Andreas Suhartoyo Winarno*, Lukas Schloesser, Frederic Dietzel, Percy Balan, Thomas Hoehn, Monika Hampl and Tanja Natascha Fehm
Published on: 16th December, 2019
Deliveries prior to 28 weeks’ gestation (extreme preterm birth) pose a global health concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Extreme preterm birth is associated with several complications in the newborn and management in neonatal intensive care unit would incur high expenses. In parallel, advancements in in vitro fertilization will give an opportunity for women to conceive in cases of ovarian failure. At the same time, health providers also encourage patients to receive more than one embryo simultaneously during an embryo transfer. Here we report a case of a patient in coma condition of triplet pregnancy, post ovum donation with three-embryo transfer. Following stabilization, cranial computed tomography (CCT) was performed. The result showed bleeding in the brainstem and into intraventricular spaces at 25+4 gestation weeks. Furthermore, ICH during pregnancy is considered as a rare case in obstetrical field, especially involving the brainstem. This could lead to life-threatening conditions and serious disability in the future. On the fifth day of hospitalization, she suffered from pneumonia and pulmonary edema. On the eight day (26+5 gestations weeks), an emergency caesarean section was performed due to fully dilated of the cervix with breech presentation of all fetuses. Mother and the children survived with some non-life-threatening disabilities.
This is the very first case reported of intracerebral hemorrhage in the brainstem in triplet pregnancy after receiving ovum donation. Heterologous conception could be an iceberg phenomenon of gestational complications among the population. Reproductive tourism could still become greater in the future.
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate radiographic features of systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease.
Patients and methods: 116 patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) from 2010 to 2019 comprised our retrospective study. All patients were subject to high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). ILD patterns were classified into 7 patterns as IIPs and analyzed with pathology. We chose two staging method and two semi-quantitative score methods to evaluate the HRCT performance and analyzed with pulmonary function tests.
Results: Ground-glass opacities were the most common presentation on HRCT, followed by interlobular septal thickening, reticular opacities, intralobular interstitial thickening; honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and nodules can also be observed. The most common pattern of SSc-ILD was nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), secondly was UIP. There was no difference in ILD pattern between HRCT and pathology, and revealed a high congruence. The four HRCT evaluating methods presented in this study all had significant relationships with PETs.
Conclusion: The most common pattern of SSc-ILD was nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The ILD patterns of HRCT coincide very well with histology, and will replace pathology as the gold standard for diagnosis and evaluation of SSc-ILD.
Pneumonia caused by the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease and the ongoing outbreak has been declared as a Pandemic by the World health organization. Pneumonia is a serious disease in pregnancy and requires prompt attention. Viral pneumonia has higher morbidity and mortality compared to bacterial pneumonia in pregnancy. All efforts are well exerted to understand the newly emerged disease features but still some areas are gray.
The treatment is primarily supportive with antivirals, steroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. Severe cases require intensive care monitoring with oxygen support, mechanical ventilation. Investigational therapies include convalescent plasma, cytokine release inhibitors and other immunomodulatory agents like interferons. The mortality appears driven by the presence of severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS) and organs failure.
COVID pandemic is a challenging and stressful socio-economic situation with widespread fear of infection, disease and death. In the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, studies are being conducted to ascertain the manifestation of disease in pregnant women and the fetal outcome.
The aim of our case series is to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, feto- maternal outcome of severe and critical COVID pneumonia in pregnant women in Latifa Hospital.
It is difficult to predict how the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, would react to an attempt to link his theory and the method of treating mental disorders based on it , with such a purely physical disease as acute pneumonia (AP). It is unlikely that such an innovation could cause full approval and support. However, in this context, we are not talking about psychoanalysis as a therapeutic method for AP. In this case, only the diagnostic features of this technique are of interest
A 78-year-old man, known case of, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension presented with fever, dry cough and dyspnea of five-day duration. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and was admitted to the intensive care unit as a case of severe COVID -19 pneumonia. Evaluation revealed raised inflammatory markers CRP: 92.2 mg/ml, LDH: 556 IU/L, Ferritin: 286 ng/ml, D-dimer: 3716 ng/ml. On day 9 of illness, he developed numbness, pain and discoloration of right hand.
