit amoxicillin has entered in our country that can result in antimicrobial resistance, treatment failure which can be a chief difficulty on public health. an easy, selective, precise, speedy, specific, and correct reverse phase HPLC UV-seen technique has been verified for the dedication of amoxicillin, in addition that is a cost-effective technique for the established method, monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2PO4) used as buffer and methanol and had been used as a mobile section in the ratio 95:5 respectively. The elution turned into finished in an isocratic mode at a go with the flow rate of 1.5ml/minute proposed method became demonstrated as according to ICH guiding principle refereeing additionally to USP necessities for amoxicillin capsule. linearity range of amoxicillin and was evaluated inside the variety of 20–160 g/ml. the correlation coefficient r2 changed into 0.9998 and the relative well known deviation between six replicates injection was always much less than 2%. The retention time was found 3.5±0.02. the high percentage of healing of amoxicillin is 100.6±4% indicates that the proposed method is exceptionally correct and precise trueness of with the trueness of 100.06±1.2% .the statistical evaluation proved that the demonstrated method is appropriate for analysis of amoxicillin as the majority drug and pharmaceutical formula with none interference from excipients .with the aid of considering the efficiency of the drug samples, all analyzed pattern were within the variety of 90-120 % of percentage of labeled amount, but the efficiency had been distinctive amongst samples. The have a look at located that no counterfeit, no substandard product turned into amongst all batches of amoxicillin samples throughout the c programming language of the look at.
Background: Corneal abrasions are a common result of eye trauma. Corneal injuries are very common in both the adult and pediatric population and account for a significant proportion of the workload of most emergency departments. Although abrasion heals well with preservative treatment, it still causes pain and job lost. The abrasion result from the scrabble of the corneal epithelium. These injuries cause pain, tearing, lids spasm, light scare, foreign body sensation, decreased visual acuity/blurring, and a gritty feeling. The light, friction & wink was worse the condition. Most abrasion cure within 24-27 hours and seldom proceed to erosion or infection. The study aims to use bandage soft contact lens [BSCL] as a primary treatment for traumatic corneal abrasion [TCA] instead of traditionally use pressure patch [PP].
Patients and methods: The present prospective study has been conducted on 50 patients attending the out-patient department of ophthalmology in an Alyarmouk teaching hospital for six months after taking ethical permission. Before subjecting the patient to the treatment of bandage soft contact lens therapy, a detailed clinical history and thorough local examination have been done. A history indicating the occurrence of recent ocular trauma followed by severe pain, redness, lids spasm, photophobia, and tearing of the involved eye is suggestive of a corneal abrasion. Always we ask about contact lens wear as this can complicate the presence of an abrasion. To confirm the diagnosis of traumatic corneal abrasion we examine the cornea by slit-lamp under cobalt-blue filtered light after the application of tetracaine eye drops & fluorescein strips. The treatment of 50 consecutive patients presenting with traumatic corneal abrasion has been treated with anesthetic eye drop (tetracaine 0.5%) to relieve pain and lids spasm, antibiotic eye drop (ofloxacin 0.3%), therapeutic bandage soft contact lens was applied to provide pain relief and once again act as a splint to promote epithelial healing, then visual acuity was measured by Snellen chart, a cycloplegic eye drop (cyclopentolate 1%) was applied to relieve ciliary spasm & then preservative-free lubricant eye drop were applied lastly. This criterion dramatically relieves most, if not all of the pain the patient may be experiencing (which is a big plus for the patient and earns instantaneous trust), but it also allows the patient to return to work/school or any other daily activities. Patients have been evaluated after 24hours, 72hours and after 1week regarding pain, visual acuity, and complications. Though pressure patch [PP] occasionally advice in abrasion therapy, it does not assist and may prevent recovery. Employ the protective eyewear can preclude the traumatic corneal abrasion.
