Motivation

The effect of a European-based exercise program upon the health-related physical fitness of individuals with intellectual disabilities: The alive and kicking perspective

Published on: 24th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8505524065

The present study examined the effect of the European-Based ‘Alive and Kicking’ exercise program on the health-related physical fitness of individuals with (Experimental Group: EG) and without (Control Group: CG) (Intellectual Disability: ID). The Self-Determination Theory: SDT, guided both the 6-month preparatory phase and the 9-month exercise program, which was conducted in five separate European countries (Cyprus, France, Greece, Portugal and Spain). The total sample (n = 200, 54% males and 46% females) comprised of 168 individuals with ID (age: 26.54 years, + 7.78) and 32 individuals without ID (age: 25.81 years, + 8.73) respectively. The statistical analyses revealed that the ID group’s performance (EG) improved significantly in a range of health-related physical fitness variables (sit & reach, pushups, sit ups, long jump, ½ mile walk/ run). In turn, the participants from the CG improved mainly in muscular endurance (sit ups and pushups). The results are discussed in accordance with SDT and the dairies kept from the staff involved (coaches and psychologists) during the 9–month intervention. The present findings, although subjective to certain limitations, are encouraging, given the large-scale, real-world nature of the research design, and provide evidence supporting the integration of theoretical strategies enhancing motivation into traditional coaching programs for individuals with ID.
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Is secondary prevention information before discharge adequate after percutaneous coronary intervention?

Published on: 8th May, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8163873247

Introduction: Implementation of prevention strategies for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is essential, but many fall short of reaching their goals. Patients often perceive themselves as healthy and are less motivated to change lifestyle. To obtain better results patients need repeated information, preferably with motivational and person-centered approaches. Aims: To investigate whether health care providers inform CAD patients about risk factors and lifestyle changes at a percutaneous coronary intervention unit. Also to investigate whether the information given at discharge included secondary prevention management and if motivational and person-centered approaches were used. Methods: This is a descriptive, observational study that includes both a qualitative and quantitative design. Physicians and nurses working at a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) unit and physicians at a coronary care unit (CCU) participated. A staff nurse observed and noted what information the patients received at the PCI unit. At the CCU, observations regarding secondary prevention strategies during the discharge counselling were performed. Results: There were 50 observations made at the PCI unit. The information mainly consisted of tobacco consumption, physical activity and diet. During the 31 discharge counselling sessions the diagnosis, interventional procedure and medical treatment were frequently included. Most patients received little or no person-centered or motivational counselling. Conclusion: Nearly all patients at the PCI unit received information about the consequence of tobacco consumption, and more than half about the beneficial effects of physical activity. In contrast, the counselling at discharge need to focus more on behavioral changes and a motivational and person-centered approach.
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Assessment of Oral Hygiene awareness in Geriatric patients attending OPD at ESIC Dental College, Rohini, New Delhi

Published on: 2nd November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7379483324

Aim: To assess and learn oral health awareness and hygiene practices among geriatric patients and also to identify important barriers in the establishment of oral health services, disease prevention and oral health promotion programmes for the same. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 patients in the age group of 50 years and above were selected using random sampling technique. A self‑administered structured questionnaire including 20 multiple choice questions was given to them. The results were analyzed using percentage. Results: The result of this study shows an acute lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge of oral hygiene practices. In Rohini, few people use tooth brush. Conclusions: Hence, there is an urgent need for comprehensive educational programs to promote good oral health and impart education about correct oral hygiene practices.
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In at the deep end: Psychosocial aspects of developing autonomy in histopathology training

Published on: 10th July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7795981289

Medical postgraduate trainees are given increasing levels of responsibility during training in the apprenticeship-model of training [1-3]. Responsibility is said to be a key driver of deep learning and understanding [4-7]. Trainees with greater levels of responsibility for decision making have higher levels of motivation to learn compared with trainees who self-assess as having less autonomy [5]. The Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath) indicate that ‘graded responsibility’ is part of training histopathologists and provided a framework for implementation with increasingly complex specimens suitable for reporting by more senior trainees [8,9]. 
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Knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell transplantation and donation among Saudi population in Riyadh: Are Saudi people aware enough about the importance of stem cell transplantation and donation?

