Postpartum

Maternal and fetal outcome of comparative study between old & adopted new value of screening of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in tertiary centre in Saudi Arabia

Published on: 18th May, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7671832754

Objectives: To check if there is any significant difference in the immediate outcome of pregnancy with diabetes using the new values of FBS & 2hrs post prandial with 75g OGTT for 1 year (from 1st June 2013-31st May 2014) in comparison to the previous data done in the same institute with other values and with international figures. The data in our study included fetal, maternal morbidities, intra partum and postnatal outcomes, in order to help, if possible, on deciding the best values to use for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, to know the new percentages of gestational diabetes mellitus in SFH by utilizing the new values of Blood Sugar readings. Design: Retrospective cohort study Setting: Security Forces Hospital-Riyadh-Saudi Arabia Patients: Done (from 1st June 2013 – 31st May 2014), on patients who had attended Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This chosen year’s data was compared with data collected in the three previous years using different figures. Main Outcome measured: Average age of mother, maternal aspects of parity, history of GDM, number of abortions``````````````````````````````, estimated blood loss in labor, associated medical disorder, complications of previous pregnancies, methods of control of GDM, gestational age for IOL and associated intrapartum complications. Immediate neonatal outcome in cases of GDM, comparison of birth weights of babies & any specific congenital abnormalities and delayed causes of admission to NICU in the 4 years studied were also reviewed. Results: The percentage of diagnosed cases of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) after screening was 24 % as compared with 14.5% in previous study of 2003-2004 & with the number of screened patients amounting to 93% out of the total number of deliveries between 2013-2014 (in both years universal method of screening was used). The multidisciplinary set up of our GDM specialized clinic which was composed of dieticians, diabetic educators, endocrinologists and obstetric physicians operating together, helped to reduced the use of insulin in combination with diet to only 24% in comparison to 76% of patient using diet and exercise alone. The study showed a mean age of 33years and weight of 77kg. It was also noted that 16% of the patients diagnosed with GDM were multiparous averaging 1-5 deliveries. Almost 62% of patient didn’t give any history of GDM and no history of previous medical diseases. The majority of the patient with GDM delivered without complications during labor, with 30% having vaginal lacerations & 73% of patient had an estimated blood loss of less than 500cc. NICU admissions secondary to hyperbilirubinaemia averaged almost 17% in comparison to previous studies and only one baby expired in a GDM patient. Our study revealed a good fetal and maternal out come with less delivery complications and less incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (5.7%). Conclusion: It is concluded that Universal Screening of Pregnant women whether with previously used glucose value or new ones for gestational diabetes mellitus is a better option, which has proven to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. The 75 OGTT test is a cost effective test and with both easy accessibility and good screening pick up number (92.5%) of the patients in Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh. Recommendation: We recommend annual follow up for patients, both the mother and the baby after postpartum, to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.
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Perinatal Morbidity & Mortality following repeat Cesarean section due to five or more previous Cesarean Section done in Tertiary centre in KSA

Published on: 31st July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7815122185

Objectives: To highlight and determine the maternal and neonatal outcome and associated risks for patients who have undergone their 6th and more caesarean sections. Design: Case control study. Setting: Tertiary Centre (Security Forces Hospital – Riyadh – Saudi Arabia). Patients: 80 patients selected to study group who have undergone their sixth and more caesarean sections in Security Forces Hospital. Between June 2006 and May 2010. This group was compared to 80 patients who have undergone their third to fifth caesarean sections during the same time period and immediately following the studied case. Main outcome measured: Age and parity of women in study and the control group were correlated with the number of previous caesarean sections. Intra operative and post-operative maternal complications including presence and grade of adhesions, intra partum and postpartum hemorrhage, use of measurement and methods (both medical and surgical) to control bleeding such as Bakry balloon, Internal iliac artery ligation, etc., were highlighted. Bowel injury, blood transfusion, admission to surgical intensive care, incidence of placenta previa and accreta, post-operative complications like paralytic ileus, wound infection were also noted. Further, neonatal outcome including birth weight, Apgar score, and need for neonatal intensive care unit admission were reviewed. Results: Patients in the study group had higher incidence of extensive adhesions (41.25%) compared to (12.25%) in the control group. Bowel injury was (2.5%) in study group with none in the control group. The incidence of placenta previa was (8.75%) in the study group as compared to (2.5%) in the control group, with placenta accreta complicating (28.57%) of placenta previa seen only in the study group. Blood transfusion was higher in the study group (20%) as compared to (5%) in the control group. Neonatal admission to NICU was higher in the study group (27.5%) in comparison to the control group (12.5%). Also birth weight was lower in the study group. Conclusion: The more the number of caesarean sections, the more the maternal and neonatal morbidity. Patients should have proper counselling during antenatal follow up about the risks of repeated caesarean sections, and offered bilateral tubal ligation after the third or fourth caesarean sections.
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Immediate postplacental insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device (copper 375) and its complications in term of expulsion, infection and perforation

