Sustained isometric contractions of skeletal muscles produce intramuscular pressures that leads to blood flow restriction. In result an active muscle feels deficit of oxygen what bring to muscle fatigue. In another side during exercise we have physiological contradiction between raising of oxygen demand by working muscle and restriction of blood flow due to vessel pressing. To clarify this issue many research has been performed based mainly on measurement of blood flow in muscle tissue. The purpose of this study was to assess real-time changes in muscle oxygenation during a sustained isometric contractions of dorsiflexor muscle of low (30%), moderate (60%) and submaximal (90%) intensity. Experiments were conducted using the subject’s dominant (right) leg. Volunteers was recruited from eight male students of USIPC (age: 19±2 years, weight: 75±6 kg). Tissue oxygenation index (StO2) were recorded from the tibialis anterior using NIRS device (NONIN). Saturation was higher at 30% compared with both 60% and 90% MVC at all time points after start exercise and higher at 60% than 90%. Oxygen consumption (VO2) permanently increased from slow (30%) to moderate (60%) and submaximal contractions. After cessation of the each contraction there was a large and immediate hyperemic response. Rate of StO2 increasing after effort cessation what reflects the resaturation of hemoglobin which depend on integrity and functionality of vascular system and reflects blood vessel vasodilation. StO2 restoration rate permanently increased from slow (30%) to moderate (60%) and submaximal contractions too. At last on final stage of experiment arterial occlusion test has been performed to determine the minimal oxygen saturation value in the dorsiflexors. Oxygen saturation reached a 24±1.77% what is significantly higher than StO2 after 60 and 90%MVC.
So, we can conclude that oxygen saturation at 60% and 90% MVC are similar and sharply decreased after start of exercise. It means that after 60% MVC take place occlusion of blood vessels due to intramuscular pressure. Oxygen consumption of active muscle increased depend on intensity of exertion according to increasing of oxygen demand. StO2 resaturation rate (Re) permanently increased from slow (30%) to moderate (60%) and to submaximal contractions. Re increasing after effort cessation reflects the resaturation of hemoglobin which depend on integrity and functionality of vascular system and reflects blood vessel vasodilation.
Background: Persistent left atrial thrombus remains a contra indication to transeptal valves in valves procedure. We aimed to perform a double valves in valves replacement through transapical access with cerebral angiography control during the procedure just after implantation. Our case shows the feasibility of this strategy and the management of right ventricle laceration successfully treated after extra corporeal membrane oxygenation implantation and local hemostasis. We reported a feasibility case report of successful double valves in valves implantation through transapical access with 6 months of clinical and computed tomography follow up.
Oxygen therapy is the main supportive treatment in hypoxemic respiratory failure and has traditionally been delivered using low and high flow devices. However, the maximal flow rates that these devices can deliver are limited because of the insufficient heat and humidity provided to the gas administered. Low flow devices such as the nasal cannula, conventional face mask and reservoir bag deliver a flow rate of up to 15 L/min by administering more variable oxygen fractions (FiO2), depending on the patient’s respiratory pattern, peak inspiratory flow and characteristics of the devices. Conventional high flow devices, such as venturi type masks, utilize a constant flow of oxygen through precisely sized ports, entraining the ambient air, using the Bernoulli principle, providing a more constant inspired oxygen fraction. However, they are less tolerated than nasal cannulas because they are less comfortable and the insufficient humidification and heating of the gas delivered .
In the last two decades, new devices have been developed to administer high humidified and heated flow through a nasal cannula (HFNC) that also allows the delivery of oxygen with a known FiO2 up to 100%. In the literature, this technique has also been called mini CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), transnasal insufflation, high nasal flow ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy, and high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy .
It is considered that high flow nasal cannula has certain benefits compared to those of oxygen therapy previously detailed. HFNC manages a flow of more than 30 L/min, which is able to surpass the peak inspiratory flow of the patient, being able to reach values between 60-80 L/min depending on the flow used. The gas source, which may be delivered by an air/oxygen blender, fans, or a flow generating turbine, is connected by an active humidifier to a nasal cannula and the FiO2 can be adjusted independently of the flow.
From a clinical point of view, there is some confusion between venturi and high flow nasal cannula devices. In the literature, both have been considered as high flow oxygen therapy devices. In our opinion this is not appropriate because the high nasal cannula flow is much more than a simple system for administering oxygen therapy . Venturi-type masks provide the patient with a gas mixture with a controlled FiO2, but do not exert additional benefits on the ventilator mechanics of the patient. Nevertheless, HFNC allows the delivery of a high flow, which can also add oxygen therapy, providing a series of physiological effects that imply an active treatment to respiratory failure.