Earlier in our laboratory, the role of various individual sperm impairing microorganisms on sperm parameters and female infertility has been elucidated at higher doses. As, multiple bacterial species tend to exert more pathogenic effect in comparison to single organism hence, present study was carried out to evaluate that if consortia of these sperm impairing organisms can lead to infertility in female mice at sub fertility dose. For this, impact of individual bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and consortia of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was examined on the motility, viability of mouse spermatozoa and fertility outcome. The results showed that the individual bacterial strains of E. coli, S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae could led to immobilization of spermatozoa by agglutination and P. aeruginosa led to immobilization of spermatozoa without agglutination. Also, all of them led to 100% sperm death in 45 min of incubation. In case of consortia of bacterial strains, the results showed sperm agglutination in all the cases and they were able to induce 100% sperm death at 30 min of incubation time. Further, in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate the impact of individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains on the fertility outcome in female Balb/c mice. For this, female mice were administered intravaginally with 101 cfu/20µl of individual bacterial strains or consortia of strains for 10 consecutive days or PBS. The results showed that both individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains were able to efficiently colonize the mouse vagina. Further, control group receiving phosphate buffer saline and groups receiving individual bacterial strains showed all the pregnancy related changes viz. abdominal distension, string of pearls on palpation as well as delivery of pups on completion of gestation period and delivery of pups. The histological examination of reproductive organs viz. uterus and ovary, of the female mice receiving PBS or individual bacterial strains showed the formation of corpus luteum in the ovary and the formation of decidua’s in the uterus, indicative of pregnancy. However, mice receiving consortia of bacterial strains did not show any pregnancy related changes throughout the experiment. Thus, these results indicate that the presence of consortia of sperm impairing microorganisms in vaginal milieu is efficient in provoking infertility even at subfertility doses.
Introduction: Congestive heart failure is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the XXI century given the promising to date of ABMDSCs and HFDSCs we investigate the safety and efficacy for the implantation of those stem cells for the treatment of idiopathic cardiomyopathy. This is the first pilot clinical study to assess the safety and feasibility of HFDSC in humans. We totally implanted 13 patients: 3 patients were implanted with ABMDSC by Mini-invasive surgical technique in March 2004 in Montevideo, Uruguay, and 10 patients were implanted with HFDSCs by using 2 different surgical techniques: minimally invasive technique (1 patient) and full sternotomy technique (9 patients) between January and February of 2005 in Guayaquil Ecuador.
The HFDSCs were obtained from fetuses of 5 to 12 weeks´ gestation from legally consent, no compensated donors who have undergone terminated ectopic pregnancies, elective abortions, or spontaneous miscarriages. At that gestation´s period, totipotent stem cells´ fetus haven´t develop yet the HLA histocompatibility complex, so there´s no possible antigenicity between donor and recipient.
Results: Patients with HFDSCs improved in association with increased contractility in these regions. Compared with baseline assessments, we noted other improvements: The mean (±SD) NYHA class decreased from 3.4±0.5 to 1.33±0.5 (P=.001); the mean EF increased 31%, from 26.6% ± 4.0% to 34.8%±7.2% (P=.005); performance in the ETT increased 291.3%, from 4.25 minutes to 16.63 minutes (128.9% in metabolic equivalents, 2.45 to 5.63) (P<.0001); the mean LVEDD decreased 15%, from 6.85±0.6cm to 5.80±0.58cm (P<.001); mean performance in the 6-minute walk test increased 43.2%, from 251±113.1 seconds to 360±0 seconds (P=.01); the mean distance increased 64.4%, from 284.4±144.9m to 468.2±89.8m (P=.004); and the mean result in the Minnesota congestive HF test decreased from 71±27.3 to 6±5.9 (P<.001) The Kaplan-Maier probability of survival at 48 months was 66%.
It is not observed rejection, these patients have not developed malignance nodules or cancer at all in the follow-up. In the AMBCSs. The preoperative average NYHA functional class was 3.4; at. 6 months of follow up the average functional class value was 1.3 (p<0,005);. After 6 months all of them remained in functional class I/II. Baseline values of LVEF were 25,28 and 30%.; at 6 months increased to 38, 40 and 46%. (p<0,05). LVESV went from 50mm to 42mm (p<0.05). After 24 months, 2 of the patients still maintained this improvement, while the 3er patient returned to the earlier values after suffering from pneumonia. At 12 years and 5 months 2 patients are alive both received a Resynchronization Therapy; at 8 years and 3 months and 9 years and 1,6 month the actual average EF are 28 and 30 %. The 3er patient died of sudden death at 10 years after the implantation. We can´t demonstrate the cause of this sudden death.