Results: A total of 50 cases were enrolled in our study during the study period of 6 months. Out of 50 patients, there were 30males and 20 females and the male/female ratio was 3:2. The patient’s age was ranged from 5-35years. The commonest cause of injury was direct minor trauma (80% of cases), with cosmetic & optical contact lenses related problems accounting for 20% of presentations, visual acuity was documented correctly in 90% of adult and pediatric group and difficult to documented in children less than 6-year-old 10%. Traumatic corneal abrasion treated with bandage soft contact lens has an apparent advantage over the traditional pressure patch in terms of reduced pain, speedier healing, and an advantage of faster rehabilitation, facilitation epithelial healing, and proper surface hydration. Evaluation of pain revealed sufficient comfort with this regimen, allowing 45 patients (90%) to go back immediately to their occupations. Moreover, visual function is retained without any complication. Healing of the traumatic corneal abrasion occurred within 1 to 3 days in all patients, with minimal or no pain. The infection did not occur at the time of the follow up. We remove the bandage soft contact lens after 1 week to allow epithelial migration and attachment without the interference of the shearing forces of the upper lid.
Conclusion: The use of bandage soft contact lens as a primary treatment for a traumatic corneal abrasion is a safe and effective method with anesthetic eye drop (tetracaine 0.5%), antibiotic eye drop (ofloxacin 0. 3%), cycloplegic eye drop (cyclopentolate 1%), preservative-free lubricant drop instead of traditionally pressure patch. Bandage soft contact lens causes dramatic improvement from pain, lid spasm, tearing & visual function is retained without any complication, and patients can immediately resume their regular activities.
The isolation of phytase using Pichia Pastoris under methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction technique was investigated. The biological activity of extracellular phytase after optimization with co-substrates induction in 4 liters fermentor (NBS) increased to 13250 U/ml. This led to a 509 fold increases in comparison to the other type of phytase. This effect was studied via induction with sorbitol/methanol in fermentation by Pichia Pastoris GS115 (Mut+) at 20 °C. The interference of by products; methylal, hexamine and (S)-(+)-1,2-propanediol with release of phytase in Pichia Pastoris under methanol induction were detected and cannot be repressed by methanol induction alone. The TLC was used for glycerin analysis under methanol/sorbitol induction and the results were lesser compare to that obtained during phytase production under methanol induction alone. This work showed the higher expression of heterologous proteins and by fed batch fermentation; the expression identified an advantage of producing a significant activity of phytase.
Plant derived products including sorbitol have been used as alternative medicines for the therapeutic treatment of various diseases, food supplements and could be used in many manufacturing processes. It serves as a culture media for bacteria, and helps to distinguish the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 from its most other strains. Cells growing on methanol require high oxygen consumption. Sorbitol was used as an alternative cheap co-feeding for the production of proteins and is a non-repressing carbon source for AOX1 promoter with no effect on the level of r-protein at its induction phase. This report describes the isolation of phytase using Pichia Pastoris under methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction techniques, and sorbitol showed to be a promising co-substrate, as it could enhance both cell growth and targeted protein productivity. This co-feeding and fed-batch induction technique was used for recombinant phytase production in a small and large scale production and the metabolites were analyzed.
Calcium is the most common element in the tooth’s structure. In addition, calcium is one of the elements that are effective in maintaining dental health. As a result of calcium deficiency, the tooth becomes brittle and begins to rot. Calcium deficiency usually occurs in acidic beverage consumption and during canal treatment. A study was conducted to determine the degree of calcium removal in the root canal dentin after 17% EDTA, 17% EGTA, 15% EDTAC and 1% tetracycline-HCl treatment; later with or without 2.5% NaOCl . Extracted single-rooted human teeth were bisected longitudinally and the root halves (n = 100) were isolated with nail varnish, leaving the root canal exposed. The samples were immersed in the test solutions for 1 and 5 minutes, after which the amount of calcium ion (Ca2+) release into the solutions was determined by flame photometry.
The calcium ions (Ca2+) present in hydroxyapatite crystals are one of the main inorganic elements of dentin . It has been reported that some chemicals used for endodontic irrigation are capable of causing alterations in the chemical composition of dentin [3-6].
