A 34-week premature newborn, child of a mother without prenatal controls, a marijuana user, with gestational syphilis with a positive rapid plasma reagin test (RPR) titer 1:16, did not receive treatment during pregnancy. The newborn presented congenital syphilis, RPR titer 1: 256 positive test.
“Pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids “(i.e. a set of biological effects elicited in the living organism by interaction with its biochemical and biophysical functions up to the cellular level) is studied for a long time during both, physiological and pathological conditions. Cannabinoids received their names according to their natural occurrence as constituents of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana).
Background: Although illegal, Ghana has a long history of cannabis use. With changing perceptions, advocacy for legalization has increased globally. This study exams pharmacological evidence on the prospects and challenges of decriminalization and /or legalization of cannabis in Ghana.
Results: Cannabis and cannabinoids are a “pharmacological enigma” with unique ability to activate at least 3 of the 4 drug receptor super families. This include; inotropic Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), metabotropic Cannabinoid Receptors (CB) and nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptors (PPAR). Cannabinoid receptors also dimerize with other receptors creating distinctly new signaling pathways. Cannabis and cannabinoids show good anti- nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant anti-emetogenic activity and variable anticonvulsant activity. It can play important role in palliative care, some rare intractable epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cachexia and Opioid Use Disorder. Cannabis precipitates psychosis in individuals with underlying genetic susceptibility. Chronic cannabis use alter the neurobiology of adolescent brain, predisposing them to amotivational syndrome characterized by depersonalization and inhibited motivation for goal directed behavior. Cannabis is also a “gateway drug”; ushering users to “harder” substances of abuse and reinstating extinguished drug seeking behaviours. The recent tramadol abuse in Ghana may have been precipitated by previous and concurrent cannabis use. Furthermore, Ghana’s cannabis may have a higher propensity to induce detrimental effects because of preferential accumulation the psychotropic delta-9-Tetrathydrocannabinol as a result of the high tropical temperature and humidity.
Conclusion: There is not sufficient pharmacological evidence supporting criminalization of medical cannabis in Ghana. However, the same evidence does not support legalization of recreational cannabis.
Marijuana is considered illicit in much of the world, and is classified as a drug for recreational use, in recent decades the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa L. has grown and diversified, being considered the only therapeutic alternative in the control of serious and incurable diseases such as syndrome of Dravet. The world panorama has shown a more liberal position, since in several countries such as the United States of America, Holland, Australia, Italy, and more recently in Canada, the use of medications, or even the recreational use of this plant, have been regulated. In this context, the investigation of the modifying effects on physical activity of empirically used cannabinoids is fundamental nowadays, mainly due to the regulatory recognition of Cannabis sativa L. as a medicinal plant in a large part of the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to verify the evidence related to the effect of cannabis on physical performance and to identify and highlight the challenges in the interpretation of information regarding the performance of practitioners of physical activity, as well as athletes, presenting new trends in this area of research to be addressed. To carry out the systematic review, a bibliographic survey of case reports was obtained through Pubmed, Science Direct and Google Academic databases. The following keywords were used to perform the research: cannabis, performance, pain, competition. The following filters were used as inclusion criteria a languages used english; species: humans; types of articles: original articles and reviews and period of publication of articles: 1981 to 2021.
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