Published on: 27th December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7964701690

Objective: To determine the complications (infection, perforation and expulsion rate) of immediate postplacental insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device (Multiload Copper375) in postnatal patients. Methods: A case series study was conducted between October 28, 2014 to April 30, 2018 in obstetrics and gynaecology department, Civil Hospital Karachi,-+ Informed consent was taken. Intrauterine contraceptive device (Multiload) was inserted immediately within 10 min after delivery of placenta. These women were observed to determine outcome (infection, perforation and expulsion) at the time of discharge and 6 weeks postpartum. Absence of all these were taken as satisfactory outcome. Results: A total of 435 women were included in this study. 165 (38%) were delivered through cesarean section and 270 (62%) were delivered through vaginally. There were 36 (8.3%) cases of infection. The cumulative rate of expulsion and perforation at the end of sixth week of post insertion was 39 (9%) and 0% respectively and 360 (82.8%) had satisfactory outcome. Post-placental placements during cesarean delivery are associated with lower expulsion rates than post-placental vaginal insertions without increasing rates of postoperative complications like perforation, slightly increase infection rate following vaginal delivery. Conclusions: Immediate postpartum insertion of IUCD is an effective, safe and easily reversible method of contraception. Rates of the complications (Infection, expulsion and perforation) are remarkably low.
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Methotrexate in management of Morbidly Adherent Placenta at Latifa Hospital, DHA, Dubai, UAE.: Case report

Published on: 12th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192121249

Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) includes the spectrum of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. It is a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage. Caesarean section is main risk factor for MAP. Ultrasound scan is highly sensitive method for MAP diagnosis and sometime Magnetic resonance image is of choice. Early diagnosis timed elective planned intervention after preparation under skillful multidisciplinary team improve the outcome and minimize the morbidity. Caesarean hysterectomy, major arteries ligation, arteries embolization and leave the placenta in-situ all are choices of management. Use of Methotrexate for the placenta in-situ in MAP is still debatable. We present a case of MAP in which placenta left in- situ followed by multiple Methotrexate injection during postpartum with good outcome and acceptability.
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Low back pain induces disability of women in primary uncomplicated pregnancy

Published on: 18th September, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8286597221

Study design: A consecutive case series study Purpose: To investigate whether Low Back Pain (LBP) in women with primary singleton pregnancy induces disability. Background: LBP is reported to be increased in pregnants than in non-pregnant women. Different outcome measures have been used to search for correlations between pain and disability. Methods: 167 pregnant women aged 30 ± 3.5 years participated. Two equal categorial age groups were constructed: Group A included women aged 23 - 29 years, and Group B women aged 30-39 years. Their weight was 76 ± 13 kg prepartum and the Body Mass index (BMI) was 28 ± 4 prepartum. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used for LBP pain intensity and Oswestry Disability Scale (ODI) for disability estimation in the last three months prepartum and in the first three months postpartum. Results: The women weight was 67 ± 13 kg postpartum. The BMI was 24 ± 4 postpartum. There was no difference in VAS and ODI scores versus BMI, weight and height between the two age groups in both periods of observation: prepartum and postpartum. Prepartum, 81.4% of women claimed LBP that dropped to 55.5% postpartum. ODI score dropped from 19.5 ± 13.6% prepartum to 11 ± 12% postpartum. The ODI subscales that showed significant reduction postpartum were: Pain intensity (P = 0.002); working (P = 0.009); sitting (P = 0.004); standing (P = 0.003); sleeping (P = 0.008); and traveling (P = 0.006). VAS prepartum was increasing as the weight was increasing in both periods of observation (P = 0.015 and P=0.051) respectively. VAS prepartum was significantly correlated with BMI prepartum (P = 0.019) and postpartum (P = 0.028). Discussion: Physical disability in pregnant women was low and reduced following delivery. Disability was linked with LBP intensity, weight, BMI and height, but not with age or educational level. 
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Correlation between the presence of maternal gestational or pre-gestational pathologies and hearing impairment in the puerperal period