MethodsDetermination of calcium in the tooth’s structure is very important. Calcium determination, Flame Emission Spectrofometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) methods can be performed. These methods can be analyzed in a short time without interference effects. In both methods, the calcium in the tooth is stimulated and the emission intensity it emits is measured as it becomes basic. These emission intensities are directly proportional to the calcium concentration. Also, in these methods, calibration graph or standard addition method is used for calcium determination.
The roots were then bisected longitudinally, and the pulp tissue was removed with a toothbrush. All root halves (n = 100) were dehydrated in a sterilizer at 120 °C until they reached a fixed weight, as verified by consistent readings using a precision scale (Sartorius, Gotingen, Germany; precision = 0.0001 g). Thereafter, the specimens were covered with two consecutive layers of nail varnish, leaving the root canal surface exposed.
The samples were randomly distributed into the following treatment.
Group 1: 2.5% NaOCl
Group 2: 17% EDTA
Group 3: 17% EGTA
Group 4: 15% EDTAC
Group 5: 1% Tetracycline-HCl
Group 6: 17% EDTA _ 2.5% NaOCl
Group 7: 17% EGTA _ 2.5% NaOCl
Group 8: 15% EDTAC _ 2.5% NaOCl
Group 9: 1% Tetracycline-HCl _ 2.5% NaOCl
Group 10: Distilled water (negative control)
In each group, the specimens were immersed in a magnetic stirrer bath containing 10 ml of test solution for 1 and 5 minutes. In groups 1 and 10, the same samples (n = 10) were used for 1- and 5-minute treatments.
Calcium is measured between 10 and 1000 ppm (mg/L) with Flame emission intensity. Calcium at a lower concentration cannot be measured.
Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is a widely used method recently. ICP-OES is an advanced high-end method of flame emission spectrophotometer. In this method, the energy source required for excitation is provided by plasma and its temperature is between 4000 and 10000 ⁰C. There is a certain wavelength of light to which each element is stimulated. The wavelength of the light used for calcium is 455,531 nm. At this wavelength, a calibration graph is prepared from standard solutions of calcium. Calcium in the tooth is measured using the calibration chart.
The sensitivity of this method is high. Calcium analysis in ppm (mg/L) and ppb (µg/L) concentration can be analyzed with ICP-OES. In this method, the analysis takes minutes. Therefore, it is used in routine analysis.
ConclusionUsing these methods, you can easily analyze the calcium found in the structure of the tooth. Also, disinfectant like hypochlorite used during canal treatment increases the calcium release of the tooth. Therefore, the released calcium can also be analyzed using these methods. Here, each sample takes at least 5 measurements and gives the results in accordance with the scientific representation.
In the cardiovascular field, tachycardia and increment of catecholamine plasma levels (sympathetic hyperactivity) have been reported by hypertensive patients that use L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (CCBs) since 70´s. Our discovery of the involvement of interaction between the intracellular signalling pathways mediated by Ca2+ and cAMP (Ca2+/cAMP interaction) revealed that this phenomenon (sympathetic hyperactivity) was resulting of increase of transmitter release from sympathetic neurons stimulated by CCBs due to its interference on the Ca2+/cAMP interaction. In the neuroscience field, this discovery has produced new paths for the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer´s and Parkinson’s diseases. In this way, novel journeys for the development of new pharmacological strategies more effective for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases may be initiated.
Background: This study aims to retrospectively investigate the comorbidity of ADHD multiple symptoms (behavioral) with alcohol addiction in a sample of adult alcohol-dependent patients and to test their current attentional skills (behavioral and cognitive).
Methods: Thirty-two adult alcohol-dependent patients were examined for ADHD using a semi-structured interview and the Mini Mental State Examination to evaluate attention and inhibition functions. Brown ADD Scales were used to specifically examine ADHD syndrome. Patients were compared with thirty matched control participants selected from healthy population in few measures of attentional control and working memory.
