Penicillin

Combinatorial Therapeutic Approaches to DNA/RNA and Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G), Fluoxetine Hydrochloride (Prozac and Sarafem), Propofol (Diprivan), Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) (Aspirin), Naproxen Sodium (Aleve and Naprosyn) and Dextromethamphetamine Nanocapsules with Surface Conjugated DNA/RNA to Targeted Nano Drugs for Enhanced Anti-Cancer Efficacy and Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Nano Drugs Delivery Systems

Published on: 17th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286356766

In the current study, combinatorial therapeutic approaches to DNA/RNA of human cancer cells and Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G), Fluoxetine Hydrochloride (Prozac and Sarafem), Propofol (Diprivan), Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) (Aspirin), Naproxen Sodium (Aleve and Naprosyn) and Dextromethamphetamine nanocapsules with surface conjugated DNA/RNA of human cancer cells to targeted Nano drugs for enhanced anti-cancer efficacy and targeted cancer therapy using Nano drugs delivery systems were investigated.
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Prevalence of reported drug allergy and its impact on Beta lactam use with financial and health implications

Published on: 22nd August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317598807

Background:While recognition and documentation of true drug allergy is critically important, most physicians acknowledge that its prevalence is likely overestimated, often on the basis of historical, sometimes anecdotal evidence. Correct or not, once applied, drug allergy labels may result in altered, potentially inferior therapy, increased costs and prolonged hospitalisation. Objective:Estimate the point prevalence, accuracy and symptomatology of self-reported drug allergy in a typical, large NHS Acute Trust adult inpatient population. In the subset with penicillin allergy (PA), estimate additional management costs from the use of alternative antibiotics and readmission rates in the previous 5 years. Methods:Data on self-reported drug allergies were extracted from 440 adult inpatient prescription charts over a 4 month period. Where penicillin allergy (PA) was reported, alternative antibiotic regimens were recorded and their additional costs calculated. Hospital electronic records were used to assess readmission rates of PA patients. Results:194/440 inpatients (44.5%) reported at least one drug allergy. Antibiotic allergy was most commonly reported (51%), followed by analgesic (23%) and antiemetic (12%) allergy. PA accounted for 76% of reported antibiotic allergy. The commonest reported symptoms were cutaneous (42%) and gastrointestinal (18%). Where antibiotic therapy was required for patients with PA to manage acute infections, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Teicoplanin, Clindamycin and Cefuroxime were the most commonly employed alternatives. Extrapolation of these figures to include the entire Trust inpatient population suggested that the use of alternative antibiotics in PA patients incurred additional annual expenditure of £268,000. Further, 87% of PA patients had been admitted more than once in the preceding 5 years, with 74% requiring further courses of antibiotics during these admissions. Conclusion:Self-reported drug allergy, and in particular PA, is common in hospital inpatient populations and, in addition to the potentially unnecessary hazards to individual patients resulting from the use of alternative antibiotics, results in a considerable additional financial burden to the healthcare system. This problem could be eliminated by the provision of a nationwide and equitable tertiary Allergy service.
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Evaluation of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of marine Bacillus subtilis ESRAA3010 against different multidrug resistant Enterococci (MDRE) and cancer cell lines

Published on: 28th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872659898

Fifty nine isolates belonging to six species of Enterococci namely, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus mundtiiand Enterococcus avium (n = 35, 15, 4, 3, 1 and 1 isolates, respectively) were obtained from different clinical specimens including urine, pus, blood, wound, sputum and synovial fluid. The highest numbers of Enterococci were recorded from the pus (20 isolates, 33.90%) followed by urine (12 isolates, 20.34%) while the lowest frequency was observed with synovial fluid samples (2 isolates, 3.39%). These isolates showed different multidrug resistant patterns with the lowest resistant for linezolid (n = 5, 8.48%), followed by teicoplanin (n = 14, 23.73%) and vancomycin (n = 20, 33.90%) while they exhibited the highest resistant against penicillin (n = 53, 89.83%), oxacillin (n = 50, 84.75%), erythromycin (n = 49, 83.05%) and streptomycin (n = 47, 79.66 %). On the other hand, a free living marine bacterium under isolation code ESRAA3010 was isolated from seawater samples obtained from the fishing area Masturah, Red Sea, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, 16S rRNA gene analyses and phylogenetic data proved that isolate ESRAA3010 is very close to Bacillus subtilis and then it was designated as Bacillus subtilis ESRAA3010. It gave the highest antagonistic activity against all clinical Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus mundtiiand Enterococcus avium isolates under study with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 4 to 56 µg/mL, 4 to 12 µg/mL, 4 to 8 µg/mL, 4 to 8 µg/mL, 8 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, respectively as well as minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) (8 to 64 µg/mL, 4 to 16 µg/mL, 4 to 12 µg/mL, 4 to 16 µg/mL, 12 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively). Moreover it showed anti-proliferative activity against colon (HCT-116), liver (HepG-2), breast (MCF-7) and lung (A-549) carcinomas with IC50 equal to 39, 50, 75 and 19 µg/mL, respectively which indicates its prospective usage in the upcoming decades.
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Antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from urine in hospital patients and outpatients