Effects related to HFNC include the following:
1. Delivery of higher and more stable FiO2 values, because the flow delivered is greater than the patient’s inspiratory demand.
2. The anatomical dead space decreases by washing the nasopharynx, consequently increases alveolar ventilation. This improves the thoracoabdominal synchrony.
3. Respiratory work decreases because it acts as a mechanical stent in the airway and markedly attenuates inspiratory resistance.
4. The gas administered is warmed and humidified, improving mucociliar clearance, reducing the risk of atelectasis, improving ventilation perfusion and oxygenation ratio.
5. There is a CPAP-like effect. The dynamic positive espiratory airway pressure generated by HFNC reaches a value between 6-8cmH2o depending on the flow and the size of the cannula. This positive pressure distends the lungs and ensures their recruitment.
6. Pulmonary end-expiratory volume is higher with HFCN than with conventional high-flow oxygen therapy.
7. In addition, the technique is considered easy and simple for the medical staff and nurses, and can be used in different areas (emergency, hospitalization, critical care unit, weaning centers) and even at home .
Currently available evidence has demonstrated that HFNC therapy is an alternative for the treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, hypercapnic respiratory failure, acute heart failure, as rescue therapy preventive therapy in post-extubation respiratory failure and in specific conditions such as bronchoscopy .
We believe that high-flow nasal cannula treatment should not be confused with high flow oxygen therapy of venturi masks. According to detailed mechanisms of action, HFNC is not limited to being only an oxygen therapy system but also behaves as a true treatment that can be used in different clinical scenarios, generating physiological benefits that result in the reduction of respiratory work. In addition, in venturi type masks, the air is not humidified and complications such as dryness and nasal pain are common, generating a poor tolerance to oxygen therapy. The benefits of proper humidification and heating of the gas delivered with HFNC therapy allow better comfort and tolerance of the patient with easy adherence to the treatment. All this contributes to making HFNC be considered a technique of choice in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure. The growth in its use associated with easy acceptance for patients and the expansion in its application show us that HFNC is a promising therapy.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a poorly-understood respiratory condition that affects millions of individuals. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment option being considered to address CFS as it is suggested to combat fatigue and increase oxygenation. HBOT provides two opportunities in advancing research of CFS: it may provide data on symptom amelioration and be utilized in the search for a biomarker. By either identifying biomarkers before using HBOT to compare epigenomes of patients before and after treatment or using HBOT to find epigenetic discrepancies between patients with and without treatment, matching epigenetic regulation with symptom amelioration may significantly advance the understanding of the etiology and treatment mechanism for CFS. EPAS1/HIF-2α is a leading candidate for an epigenetic biomarker as it responds differentially to hypoxic and normoxic conditions, which degrades more slowly in hypoxic conditions. Epigenetic regulation of EPAS1/HIF-2α in such differential conditions may be explored in HBOT experiments. In addition to HBOT as a promising treatment option for CFS symptoms, it may aid the identification of biomarkers in CFS. Further research into both outcomes is strongly encouraged.
Stroke and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are responsible for a major proportion of mortalities in the elderly. We have previously investigated novel mechanism-based therapies of AEURA in cell culture models against viral infection and in glutamate excitotoxity. In our new studies, we propose that the homeopathic formula AEURA could serve as a potential therapeutic agent for stroke & for AD. In examining AEURA treatment of PC12 cells exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity, hypoxia /re-oxygenation injury and A-Beta toxicity. We demonstrated an increased survival rate in AEURA treated cells by comparison to control cells. In examining the therapeutic potential of AEURA in PC12 cells this homeopathic agent was found to be neuroprotective against either glutamate induced toxicity, hypoxia /re-oxygenation stress or cell stress resulting from viral infection (with either HSV-1 or rhinovirus). Our ongoing studies involve examining the neuroprotective potential AEURA in vivo using rodent models of stroke & AD.
The commonest etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) is Sepsis that results in an escalation of morbidity and mortality in the hospital intensive care units. Existentially, the therapy of septic AKI rather than being definitive or curative is just supportive, without tackling the pathophysiology. Usually, Sepsis gets correlated with systemic inflammation, along with the escalated generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular superoxide. Simultaneously liberation of nitric oxide (NO) subsequently reacts with the superoxide, thus, resulting in the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), that is mostly peroxynitrite. This sepsis stimulated generation of ROS in addition to RNS might cause a reduction in the bioavailability of NO that modulates microcirculation aberrations, localized tissue hypoxia as well as mitochondrial impairment, thus starting a vicious cycle of cellular damage which results in AKI. Here we conducted a systematic review utilizing search engine PubMed, Google scholar; Web of science; Embase; Cochrane review library utilizing the MeSH terms like septic AKI; ROS; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate(NADPH)oxidase complex; Oxidative stress; Renal medullary hypoxia; Hypoxia inducible factor1; hypoxia responsive enhancer A; mitochondrial impairment; Intrarenal oxygenation; urinary oxygenation; erythropoietin gene; RRT; NAC; Vitamin C from 1950 to 2021 till date. We found a total of 6500 articles out of which we selected 110 articles for this review. No meta-analysis was done. Thus here we detail the different sources of ROS, at the tie of sepsis, besides their pathophysiological crosstalk with the immune system, microcirculation as well as mitochondria that can result in the generation of AKI. Furthermore, we detail the therapeutic utility of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), besides the reasons for its success in ovine as well as porcine models of AKI. Moreover, we discuss preclinical along with clinical for evaluation of Vitamin C’s antioxidant effects as well as pleiotropic effects as a stress hormone that might aid in abrogation of septic AKI.