Results: 50% of patients showed evidence of primary ADHD symptoms: specifically, 28.12% showed criteria for ADHD highly probable, 12.50% for ADHD probable but not certain and 9.38% for ADHD possible but not likely. Patients also revealed several deficits in the selective visual attention, interference control and verbal working memory compared to the control group.
Conclusions: These results revealed that adult alcohol-dependent patients had retrospectively high comorbidity with ADHD and significant current deficits of the executive functions. These findings suggest the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in order to prevent the development of alcohol dependence.
Salma Hentati*, Rim Masmoudi, Fatma Guermazi, Farah Cherif, Ines Feki, Imen Baati, Rim Sallemi and Jawaher Masmoudi
Published on: 31st May, 2022
Introduction: Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Medical residents. Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play an important role in sexual vulnerability. In addition, distraction or interference in the cognitive process of the erotic stimulus plays an important role in the development of sexual dysfunction. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among a sample of married female medical resident doctors and to explore its relation with cognitive distraction during sex.Subjects and methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which was carried out in October 2017 with 70 married female medical resident doctors. We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for sexual functioning assessment and the cognitive distraction during sex scale. Results: The mean age of women was 30.52 years. They had been married for 6.04 years on the mean. The majority (74%) had children. According to the FSFI, 40% of resident doctors had sexual dysfunction. The mean cognitive distraction during sex score was 4.37.In our study, women with female sexual dysfunction reported significantly lower sexual desire score = 3.2 vs. 4.1 and p = 0.03) and arousal (score = 3.è vs. 4.7 and p = 10-3), decreased lubrication (score = 3.8 vs. 5.1; p = 10-3), less sexual satisfaction (score = 3.9 vs. 5.8; p = 10-3)and higher orgasm difficulties (score = 3.4 vs. 5.1; p = 10-3). Yet, our results highlighted that women with female sexual dysfunction presented significantly more cognitive distraction during sex (score = 3.9 vs. 4.6; p = 0.03). Conclusion: According to our study, it appears that the prevalence of FSD in medical resident doctors is considerable. Besides, intrusive thoughts and cognitive distraction during sexual intercourse are importantly associated with sexual functioning. Therefore, several measures should be implemented in this population to prevent or act on these factors.
Irbesartan (IRB) is one of the drugs used for the treatment of hypertension. The present work develops and validates two methods for the evaluation of irbesartan in bulk and tablets. Sulfonephthalein acid dyes, bromophenol blue (BPB), and bromocresol purple (BCP) were used to produce stable yellow ion-association complexes with the basic drug IRB in dry chloroform. The colored products are quantified spectrophotometrically at their corresponding λmax. The relation between the absorbed signal and the drug concentration was linear up to 45.0 μg mL-1 (n = 6, r ≥ 0.9998). LOD reaches 40 ng mL-1. The composition of the ion associates was found 1:1 by Job’s and mole ratio methods. Application of the suggested methods to dosage forms is presented with percentage recoveries ranging from 99.33% to 101.67%. The results of the analysis were validated statistically and compared with the official method. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants.
The question of the interaction of light with small particles, with molecules, atoms in gases, in liquids has been considered by many authors in the scientific literature. As a rule, this is elastic, Raman, or Rayleigh scattering. The frequency of the scattered light in the first case is the same as that of the incident, and in cases 2 and 3, the spectrum of scattered radiation is enriched with the corresponding components. The subject of this work is the interaction between each other in the medium of two coherent light beams.
“Mobile apps and wearable technology are becoming ubiquitous in our environment. Their integration with healthcare delivery is just beginning to take shape. The early results are promising and the possibilities great."
BS, PharmD., MBA, CPHIMS, FHIMSS, Adjunct Professor, Global Healthcare Management, MCPHS University, Chief Strategy Offi cer, MedicaSoft, Senior Advisor, National Health IT (NHIT) Collaborative for Underserved, New York HIMSS, National Liaison, Health 2.0 Boston, Past Chair, Chair Innovation, USA
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