Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity.
Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise.
Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine.
Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
Purpose: Medical coverage of the 29th “Tour du Faso” primarily aimed to report the experience of the medical coverage of the 2016 International Cycling Tour of Burkina Faso.
Methods: This is a prospective study of the medical coverage of the 2016 International Cycling Tour of Burkina Faso.
Results: During the 12 days of medical coverage, 216 consultations were recorded. The complaints were diversified. From simple asthenia to severe malaria. There were cases of indigestion, gastroenteritis and food allergies.
Conclusion: The medical coverage of a cycling competition requires knowledge of the discipline, expertise in sport and emergency medicine.
This review paper analyzes the response of renal function during two types of exercise: 1) exercise of increasing intensity and 2) exercise of submaximal intensity and prolonged duration. During an effort of increasing intensity there is a decrease in renal blood flow that, theoretically, could compromise renal function. However, several studies seem to show that the kidney has self-regulatory mechanisms that allow maintaining the filtration fraction. On the other hand, ultra resistance exercises, such as ironman, are becoming more frequent. Knowing the renal response to this type of exercise is essential to apply knowledge to emergency situations such as dehydration or hyponatremia.
Purpose: This study aimed to identify physical activity, enjoyment, and factors for future activity between an active video game (AVG) condition and self-paced exercise (SPE) among college-aged students.
Methods: Thirty college-aged volunteers (age=22±1.68 years) completed 4-45 minute physical activity sessions (2 AVG; 2 self-paced). A survey and a brief structured interview followed.
Results: Overall, participants expended more calories, accumulated more steps, and more physical activity during SPE; however, participants in the AVG condition met daily exercise recommendations. The majority of participants (81%) enjoyed playing the AVG. Autonomy and competence were found as common themes among those who preferred the SPE condition; whereas, lack of knowledge and exercise variety were emergent themes among those who preferred AVG.
Conclusions: This study provides evidence that college students could meet daily exercise recommendations by participating in AVG interventions; although AVGs that provided autonomy and allowed users to demonstrate competence would be preferable.
Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of thromboembolic complications and are therefore often managed with anticoagulation therapy . While these patients are traditionally treated with Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the Non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), such as rivaroxaban and apixaban are being used with increasing frequency. Relatively new to the anticoagulant treatment arsenal, both compounds are direct Factor Xa inhibitors and represent an alternative to traditional VKA treatments, such as warfarin. However, because these compounds are at least partially renally eliminated, achieving safe and effective anticoagulation in this vulnerable population has proven to be a challenge [2,3]. With limited published data, there is often uncertainty surrounding which of the NOACs can be safely used.
Post cardiac surgery stroke is a devastating complication with an incidence as high as 50%1. The association between intra-operative mean arterial blood pressure (MAP- better called linear blood pressure) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the development of postoperative stroke-as diagnosed by neuroimaging- and of cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is controversial. This is due to differences in the study populations, stroke assessment tools, operation and conduction of MAPs, variations in neurocognitive testing and duration of follow up. As a result there is a gap in the knowledge on an ideal MAP as a preventive measure of post CPB stroke and POCD.
Desmodium adscendens is a rain forest medicinal herb used in managing quite a number of medical conditions. Its efficacy in the treatment of several diseases has made it a first line herb for doctors, especially in managing all forms of spasm. It is however common knowledge that some of these medicinal herbs impact severely on the normal functioning of some vital organs of the body during their administration. The present study was carried out to assess the renal and cardiovascular performance in subjects undergoing treatment with Desmodium adscendens with a view to advising against its indiscriminate use. The parameters used for the assessment of renal functions were serum creatinine and urea concentrations and their clearance. Also, changes in electrolyte concentration of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride concentration were used to assess cardiovascular performance. The histology of the kidney and heart tissues was also done to determine if the extract has impact on the cyto-architecture of the organs. Twenty-four (24) wistar rats were used for the experiment. The rats were grouped randomly into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 served as control, and the rats in the group were given normal rat feeds and water. Group 2 served as low dose group, and rats in this group were administered with low dose of extract 300 mg/kg. Group 3 served as medium group, and rats in this group were treated with medium dose of extract, 450 mg/kg. Group 4 served as high dose group, and rats in this group were treated with high dose of extract 600 mg/kg. The extract was administered for 28 days. Result showed that the extract did not impact negatively on the normal function of the renal and cardiovascular system of the treated groups, rather it enhanced their performances. It can therefore be concluded that the extract is beneficial to renal and cardiovascular functions if used within the treatment dosage.