This article investigates the viability of SARS-CoV-2 and its dependence on pH levels, specifically focusing on the difference between the pH stability intervals for the coronavirus and human blood. Human blood typically maintains a pH range of around 7.35 to 7.45, while SARS-CoV-2 exhibits stability within the pH range of 6.0 to 6.5. The study aims to elucidate the critical role of hemoglobin in maintaining pH balance and explores its implications for viral susceptibility. The findings emphasize the importance of reinforcing the alkalinity of the medium as a means to weaken the virus. The research contributes to the understanding of pH-dependent mechanisms in viral infections and provides valuable insights for the development of potential therapeutic strategies.
Oussama Ssouni*, Latifa Oualili, Tarek Dendane, Amine Ali Zeggwagh and Khalid Abidi
Published on: 28th July, 2023
Introduction: Aluminum Phosphide (AlP) poisoning is a life-threatening condition that commonly occurs in developing countries, often resulting in cardiac, respiratory, and metabolic complications, leading to multi-organ failure and mortality. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has been proposed as a potential therapy for severe AlP poisoning cases refractory to conventional management, though its use remains controversial. Methodology: for this literature review, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of existing literature concerning the utilization of ECMO in patients with severe AlP poisoning. We meticulously examined available publications to explore the relationship between ECMO initiation and patient outcomes. Discussion: The review reveals that early ECMO initiation within 6 hours of presentation is associated with better outcomes and higher survival rates in severe AlP poisoning cases. However, uncertainties persist regarding the optimal timing and duration of ECMO support, and potential complications, including bleeding, acute renal injury, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, need careful consideration. Conclusion: Despite promising results in certain cases, the risks and benefits of ECMO in AlP poisoning require meticulous evaluation. Ethical considerations, encompassing resource allocation and implications for other patients, necessitate appropriate patient selection criteria.
Publishing with the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology was a rewarding experience as review process was thorough and brisk. Their visibility online is second to none as their published articles appear in all search engines. I will encourage researchers to publish with them.
University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
Dr. Elizabeth A Awoyesuku
Congratulations for the excellence of your journal and high quality of its publications.
Angel MARTIN CASTELLANOS
Many thanks for publishing my article in your great journal and the friendly and hassle-free publication process, the constructive peer-review, the regular feedback system, and the Quick response to any queries.
Azab Elsayed Azab
Your service is very good and fast reply, Also your service understand our situation and support us to publication our articles.
Palestine College of Nursing, Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, Palestine
Ayman M Abu Mustafa
It has been a fabulous journey writing articles for your journal because of the encouragement you people provide for writers from developing nations like India. Kindly continue the same. Looking forward for a long term association.
"An amazing experience with the Journal of Advanced Pediatrics and Child Health. Very fast blind review with pertinent corrections and suggestions. I highly recommand both the journal and the editor."
“Mobile apps and wearable technology are becoming ubiquitous in our environment. Their integration with healthcare delivery is just beginning to take shape. The early results are promising and the possibilities great."
BS, PharmD., MBA, CPHIMS, FHIMSS, Adjunct Professor, Global Healthcare Management, MCPHS University, Chief Strategy Offi cer, MedicaSoft, Senior Advisor, National Health IT (NHIT) Collaborative for Underserved, New York HIMSS, National Liaison, Health 2.0 Boston, Past Chair, Chair Innovation, USA
"This is my first time publishing with the journal/publisher. I am impressed at the promptness of the publishing staff and the professionalism displayed. Thank you for encouraging young researchers like me!"
Ekiti State University, Nigeria
Thank you for your attitude and support. I am sincerely grateful to you and the entire staff of the magazine for the high professionalism and fast quality work. Thank you very much!
Regarding to be services, we note that are work with high standards of professionalism translated into quick response, efficiency which makes communication accessible. Furthermore, I believe to be much inviting for the submission of future works for publication purposes.