Conclusion: Irrespective of the improvement seen in this study, it is still premature to determine accurately the mechanism of action, indications, doses and type of stem cells. Therefore, is imperative and extremely important that more research is needed.
Background: Knowledge of pulmonary complications (PCs) in children after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited; most data are from adult studies.
Case: We describe a 8 year old girl with high risk acute myeloid leukemia who developed graft versus host disease (GVHD) on Day 20, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia on Day 50 and Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) on Day 170 after allo-HSCT.
Discussion: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a rare noninfectious PCs that can be idiopathic or have several risk factors as a secondary causes, such as viral respiratory infections, drugs, GVHD and allo-HSCT. Viral respiratory infections and alloimmune lung syndromes have been reported in a few patients who have undergone transplantation.
Conclusion: Transplant physicians should be kept in mind for the development of alloimmune lung syndrome in the form of COP following CMV pneumonia in patients after allo- HSCT
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a quite common disease caused by the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus and manifested by heartburn and acid regurgitation. Apart from the esophageal manifestations, GERD is implicated in extraesophageal manifestations including pulmonary manifestations i.e. asthma, chronic cough, pneumonia, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, otolaryngological manifestations i.e. laryngitis, otitis, polyps, cancer of the larynx, chest pain [1,2]. The relationship between GERD and pulmonary manifestations is quite challenging and ongoing research efforts have focused on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of GERD induced asthma.
Treatment of various inflammatory processes, including acute pneumonia(АP), over the past decades is identical and does not reflect the specifics of a particular disease. The basis of such treatment is «antibiotics alone». The need for additional therapeutic efforts is realized by the use of General therapeutic techniques, regardless of the diagnosis. This does not take into account the important fact that the localization of inflammation not only determines its clinical picture,but,above all,the mechanisms of influence on other organs and systems of the body.
Mark Taubert, Lorenz Weidhase, Sirak Petros and Henrik Rueffert*
Published on: 17th October, 2018
A 64-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to progressive dypnoea for the past week, combined with fever and type 1 respiratory failure. White blood cell count and procalcitonin level were normal. The Chest X-ray showed bilateral disseminated pulmonary infiltrates. Within the next 24 hours the patient developed a severe ARDS. A first diagnostic work-up for typical and atypical pathogens as well as serological tests for CMV, RSV, HIV and HSV were negative. Analysis of a second bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed Pneumocystis jiroveci DNA. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and off label use with caspofungin. The cause of the infection was a six week treatment with dexamethasone. The patient developed a toxic epidermal necrolysis during further course, but completely recovered.
Pneumonia with Pneumocystis jirovecii must also be taken into account in non-HIV patients, whenever there are any indications that cellular immunity may be depressed.
Modern AP concepts are focused exclusively on the infectious nature of the disease and the presence of certain pathogens. This belief determines the principles of treatment, the lack of effectiveness of which remains a concern of health professionals. The article presents a fragment of the study devoted to the etiology of АP. 994 children aged 4 months to 14 years with various forms of so-called community-acquired pneumonia were examined and treated. Bacteriological examination of the material from the inflammation zone was carried out in 542 patients. Experiments on modeling АP and its pleural complications were performed on 44 animals. The obtained results and critical analysis of the literature data and scientific facts allow us to consider bacteria only as one of the etiological elements of АP, which is not mandatory in all cases of the disease. Scientifically based revision of existing ideas about the causes and mechanisms of AP development leads to the need for a radical change in the principles of treatment and is a strategic direction in solving the problem.
The article presents the results of x-ray anatomical studies of 56 whole lung preparations, which were carried out immediately after the autopsy of children who died from АP. In 47 cases it was carried out the contrast of the vessels and in 9 cases the bronchial tree. The results allowed to clarify some details of the pathogenesis of АP and were additional arguments in support of the new doctrine of the disease.