Introduction: One of the essential requirements for efficient oral and maxillofacial surgeon is comprehensive knowledge in anatomy of head and neck regions. Authors believe that asking students to draw anatomical sketches will assist them to improve their imaginary memory for human anatomy. However, drawing, as learning aid in anatomy, has not been given enough attention as a learning aid for human anatomy.
Aim of the study: To determine dental students’ level of appreciation to drawings as practical learning aid in human anatomy.
Materials and methods: Seventy nine first year dental students in Ibn Sina University for Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences College of Dentistry for the academic year 2016-2017, were requested to complete a questionnaire. The questions were mostly related to the importance of drawing in anatomy and its relation to Anatomy education. The participation in the questionnaire was optional.
Results: This study showed highly significant relationship between the ability to understand anatomy subject and the importance of drawing (P=0.006). It also showed highly significant relationship between the importance of drawings and giving clinical examples during lectures or anatomical labs (P=0.006). Furthermore, the results showed no significant relationship between the importance of drawings and the load of anatomical material, introduced in anatomical lectures and labs (P=0.639).
Conclusion: Anatomical drawings, from first year dental students’ perspective, are a useful learning tool and can relate to different aspects of proper education of human anatomy. Drawings can be implemented as practical tool in human anatomy curriculum for undergraduate dental education.
Aim: To assess and learn oral health awareness and hygiene practices among geriatric patients and also to identify important barriers in the establishment of oral health services, disease prevention and oral health promotion programmes for the same.
Materials and Methods: A total of 500 patients in the age group of 50 years and above were selected using random sampling technique. A self‑administered structured questionnaire including 20 multiple choice questions was given to them. The results were analyzed using percentage.
Results: The result of this study shows an acute lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge of oral hygiene practices. In Rohini, few people use tooth brush.
Conclusions: Hence, there is an urgent need for comprehensive educational programs to promote good oral health and impart education about correct oral hygiene practices.
This observational study assessed the knowledge of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at two selected hospitals in Abeokuta South, Nigeria on the causes and risk factors of maternal mortality, identified barriers to knowledge acquisition, and examined the influence of parity of respondents on their knowledge of factors causing maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is extremely high in Nigeria, it is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Descriptive research design was used in this study and qualitative data from 136 respondents selected randomly, were obtained through a self-designed questionnaire that comprised three sections. Data were analyzed and indicated that parity of the pregnant women do not have an influence on their knowledge of factors responsible for maternal mortality. Findings revealed that majority (67.6%) of the respondents had high knowledge on the causes of maternal mortality – haemorrhage, sepsis, prolonged/obstructed labour, anaemia, unsafe abortion, infection, hypertensive disorders, care rendered by unskilled medical practitioners and its risk factors - parity, poverty, place of last delivery and low attendance at antenatal clinic. Educational background, marital status, irregular antenatal visits, socio-cultural practices and occupational status were identified as barriers to knowledge acquisition. This paper concluded that pregnant women may have a high knowledge about the factors responsible for maternal mortality. This is probably due to the fact that all respondents had formal education and because they were interviewed on antenatal clinic days, which suggests that they might have heard about the causes and risk factors for maternal mortality during their visits. Authors recommended that government should employ qualified health professionals and provide medical subsidy, it is hoped that this will ensure that pregnant women get quality care throughout the period of pregnancy and delivery.