Published on: 13th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873218106

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell donation among Saudi population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted at different malls in Riyadh. Selection of malls was done randomly according to the geographical distribution of Riyadh, in which sample size was calculated and distributed equally. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that addressed their knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell transplantation and donation. Results: Results of this study showed that population knowledge about stem cell transplantation and donation is considered to be low. Only (37.8%) has enough information about stem cell transplantation and donation. There is a positive correlation between level of education and participant’s knowledge regarding stem cell transplantation and donation. The study revealed that 39.3% of participants have willingness for stem cell donation. Conclusion: It has been found that two third of population expressed lack of knowledge about stem cell transplantation and donation. Also, only 40% of participants showed willingness for donation, and the most common reason for not donating stem cell was the lack of information about stem cell and the value of donation While, increasing level of education was associated with better understanding of stem cell donation and its role in therapy and saving lives. Therefore, suitable campaign, advertising and counseling program for population is recommended to increase level of knowledge and motivation toward stem cell donation.
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Addiction to self-strangulation: a case-report

Published on: 5th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317654648

Introduction: DSM-5 mentions autoerotic asphyxia in the paraphilic disorders section, as a specifier for the diagnostic of sexual masochism disorder. Strangulation activities have also been observed in the “choking game”. The term “strangulation activity” is considered as more appropriate than “choking game”. While sharing a same behavior, autoerotic asphyxia and non auto-erotic strangulation activities might represent a very distinct pattern of disorders. We describe here a case report of a 25-year old male internship student who has practiced manual self-strangulation up to 40 times a day since adolescence. In the examination of this case we identify individual clinical aspects of this case in a process-based holistic case conceptualization. Case description: The patient is a 25 years old male with a post-graduate degree who presented with a recent history of poor work performance and work-related stress during an internship. He has a concomitant history of both ketamine and cannabis use disorders, and reports urges to self-strangulate, sometimes specifically avoiding contact with friends engage in this behavior and that he has never attempted to discontinue self-strangulation. Neuropsychological assessment found a cognitive functioning below that expected given his educational level. Our intervention consists of a 3-weeks cognitive and motivational therapy program in addiction unit with associated abstinence. Conclusion: Autoerotic asphyxia is a behavior observed not only in the context of sexual masochism disorder, but also as a specific addictive behavior, in the absence of sexual arousal, possibly as a result of emotional dysregulation.
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A forensic treatment-monitoring study of an adult with attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity and substance use disorder

Published on: 27th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8185511586

Background: The patient in this study experienced a childhood marked by conflicts within the family, physical abuse, frequent changes of school settings, truancy, and unspecified learning disabilities. After leaving school at age 17, she was chronically depressed, had anger attacks, lacked motivation, refused psychological assistance, and had problems finding work. At age 30, this culminated in an aggravated assault of a female in an urban public space, after which she was referred to the criminal courts. She was granted probation and hospitalized for psychiatric evaluation with follow-up, outpatient psychiatric treatment. Aim: To present outcomes of longitudinal monitoring of methylphenidate effects on cognition and self-regulation during treatment of attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity and substance use. Methods: During more than a year of treatment, psychiatric interviews and norm-referenced assessments of processing-speed and cognitive overhead monitored changes in cognition and substance use. Results: At baseline, processing-speed measures of reactive and active attention were within the average-normal range, whereas cognitive overhead/shift cost was in the atypically high range, suggestive of ADHD symptomatology. The patient engaged in daily excessive use of cannabis, amphetamines, and other illegal substances. At the end of treatment, cognitive speed was increased and cognitive overhead normalized. With reductions in ADHD symptomatology, the patient used small amounts of cannabis during weekends and showed improved self-regulation, and legal restrictions were discontinued.
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Impact of four obesity interventions on biometric measures of individuals positive and negative for food addiction

Published on: 28th September, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7900044985

Obesity is a major contributor to ill health and numerous comorbidities globally. Recent studies suggest that addictive-like tendencies toward foods, especially highly processed foods, contribute to this epidemic. Therefore, interventions used to treat substance-use disorders may be effective for treating overweight/obese patients with food addiction (based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale, version 2.0). This pilot study evaluated four interventions, selected because of their effectiveness in the treatment of substance-use disorders [motivational interviewing, pharmacotherapy (naltrexone-bupropion), pharmacotherapy with motivational interviewing, information control (diet and physical activity instruction)], in overweight/obese individuals with and without food addiction. The food addiction construct identified a distinctive subset of overweight/obese individuals. Through one month, response to interventions differed between food addiction phenotypes with those who were positive for food addiction showing similar or less response to the interventions than those who were negative for the trait. This suggests that individuals with addictive-like tendencies toward food may require longer and more intensive intervention to achieve their goals. The greatest changes in biometric measures occurred between baseline and 1 month during which time participants were attending weekly intervention sessions. Across all groups, those who attended more sessions (dose) was correlated with a reduction in body mass index.
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Staff experiences of the REFOCUS intervention to support recovery in mental health: A qualitative study nested within a cluster randomized controlled trial

Published on: 27th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8587364156