Published on: 26th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8982640435

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial species that often causes infections in humans. Infections occur most frequently in hospitalised or immunocompromised patients and are treated with antimicrobials. In recent decades, K. pneumoniae has developed significant resistance to many antimicrobials. Objective: The main goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance of isolated K. pneumoniae strains from urine samples of hospital patients and outpatients, and to find evidence of ESBL strains and their resistance to certain antibiotics. Methods: During the study period, Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated from the urine samples of 430 patients. The procedure for processing of urine samples, identification, susceptibility toward antimicrobials and evidence of ESBL strains were carried out according to the recommended standards. Results: Of the total K. pneumoniae isolates, 153 (35.6%) were isolated from hospital patients and 277 (64.4%) from outpatients. Strains isolated from hospital patients were resistant to each tested antibiotic. ESBL strains were detected in 169 (39.30%) samples, 92 (60.13%) from hospital patients and 77 (27.8%) from outpatients. Conclusion: Strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from the urine of hospital patients and outpatients have developed significant resistance against all tested antibiotic substances. A higher occurrence of ESBL strains was observed in hospital patients than in outpatients. ESBL strains were resistant to all penicillins and almost all cephalosporins. Highly effective antimicrobials were amikacin, colistine, carbapenem and fosfomycin. The best therapeutic results were achieved when patients were treated with fosfomycin and imipenem.
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Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus a green plague-Current status of available drug and new potential targets

Published on: 14th June, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124811236

Pigeonpea is one of the important legume crops with high protein content and nutritional traits. It has enormous potency for its widespread adoption by farming communities. It is affected by various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. In the context, of biotic stresses Sterility mosaic disease (SMD) is one of the severe diseases in pigeonpea which ultimately lead to the drastic yield loss. The virus belongs to the genus Emaravirus, family- Fimoviridae. SMD is associated with two diverse types of Emaravirus, Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus1 (PPSMV-1) and Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2). It is transmitted by the mite (Aceria cajani), mainly environmental contributing to the feasibility for the mites for the inoculation of the virus. The SMD is mainly governed by two genes SV1 that includes the dominant allele and serves as an inhibitory action on the resistance of the SV2. Methods for identification of the virus include RT-PCR, DIBA and ELISA using alkaline phosphatase or penicillinase. To control SMV disease farmers generally adopted intercropping methods. There are few potential drugs have been identified for the administration of the disease such as 0.1% Fenazaquin, Dicofol, Imidacloripid, Carbosulfan; Spiromesifin includes the inhibition of the mite inoculation on the pigeonpea plant. The present review describes compressive and systematic insights on SMV protein targets and potential drugs that could be utilized as the presumed drug targets for the finding of true drugs against the SMD in pigeonpea.
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Ceftriaxone in pediatrics: Indication, adverse drug reaction, contraindication and drug interaction

Published on: 5th April, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9470678055

Ceftriaxone is having many uses and useful “third-generation” cephalosporin that necessitates being given every day. Ceftriaxone acts as binds to one or many of the penicillin-binding proteins which inhibit the final transpeptidoglycan step of peptidoglycan synthesis in the bacterial cell wall, thus inhibiting biosynthesis and arresting cell wall assembly resulting in bacterial cell death.Ceftriaxone-associated biliary adverse events in children less than eighteen years cause biliary pseudolithiasis and scarcely nephrolithiasis often happen in children less than eighteen years after receiving overdoses of ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone perhaps binds with calcium and figure insoluble chelation leading to biliary pseudolithiasis. Cholelithiasis, increased biliary thickness, and pseudolithiasis rarely happen in a period of being a child, but there are two modes of distribu¬tion described by two peaks, the first being at an early stage of development and the second is a period of life when a child develops into an adult. Hyperbilirubinemia is significantly contraindicated for neonates administrated ceftriaxone, particularly premature neonates, because of the displacement of bilirubin from albumin-binding sites and increase in blood concentrations of free bilirubin. A child than one month old and a child less than twelve-month old in special are at great risk of poor results because of bilirubin encephalopathy. Coincident administrations of ceftriaxone with aminoglycosides such as gentamycin and loop diuretics (furosemide) perhaps increase the risk of nephrotoxicity (rapid degeneration in the kidney function to the toxic outcome of double or triple medications). Coincident administrations of ceftriaxone with anticoagulant medications such as warfarin are associated with bleeding due to increased prothrombin times, which is reversible with vitamin K.
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A case report of hepatic actinomycosis: A rare form of presentation

Published on: 20th September, 2022

Hepatic Actinomycosis (HA) is a very rare abdominal actinomycosis that can be confused with hepatic involvement due to a tumor. Liver involvement can occur from an abdominal focus or by blood dissemination from another focus. This disease is much more common in men between 50 - 70 years and in a situation of immunosuppression. Symptoms are nonspecific and diagnosis includes histopathology, cultures, and imaging test. Treatment includes prolonged antibiotic therapy with antibiotics such as penicillin and drainage of abscesses.We present a case of a 54-year-old man patient with a record of three years of chronic pancreatitis of probably alcoholic origin, who developed hepatic actinomycosis, requiring drainage of liver abscesses and directed antibiotic treatment.
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