Published on: 22nd November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8444358678

Objective: To evaluate whether the occurrence of maternal pathologies, mainly Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertensive Syndromes in the gestational or pre-gestational period may be related to hearing impairment in postpartum women. Methods: Observational, prospective study including 361 puerperal women who had their deliveries at a reference University Hospital for pregnant women with clinical history of risk. Auditory evaluation was performed by Distortion Product Otoaccoustic Emissions (DPOAE) within 14 days after delivery. Measures of central tendency and absolute and relative frequencies were used to describe the sample and the chi-square test and binary logistic regression to assess the correlation among variables. Significance higher than 95% was observed and the study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Results: A total of 361 postpartum women were studied and 7.5% had hearing impairment. The frequency of gestational hypertension was 13.9%, that of gestational diabetes was 8.6% and that of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus was 5.8%. The presence of hearing impairment was significantly correlated with the occurrence of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (OR: 4.5 - CI: 1.51-1.47), and maternal age greater than 29 years (OR: 3.72 - 1, 58-8.76); A correlation was also found between maternal age and the presence of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.84 - CI: 1.45-10.15). Conclusion: In the population of postpartum women evaluated, having Diabetes Mellitus prior to pregnancy and belonging to the age group older than 29 years increases the chance of having hearing loss.
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Effectiveness of prenatal intensive counselling on knowledge, attitude and acceptance of post placental intrauterine contraceptive device among mothers

Published on: 27th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8573348290

Introduction: Contraception is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. In the first year of postpartum period around 65% of women are having unmet need of family planning. Post Placental Intrauterine Contraceptive Device is not only advantageous to the women and couples; even the service providers benefit from PPIUCD. PPIUCD insertion on the same delivery table saves time and separate clinical procedure is not required. Methodology: The Quantitiative Pre-Experimental One Group Pre and Post Test research design was used. 70 Antenatal mothers were selected by using Purposive Sampling Technique who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and who were available during the period of data collection at selected hospital, Puducherrry. Data was collected by using Structured Interview Schedule. Result: The Pre test mean score of Knowledge was 9.98 ± 2.38 and Post Test mean score of Knowledge was 14.91 ± 1.15. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-20.82) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Attitude was 34.67 ± 5.67 and Post test mean score of Attitude was 44.27 ± 4.70. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-17.25) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Acceptance was 0.11 ± 0.320 and Post Test mean score of Acceptance was 0.29 ± 0.455. The paired‘t’ value of t = -3.778 found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Demographic and Obstetrical Variables like age at marriage, previous childbirth and decision maker of family about family planning have shown significant association with Post Test level of Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD at p < 0.05 and p < 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that Prenatal Intensive Counselling increases the mother’s Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD. So Prenatal Intensive Counselling on PPIUCD can be given to Antenatal Mothers during their antenatal visits to meet the unmet needs of family planning.
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Which women uses social Internet networks during pregnancy?

Published on: 31st March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9023198153

Internet has become an important part of our life, including during pregnancy where it is broadly used to find information (84%). The aims of this study were (1) to describe the proportion of women using Internet Social Networks (ISN) concerning their pregnancy, during pre or postpartum hospital stay, (2) to define how ISN users refer to their pregnancy and delivery on these social networks, (3) to compare anxiety level, social sustain level, sociodemographic characteristics of the both population (4) and to determine profiles of the ISN users with multiple correspondence analysis. Methods: 399 questionnaires were distributed in the postpartum wards of two academic hospitals in Paris, and 258 fully filled were retrieved. Tools: Anxiety scale (STAI- A and B), Cutrona Social Provisions Scale, sociodemographic and obstetrical questionnaire. Results: 76% (n = 195) were ISN users. We compared ISN users versus ISN non users women. Demographically, the two populations were comparable. Anxiety scores were similar in both groups, whereas social support scores showed a statistical difference in social integration. In the global population, 84% use Internet for information concerning pregnancy; this rate is higher for ISN users than ISN non users (tendency 0.058). ISN were used in priority for sharing with relatives, and 10% with other pregnant women. Concerning pregnancy, patients posted in priority the birth announcement (28%), the pregnancy announcement (23%), and the newborn’s pictures (12%). 6% posted their fetuses’ ultrasound pictures. Three clusters of ISN users were extracted with statistically different social support scores (p = 0.019) and comparable anxiety scores. The third one, with at risk profile, used ISN as social support. For all women, but specifically for younger and more socially fragile women, Internet gives to professional new perspectives to develop information and prevention tools during the perinatal period.
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A case report of uterine inversion after home delivery