Background: The REFOCUS intervention was a whole team, complex intervention, designed to increase the recovery support offered by community based, mental health staff. The intervention consisted of two components: Recovery promoting relationships, which focused on how staff work with service users, and Recovery working practices, which focused on what activities and tasks staff and service users could do together. Aim: We aimed to investigate the experiences of community mental health workers using the REFOCUS intervention to support personal recovery. Method: In the context of the REFOCUS Trial (ISRCTN02507940), 28 semi-structured individual interviews and 4 staff focus groups, with 24 participants were conducted and thematically analyzed. Results: Staff valued coaching training and used coaching skills to have tough as well as empowering, motivational conversations with service users. They were positive about the resources within the ‘working practices’ intervention component. The whole team training and reflection sessions helped create team cultures, structures and processes which were conducive to supporting recovery practice. Conclusion: We recommend the wider use of coaching skills, strengths-based assessments, and approaches to support clinicians to broaden their understanding of service users’ values, treatment preferences and to support striving towards personally-meaningful goals. Staff who used these working practices changed their beliefs about what their service users were capable of, and became more hopeful practitioners. A team-based approach to support recovery creates a learning environment in which staff can support and challenge one another, making sustained practice change more likely.
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Behaviour management during dental treatment!!!

Published on: 28th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8878760522

Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science, which needs to be learned, practiced and reinforced in the context of clinical care and within the community oral health care system. The objective of this science is to develop in a dental practitioner an understanding of the interpersonal, intrapersonal, social forces that influence the patients’ behavior. The clinician must acquire knowledge to develop appropriate behavioral skills with an improved quality of communication and management of patients. Behavior dentistry also teaches to develop a recognition and understanding that the body and mind are not separate entities and focuses on patients’ social, emotional and physiological dental experiences. Behavior is an observable act. It is defined as any change observed in the functioning of an organism. Learning as related to behavior is a process in which experience or practice results in relatively permanent changes in an individual’s behavior. Self-perceptions of dental-facial appearance begin with aesthetic values shared within families and based generally on social norms, but that they may be strongly influenced by peer values and specific experiences of individual children, particularly those involving social responses. Theories incorporating concepts of social comparison and self-efficacy suggest that individuals evaluate themselves in comparison with others in their social environment. Children who perceive themselves to be attractive will reflect those perceptions in their behaviors and generally will receive confirming social responses. The comparison group may express an attractiveness norm that reflects negatively on the individual’s behavior. This, in turn, can affect the individual perceived sense of self-efficacy or adequacy within that group and lead to behaviors that reflect more negative beliefs about the self, thereby inviting still more negative social responses. Patient cooperation is the single most important factor every dentist must contend with. Major considerations are • Regularity in keeping appointments • Compliance in wearing removable appliances • Refraining from chewing hard and tenacious substances that are likely to distort or damage the teeth or crowns • Maintenance of oral hygiene. Laxity in following these instructions may lead not only to compromised treatment but also to slow progress of treatment, loss of chair time and frustration. What may be more interesting to the Dentist than the shaping of self-perceptions in the shaping of behavior that will ensure a successful result of treatment, that is, the patient’s adherence to prescribed routines for self-care and other regimens during Dental treatment. It is helpful in this regard to know that most patients expect improved dental-facial appearance as an outcome of treatment, but there is much more to know about factors influencing cooperation. Poor motivation can also contribute to non-compliance. The regulatory loop requires a motivational system to adjust behavior to coincide with the recommended regimen. A patient may recognize that the regimen is not being followed and yet simply not be motivated to correct the discrepancy. Poor motivation can also result from a lack of concern over the long-term health consequences of one’s behavior and/or a lack of belief in the treatment. Cognitive approaches that emphasize the personal relevance of the regimen or address misconceptions about the treatment may enhance motivation. Several approaches may be useful in treating poor compliance. Providing incentives or rewards for compliant behavior might be a useful strategy to enhance motivation. The cause of noncompliance is multifactorial and strategies to improve compliance must be tailored to fit each situation. Current Dental research focuses on a critical aspect of the feedback; specifically, the input received by the comparator that quantifies the actual amount of adherent behavior. Likewise, Patients, parents, and clinicians need a way to ascertain this information.
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General practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and practices on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections in children in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

Published on: 16th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8701522218

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices declared among general practitioners (GPs) concerning the use of antibiotics for the treatment of ARI in children under 5 years in Lubumbashi. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices concerning antibiotic prescribing among 67 GPs working in the pediatric setting in various health structures in Lubumbashi city, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data were collected from April 1st to June 30th, 2020. Results: GPs had limited knowledge about antibiotic prescriptions (mean of 46% correct answers to 8 questions). Although they are generally concerned about antibiotic resistance (mean ± SD = 0.50 ± 0.68), and are unwilling to submit to pressure to prescribe antibiotics to meet patient demands and expectations (mean ± SD = –1.78 ± 0.31) and the requirements to prescribe antibiotics for fear of losing patients (mean ± SD = –1.67 ± 0.47), there was a lack of motivation to change prescribing practices (mean ± SD = −0.37 ± 0.94) and strong agreement that they themselves should take responsibility for tackling antibiotic resistance (mean ± SD = 1.24 ± 0.74). Multiple linear regression results showed that higher knowledge scores were associated with less avoidance of responsibility when prescribing antibiotics (β = 0.919; p = 0.000). Conclusion: To curb the over-prescription of antibiotics, it is not enough to improve knowledge in itself. The lack of motivation of physicians to change must be addressed through a systematic approach. These data show the need for interventions that support the rational prescribing of antibiotics.
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To legalize cannabis in Ghana or not to legalize? Reviewing the pharmacological evidence