Introduction: Contraception is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. In the first year of postpartum period around 65% of women are having unmet need of family planning. Post Placental Intrauterine Contraceptive Device is not only advantageous to the women and couples; even the service providers benefit from PPIUCD. PPIUCD insertion on the same delivery table saves time and separate clinical procedure is not required.
Methodology: The Quantitiative Pre-Experimental One Group Pre and Post Test research design was used. 70 Antenatal mothers were selected by using Purposive Sampling Technique who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and who were available during the period of data collection at selected hospital, Puducherrry. Data was collected by using Structured Interview Schedule.
Result: The Pre test mean score of Knowledge was 9.98 ± 2.38 and Post Test mean score of Knowledge was 14.91 ± 1.15. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-20.82) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Attitude was 34.67 ± 5.67 and Post test mean score of Attitude was 44.27 ± 4.70. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-17.25) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Acceptance was 0.11 ± 0.320 and Post Test mean score of Acceptance was 0.29 ± 0.455. The paired‘t’ value of t = -3.778 found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Demographic and Obstetrical Variables like age at marriage, previous childbirth and decision maker of family about family planning have shown significant association with Post Test level of Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD at p < 0.05 and p < 0.001.
Conclusion: The researcher concluded that Prenatal Intensive Counselling increases the mother’s Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD. So Prenatal Intensive Counselling on PPIUCD can be given to Antenatal Mothers during their antenatal visits to meet the unmet needs of family planning.
Background: Timely starting of breastfeeding is defined as the starting of breastfeeding within one hour after childbirth. Globally mothers who practiced breastfeeding within one hour were less than half in percent. In least developed countries like Eastern and Southern Africa including Ethiopia infant breastfeeding practice within one hour were low. The aim of this study was to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have an infant less than six months of age in Gunchire town, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods: The study was conducted from May 1 to 28, 2019 in Gunchire town. Data were collected by using a structured face to face interview questionnaire. The community based cross-sectional study was employed on 333 women. The study participants were selected by Simple random sampling techniques. The data were coded, entered, cleaned and analyzed by SPSS with windows version 21.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression statistical model was used. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to see the strength of association.
Results: In this study the magnitude of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 80.5%. Governmental employed mothers (AOR=2.914, 95% CI: 1.139, 7.46), Antenatal care follow up (AOR=5.99, 95% CI: 1.29, 27.81), Baby skin to skin contact (AOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.092, 5.34), Vaginal delivery (AOR=5.82 95% CI: 1.68, 20.14) Institutional delivery (AOR=5.5, 95 CI%: 1.66, 18.3), Good knowledge of breastfeeding (AOR=4.02, 95% CI: 1.04, 15.59) and Breast disease (AOR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.73) were significantly associated with timely starting of breastfeeding.
Conclusion: More than two third of the mothers timely initiated breastfeeding within one hour after birth. Being governmentally employed, having Antenatal care follows up, skin to skin contact, mode of delivery, knowledge of mothers about breastfeeding and place of delivery were positively and significantly associated with timely initiation of breast feeding, whereas, breast disease was protective against timely starting of breastfeeding. Therefore, we would like to recommend Enamore woreda health office and Gunchire primary Hospital staffs work at MCH clinic to provide appropriate services and stimulate the mothers to initiate breastfeeding, skin to skin contact enhancing within the first hour of birth.
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and skills in pre-hospital care and emergency medicine of doctors, nurses and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), who accompanied emergency patients in ambulances?
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the doctors, nurses, and EMT who accompanied emergency patients in ambulances to the National Hospital. All ambulances arriving from August to October 2008 (n=409) were screened. A self-administered questionnaire with 30 items was used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and skills. The knowledge was categorized into three levels, EMT-basic level, EMT-intermediate level, and EMT-paramedic level and the scores were converted into the percentages.