Published on: 26th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9024345346

Puerperal acute uterine inversion is a rare obstetric condition observed as a serious complication during the third stage of labor. Reported as one of the causes of postpartum haemorrhage, it commonly requires quick diagnosis and surgical treatment in order to reduce morbidity and lethality. The authors describe a case of uterine inversion with hypovolemic shock after home birth, brought to Hospital Leonor Mendes de Barros. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of acute uterine inversion and its management and a review of aetiology, predictive and risk factors, diagnosis and treatment.
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Helping asthmatic children through bonding therapy

Published on: 5th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9030359812

Disruptions in Maternal-infant Bonding are shown to be the mediating variable between maternal distress and the subsequent expression of childhood asthma. When the mothers’ bonding is repaired, their children’s asthmatic symptoms diminish or remit. This study evaluated 16 asthmatic children before and after their mothers were treated with Bonding Therapy. Fourteen improved on 11 measures, including reduction in the STEP classification system and medication use. Thirteen children were able to stop all medications. Surprisingly, all mothers scores on the Beck Depression Inventory improved through Bonding Therapy, suggesting that impaired bonding can lead to maternal depression or even Postpartum Depression. The link between bonding disruptions and airway inflammation are discussed. Bonding Therapy is described.
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COVID-19 associated hyperthyroidism due to destructive thyrotoxicosis in a young female patient

Published on: 27th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8643729535

SARS-CoV2 can induce multiple immunological and endocrinological changes. We report the case of a COVID-19 associated hyperthyroidism in a young female. Per definition the patient – because of having given birth six weeks previously - had a postpartum thyroiditis. However thus no antibodies were detected, the thyroiditis ceased without medication after the dissolving of the virus disease and the fT3/fT3-ratio proved a destructive thyreopathy as well as there was a close time link onset of the symptoms with the novel corona virus infection we argue it to be a COVID-19 induced thyrotoxicosis. This proves the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to alter thyroid function, therefore all COVID-19 patients should be monitored regarding endocrinological changes and TSH, fT3, fT4 should be assessed.
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Assessment of early initiation of breastfeeding and determinants among mothers of children under 24 months in Southeast Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

Published on: 29th October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9323491709

Background: Early-initiation of breastfeeding is putting the newborns to the breast within the first hour of life. It is the first critical time they contact their mother outside of the womb. The current study aimed to assess the early initiation of breastfeeding in the study setting. Objectives: To assess the level of early initiation of breastfeeding and its associated factors among mothers who had a baby of less than the age of 24 months in Jeju Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, 2019.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study conducted involving 487 mothers from September 18 to October 09, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was employed. First, the setting stratification done in urban and rural settings. Second, ten kebeles selected from both strata. The study participants identified by systematic random sampling technique using kebele log-books registration list as a scheme. The collected data were entered into Epi Info version 7.1.5.0 and exported to SPSS version 21.0.0.0 to analyze. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression used to determine relations between independent factors and early initiation of breastfeeding. Nine variables became eligible for multivariate analysis at a p - value less than 0.05 in bivariate. The final analyses done the significance of association decided using AOR with its 95% CI, and p - value at less than 0.05. Results: A 97% response rate achieved in this study. The prevalence of early breastfeeding initiation was 74.5%. In multivariate analysis variables namely, mothers whose age category was 35 years and above (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI: (1.07, 5.11)), Pre-lacteal feeding (AOR = 0.37 95% CI (0.17, 0.79)), postpartum advice (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI (1.01, 2.95)) had a significant association. Conclusion and recommendations: The prevalence of early breastfeeding initiation was (74.5%). The finding was low compared to the world health organization recommendation. A working towards discouraging pre-lacteal feeding and strengthening postnatal advice and focusing on ways to better reach young mothers were the recommendations to bring the prevalence in the study area to the recommended level.
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