Published on: 10th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9267251578

Background: Although illegal, Ghana has a long history of cannabis use. With changing perceptions, advocacy for legalization has increased globally. This study exams pharmacological evidence on the prospects and challenges of decriminalization and /or legalization of cannabis in Ghana. Results: Cannabis and cannabinoids are a “pharmacological enigma” with unique ability to activate at least 3 of the 4 drug receptor super families. This include; inotropic Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), metabotropic Cannabinoid Receptors (CB) and nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptors (PPAR). Cannabinoid receptors also dimerize with other receptors creating distinctly new signaling pathways. Cannabis and cannabinoids show good anti- nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant anti-emetogenic activity and variable anticonvulsant activity. It can play important role in palliative care, some rare intractable epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cachexia and Opioid Use Disorder. Cannabis precipitates psychosis in individuals with underlying genetic susceptibility. Chronic cannabis use alter the neurobiology of adolescent brain, predisposing them to amotivational syndrome characterized by depersonalization and inhibited motivation for goal directed behavior. Cannabis is also a “gateway drug”; ushering users to “harder” substances of abuse and reinstating extinguished drug seeking behaviours. The recent tramadol abuse in Ghana may have been precipitated by previous and concurrent cannabis use. Furthermore, Ghana’s cannabis may have a higher propensity to induce detrimental effects because of preferential accumulation the psychotropic delta-9-Tetrathydrocannabinol as a result of the high tropical temperature and humidity. Conclusion: There is not sufficient pharmacological evidence supporting criminalization of medical cannabis in Ghana. However, the same evidence does not support legalization of recreational cannabis.
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Suicide in teenagers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Cuba: actions for its prevention

Published on: 7th May, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124702324

Introduction: Suicidal behavior in teenagers constitutes a health problem that, given the necessary measures of social isolation taken by the global emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic, must generate timely actions for its prevention and control from the public health services. Objective: To propose an action plan for the prevention of suicide in teenagers of the Remedios municipality, subjected to voluntary home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the “XXX Anniversary” Teaching Community Polyclinic of the municipality Remedios. We worked with the population of 25 teenagers between 12 and 19 years old who made suicide attempts in the period 2019-2021. The empirical methods used were: bibliographic and documentary review, participant observation, focus group, semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Results: The suicide attempt was common in female teenagers aged 17 to 19 years not identified as risk, the lack of motivation due to the study activity and the previous suicide attempts by ingesting psychotropic drugs without serious intention of dying predominated. The most frequent psychological disorders were emotional disorders, stress, depression, irritability, apathy and insomnia. Actions are presented for the prevention of suicide and promote behaviors that contribute to mental health in the context of COVID-19. Conclusion: The prevention of suicidal behavior in teenagers in conditions of social isolation due to COVID-19, must include actions that facilitate the coping with stress, intra-family communication and resilience.
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The motivational factors and adverse events experienced by healthy volunteers donating bone marrow for research

Published on: 5th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8479094098

Background: With the advancement of cell therapy research, there is an increasing need for healthy volunteers (HV) to donate small volumes (30 ml) of human bone marrow (BM). The BM procedure required to procure small volumes is invasive, although short-lived (25 seconds), is not without risk. To ensure a sustainable supply of BM for research and cell therapy, greater information of the risks and factors that motivate HV to donate small volumes of BM will help optimize the procedure and HV enrolment, ensuring donors are fully informed of the potential risks. Objective: To identify the adverse events (AE) experienced by HV during and after small volume BM procedure and understand the motivating factors that influence HV to donate BM for research. Method: HV (n = 55) who donated BM (30 ml) for scientific research and provided informed consent were administered a questionnaire to identify the type, duration and severity of AE experienced during and post-BM aspiration; and to determine the motivating factors that influenced their willingness to donate BM. Results: Pain was experienced by 89% of participants during the BM procedure with moderate grade reported by 40%. One/more of the following AE were experienced by 73% of the volunteers post-BM procedure: pain, fatigue, site reaction, nausea and transient hypotension. AE resolved within an average of three days. The reported motivational factors ranked in the following order: first, to advance research for the benefit of future patients; compensation for participation; free medical check-up; lastly, the research question was interesting. Conclusion: Young HV, motivated primarily by altruism and financial compensation, risk the occurrence of transient AE following donation of small-volume BM for research.
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