Results: The overall knowledge score on basic, intermediate and paramedic level were 57.5%, 42.9%, and 33.9% respectively. The knowledge on airway management (84.3%), bleeding control (82.9%), patient transport (71%) and first aids (61%) at the EMT-basic level were higher, however oxygen administration (37.1%) and basic life support (38.6%), spinal immobilization (45.7%), traction splinting (47%) and triage (48.6%) were lower. For the EMT-intermediate level, knowledge on endotracheal intubation (41.4%) and initial cardiac drug therapy (44.3%) were low. For the EMT-paramedic level, the knowledge on the advanced respiratory support (53%), ECG interpretation (37%), pharmacology (13%) and paediatric life support (20%) were lower.
Most staff showed positive attitudes towards the need of basic knowledge in pre-hospital care (97.1%, n=34), need for proper training (97.1%, n=34) and cost for pre-hospital care (77.1%, n=27), while they showed relatively negative attitudes towards the outcome of pre-hospital care (74.3%, n=26).
For the required skills for advanced life support, most of the staff showed skills in IV cannulation (71.4%, n=25) and IV drug administration (71.4%, n=25) however less skills were shown cricothyroidotomy (22.9%, n=8), pleural drainage (25.7%, n=9) and laryngoscopy and intubation (31.4%, n=11).
Conclusion: The knowledge at the EMT-basic level was average and intermediate and paramedic levels were lower than average. The attitudes were generally positive. However they lacked some specific skills.
Provide a safety anesthesia to patient is only possible with the knowledge of material surrounding the operation room. Benzine is highly flammable substance and can produce several injures without the necessary care. This case describes a small fire caused by the presence of benzine in the surgical field concomitant with the use of electrocautery, which caused slight burns to the patient, but which could have been catastrophic, and proposes the use of protocols to prevent such accidents.
The study was conducted in Ilu and Waliso districs of South West Shoa Zone to investigate the perception of dairy cattle producers on oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination services. A total of 122 respondents (38 from Ilu and 84 from Waliso districts) owning at least one lactating cow and participated in synchronization program were randomly selected and interviewed individually by using semi- structured questionnaire. Both primary and secondary data were used to generate reliable information on the intended topic. All collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 20 and the output was presented by descriptive statistics such as percentage and mean values in inform of graphs. Most of the respondents (67.15%) indicated that their satisfaction level towards synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. Only few of them reported being satisfied as (medium-13.45%, good - 12.35% and very good - 7.05%). This might be because of shortage of feed, silent heat, poor performance of the inseminator and low awareness of farmers on the technology. From the study it was also noted that the overall percentage (26.22%) of calving rate to oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. This might be due to heat detection problem (36%); A.I technician efficiency (29.25%), absence of A.I technician (23.9%) and distance of A.I center (10.25%). Therefore, the skill and knowledge based training should be given for both the farmers and implementers to enhance perception and adoption of the technology.
Introduction: Candidiasis is more frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and knowledge about the distribution and antifungal susceptibility of oral Candida species is important for effective management of candidiasis.
Material and Methods: An oral rinses sample collected from hundred HIV-infected patients with and without clinical evidence of oral candidiasis in this study at the Infectious Department/Tripoli Medical Center, Libya. Species identified by standard phenotypic and conventional methods and in vitro susceptibility testing of the yeast isolates to antifungals were performed using the Disc diffusion method protocol as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Scientific Institute.
Results: Oral Candida colonization is detected in all patients with and without clinical syndromes, and Candida albicans were accounted for (74%), C. dubliniensis (11%) and C. glabrata (6%). A high proportion of Candida species (42%) showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. Among C., albicans more than 30% of isolate were resistant to most new azole antifungal including fluconazole, itraconazole, posoconazole and voriconazole.
Conclusions: A significant number of oral Candida species particular Candida albicans exhibiting decreased susceptibility to fluconazole were isolated from colonized HIV-infected individual, given the high incidence and severity of fungal infections in HIV-infected individuals. The results of this study reinforce the importance of antifungal susceptibility testing, which contributes to the therapeutic strategies and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of Candida colonization in this population.