The question raised in the title of this letter is a natural consequence of the findings and conclusions that have been growing steadily in recent years regarding the results of treatment for acute pneumonia (АР). If you look at the publications of recent years in this field of medicine, it turns out that one of the main obstacles to progress in improving the results of treatment of this disease is the lack of appropriate methods for determining the pathogen. Thus, the lack of timely diagnostic information about the etiology of the disease excludes the possibility of targeted antibiotic therapy. In recent years, such regrets have become more and more relevant, playing the role of the main explanation for treatment failures .Continuing to narrow the unidirectional view of the problem and to pay attention only to the microbial factor as the main cause of the disease, such views are in fact another illusion, which, even in the case of its hypothetical implementation, will not make significant changes in the overall trend. This statement is easy to verify if you rely on well-known facts, and not use as arguments assumptions and guesses.
Background: An infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus called COVID-19 has raged across the world since December 2019. The novel coronavirus first appeared in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to Asia and now many countries around the world are affected by the epidemic. The deaths of many patients, including medical staff, caused social panic, media attention, and high attention from governments and world organizations. Today, with the joint efforts of the government, the doctors and all walks of life, the epidemic in Hubei Province has been brought under control, preventing its spread from affecting the lives of the people. Because of its rapid spread and serious consequences, this sudden novel coronary pneumonia epidemic has become an important social hot spot event. Through the analysis of the novel coronary pneumonia epidemic situation, we can also have a better understanding of sudden infectious diseases in the future, so that we can take more effective response measures, establish a truly predictable and provide reliable and sufficient information for prevention and control model.
Methods: We establish different models according to the different developments of the epidemic situation, different time points, and different response measures taken by the government. To be specific, during the period of 2020.1.23-2020.2.7, the traditional SIR model is adopted; during the period of 2020.2.8-2020.3.30, according to the scientific research results, it was considered that the novel coronary pneumonia has a latent period, so in the later phase of epidemic development, the government has effectively isolated patients, thus we adopt the SEIQR model accordingly. During the period of 2020.3.31-2020.5.16, because more asymptomatic infected people were found, we use the SEIQLR model to fit. Finally, through a SEIR simulator, considering the susceptible number, the latent number, the infected number, the cured number, death number and other factors, we simulate the change of various numbers of people from the beginning to the next 180 days of novel coronary pneumonia.
Findings: The results based on the analysis of differential equations and kinetic models show that through the prediction of the model established in the first phase, the epidemic situation of novel coronary pneumonia in Hubei Province was controlled at the end of March, which is in line with the actual situation. The rest of Hubei province, except for Wuhan, lifted control of the departure channel from 0:00 am on March 25, and Wuhan was also unblocked on April 8. Through the establishment of the second-phase model, it is found that the epidemic situation will reach its peak in mid-February. For example, the quarantine admission of the hospital declined after mid-February, which is inseparable from the measures to build square cabin hospitals in early February so that more and more patients can be admitted. The model established in the third phase shows that the epidemic had been completely controlled by the end of May, which is also in line with the reality. Because in mid-May, the Wuhan government conducted a nucleic acid test on all the citizens to screen for asymptomatic infected persons to fundamentally control the spread of novel coronary pneumonia.
Interpretation: Hubei Province, as the center of the initial outbreak of novel coronary pneumonia, people were forced to be isolated at home during the Spring Festival, the most important Chinese holiday, and the whole society was in a state of suspension of work and study. The Chinese government had taken many measures in response to the epidemic, such as shutting down the city, vigorously building square cabin hospitals, and prohibiting people from gathering. At the beginning of May this year, the epidemic in Hubei Province was finally effectively controlled. For ordinary citizens, we should not cause unnecessary panic about the unknown novel coronavirus. Instead, we should fully understand and be familiar with this virus. In addition to the relevant medical knowledge, we should also understand the spread of infectious diseases through appropriate mathematical models. By mathematical models, we can understand the degree of harm of infectious diseases, when to control it, how to stop it, and use scientific views to reveal the original face of the novel coronavirus to the public without causing social panic.
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial species that often causes infections in humans. Infections occur most frequently in hospitalised or immunocompromised patients and are treated with antimicrobials. In recent decades, K. pneumoniae has developed significant resistance to many antimicrobials.
Objective: The main goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance of isolated K. pneumoniae strains from urine samples of hospital patients and outpatients, and to find evidence of ESBL strains and their resistance to certain antibiotics.
Methods: During the study period, Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated from the urine samples of 430 patients. The procedure for processing of urine samples, identification, susceptibility toward antimicrobials and evidence of ESBL strains were carried out according to the recommended standards.