Endometriosis is a common benign disease in women of reproductive age, it has been associated with an increased risk of various malignancies that is defined by certain histological criteria mainly 80% in ovary and 20% in extragonadal sites such as intestine, rectovaginal septum, abdominal wall, pleura and others; the greatest risk for colorectal cancer is women with adenomyosis or endometriosis; Several genetic alterations have been found in the risk of endometriosis associated with cancer; The symptomatology, imaging and endoscopic characteristics simulate other inflammatory and malignant lesions that make the preoperative diagnosis of extragonadal endometriosis difficult. This is a review of the knowledge about endometriosis and its potential risk of malignancy, particularly with colorectal cancer
Background: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV in the world as more than 10% of population suffers from HCV infection. High prevalence of HCV in Egypt represents a great risk to the whole population that requires aggressive mass awareness regarding routes of infection and means of prevention.
Aim: To determine the knowledge and practices of university students in 5 different faculties in Suez Canal University regarding HCV infection and means of prevention.
Materials and method: A cross sectional study was conducted in five university faculties in Suez Canal University.
Results: The study included 698 students from the faculties of Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Nursing and Education in Suez Canal University in Ismailia city in Egypt. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the knowledge about the diagnosis, complications and routes of transmission total knowledge score for HCV among the different faculties.
Conclusion and Recommendations: Knowledge and practices of university students in Suez Canal University is partial to weak especially in students of non-biological sciences who have less close contact with patients
Thymoglobulin is a rabbit-derived anti-thymocyte antibody directed at T-cells and commonly used for induction immunosuppression therapy in solid organ transplantation, especially in immunologically high risk kidney transplant recipients. Despite its frequent use and efficacy, the heterologous makeup of thymoglobulin can induce the immune system resulting in serum sickness which typically presents with rash, fever, fatigue, and poly-arthralgia in the weeks following drug exposure. ATGAM is another anti-thymocyte antibody, targeting the same epitopes, but differs from thymoglobulin by the animal in which the preparations are generated (equine vs. rabbit). Herein, we present a case of a patient with a known history of thymoglobulin-induced serum sickness, who presented with evidence of acute cellular and vascular rejection at their 12-month post-operative visit. Given their immunologically high risk status, they were successfully treated with ATGAM with improvement in their rejection and kidney function. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of successful administration of ATGAM in a patient with a documented history of thymoglobulin induced serum sickness, demonstrating a possible treatment option for acute rejection in patients with reactions to thymoglobulin.
Trans-radial uterine artery embolization (UAE) is acknowledged as a non- invasive, cost-effective and safe procedure for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids. However, it is associated with the recurrence of symptoms like abnormal uterine bleeding and pressure symptom in some patients. This is a comparative study of our data with other international data, in the context of percentage reduction in fibroid size, accompanying controlling factors, short and long term follow up data analysis of the first two years was done. Careful pre-procedural counseling of future possibility of fibroid recurrence and means of management should be stressed.
Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study at the Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The study was done from 1st November 2017-31st October 2019, on symptomatic patients diagnosed with fibroids, who refused surgical treatment.
The outcomes included: fibroid site, size and anatomical position, patients’ symptoms, general condition, and early and delayed complications. These data were compared with those from other international studies.
Results: The study involved 23 patients (mean age: 39 years). The average percentage reduction in fibroid volume was 49%. There were no major complications and no recurrence of symptoms during the covered period. Data analysis revealed a poor correlation between the overall percentage reduction of fibroid size with fibroid number, age of patients’, and body mass indices.
Conclusion: Despite poor correlation, we provided preliminary data of the first two years out of the total five-year projected period of the study where it showed effectiveness and relative safety of radial - UAE for fibroid.
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Department of Biotechnology, Uttaranchal college of Applied and Life Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
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