Results: Of the total K. pneumoniae isolates, 153 (35.6%) were isolated from hospital patients and 277 (64.4%) from outpatients. Strains isolated from hospital patients were resistant to each tested antibiotic. ESBL strains were detected in 169 (39.30%) samples, 92 (60.13%) from hospital patients and 77 (27.8%) from outpatients.
Conclusion: Strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from the urine of hospital patients and outpatients have developed significant resistance against all tested antibiotic substances. A higher occurrence of ESBL strains was observed in hospital patients than in outpatients. ESBL strains were resistant to all penicillins and almost all cephalosporins. Highly effective antimicrobials were amikacin, colistine, carbapenem and fosfomycin. The best therapeutic results were achieved when patients were treated with fosfomycin and imipenem.
The novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV has become a bane to mankind and spread worldwide and infected many people. Thus, there is an urgent need of a cure for the severe pneumonia disease caused by this virus. In this study, In silico comparative analysis has been done for HIV protease inhibitors on coronavirus 3CLpro protein which has shown the major interactions and common amino acid residues involved in interactions. The amino acid interaction analysis has revealed two amino acids ARG4, LYS5 to be the major amino acids targets among selected ligands. The binding energy analysis has also revealed Cobicistat as one of these best suited ligand for 3CLpro.
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition, more commonly seen in patients with history of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infections, or drug users. Today, we face one novel virus that has cause an outbreak of acute respiratory illness, affecting over a million individuals worldwide. New knowledge is been gained of the virus and possible complications are been seen. Following, we present the case of a 71-year-old man with diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia complicated with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.
Introduction: the perennial pandemic: There are serious challenges posed by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 as the disease. With the persistence of the pandemic over one and half year, it is being feared that the COVID-19 may have become the new reality associated with human existence world over and the mankind may have to live with it for years or even decades. Further, the grievous nature of the disease is evolving further with genomic changes in the virus in form of mutations and evolution of variants, with enhanced infectivity and probably virulence.
Acute and chronic phases of COVID-19: Epidemiologically, it is becoming clear that apart from the advanced age and pre-existing conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal diseases, certain constituent factors render some patients more vulnerable to more severe forms of the disease. These factors influence the COVID-19 manifestations, its course, and later the convalescence period as well as the newly defined ‘Long COVID phase. The substantial continuing morbidity after resolution of the infection indicates persisting multisystem effects of ‘Long Covid’.
Lung damage associated with COVID-19: COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease presenting with a broad spectrum of respiratory tract involvement ranging from mild upper airway affliction to progressive life-threatening viral pneumonia and respiratory failure. It affects the respiratory system in various ways across the spectrum of disease severity, depending on age, immune status, and comorbidities. The symptoms may be mild, such as cough, shortness of breath and fevers, to severe and critical disease, including respiratory failure, shock, cytokine crisis, and multi-organ failure.
Implications for the post-COVID care: Depending on the severity of respiratory inflammation and damage, as well as associated comorbidities, duration of injury and genetics, the progressive fibrosis leads to constriction and compression of lung tissues and damage to pulmonary microvasculature. Consequently, the COVID-19 patients with moderate/severe symptoms are likely to have a significant degree of long-term reduction in lung function. Depending on the severity of the disease, extensive and long-lasting damage to the lungs can occur, which may persist after resolution of the infection.
Managing the long COVID’s challenges: Given global scale of the pandemic, the healthcare needs for patients with sequelae of COVID-19, especially in those with lung affliction are bound to increase in the near future. The challenge can be tackled by harnessing the existing healthcare infrastructure, development of scalable healthcare models and integration across various disciplines with a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities. Following clinical and investigational assessment, the therapeutic strategy should depend on the disease manifestations, extent of damage in lungs and other organs, and associated complications.
Organizing pneumonia (OP), can be seen in association with lung injury, infection, drug intoxication, and connective tissue diseases. Patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are prone to develop interstitial lung disease (ILD), but the pulmonary involvement usually occurs several years after the joint manifestations. Only in about 10% cases of RA, the initial manifestation of the disease can be in the form of interstitial lung disease. OP as the initial manifestation of RA is extremely uncommon occurrence.
Here is presented a case of 52-year-old male who presented with OP as the initial manifestation of RA. On investigation, the RA factor and anti-CCP Antibodies were positive. Based on clinical, radiological and histopathological findings the diagnosis was established.
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