The results of the 20 years studies of the presence in blood serum and other body fluids of endogenous modulators of adrenergic and M-cholinergic impact as a component of humoral link of autonomic nervous system. The article is devoted to the endogenous sensitizer of beta-adrenergic receptor (ESBAR) - water-soluble low molecular weight substances, analogs of which are histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine, mildronat and preductal. It is shown, that separate dilutions of human serum and animal (as a source of ESBAR) and analogs of ESBAR ways to enhance the effectiveness of activation of beta-adrenoceptors (AR) of smooth muscle (uterus, coronary and renal arteries, trachea, stomach), myocardium, erythrocytes and platelets (respectively influenced of histidine and tryptophan). It is reported that content of ESBAR in human serum (according to the titers of its dilution) depends on the sex and the presence of somatic diseases, and at women are also on the stage of reproduction and obstetric complications It is discussed possible mechanisms of ESBAR action, its physiological role, including as a component of beta-adrenoceptor inhibitory mechanism for myometrium, as well as the prospect of the use of analogs of ESBAR, including for the prevention of preterm labor, and for the treatment of bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, hypertension and heart failure.
Background: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) are at increased risk of developing congenital anomalies including cardiac defects. Pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and outflow tract obstruction is a rare but known cardiac comorbidity in infants of diabetic mothers. The severity of this condition in IDMs can vary from an incidental finding on echocardiography to an infant with severe symptoms of congestive heart failure and specific management of the condition varies.
Aim: The aim of this article is to report this clinical entity in a Nigerian infant born to a mother with poor glycaemic control in pregnancy and highlight management.
Case report: We report a term neonate who was diagnosed as a case of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and outflow tract obstruction delivered to a mother with gestational diabetics with poor glycaemic control in pregnancy. Child was treated successfully with β-adrenergic blocker and showed resolution of hypertrophy in follow-up echocardiography.
Conclusion: Infants of diabetic mothers are very high risk infants. Pathological left ventricular hypertrophy in IDM have good prognosis. Early recognition and prompt intervention is advocated.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a relatively rare cardiac disease that manifests in the final stage of pregnancy and in the first months after delivery in women with no preexisting heart disease. Many etiological processes have been suggested: viral myocarditis, abnormal immune response to pregnancy, excessive prolactin excretion, prolonged tocolysis and a familiar predisposition to PPCM. Its diagnosis is often delayed because its symptoms, which include fatigue, dyspnea and palpitations are nonspecific. For this reason the diagnosis of PPCM is still made by exclusion of other etiologies. The long-term prognosis, once the acute phase is over, is a function of myocardial damage, this varies from complete functional recovery to chronic HF. The outcome of PPCM is highly variable with an alevated risk of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. We report a serious case of a 40 years old female with biamniotic bicorionic twin pregnancy (PMA) who delivered by caesarean section and developed acute PPCM on post-operative. Symptoms occurred two hours after an intramuscular injection of two vials of methylergonovine the same day of cesarean delivery. These manifested in sudden tachypnoe, tachycardia and the appearance itchy maculopapular rash on her chest. On further evaluation, ECHO revealed cardiomegaly with reduced ejection fraction (< 15%). The case was successfully managed by a multidisciplinary team, using drugs like levosimendan and cabergoline, which rapresent emerging strategy in this clinical context.
Pregnancy is a happy stage in life of every woman, but at the same time it is a rather difficult period, since pregnancy represents a serious strain on the body. In the body of a woman during this period there are significant physiological changes that ensure the correct development of the fetus, prepare the body for the upcoming delivery. In this difficult period, the burden on all organs and systems of the woman’s body is significantly increased. Especially often suffer joints; there is a risk of permanent pain, the development of diseases or exacerbation of existing diseases. One of the most common problems is Temporomandibular Dysfunction or Disorder (TMD) which many women face, but still hasn’t been explained.
Female genital mutilation / cutting remains a widespread practice throughout Africa. There has been a worldwide effort to do away with FMG/C, but tensions exist between those who aim to abolish FGM/C and those who desire to perpetuate the tradition. While many Western and African experts and organizations agree on the health risks and human rights concerns with FGM/C, others fear that Westerners are imposing their ideas and lack of cultural understanding, trying to eliminate a practice central to the identity of many Africans. The issue must be approached respectfully and collaboratively, with great effort on the part of Westerners to understand the cultural context and rationale of this tradition. Ultimately, if FGM/C is to be eradicated in the foreseeable future, whole African communities and international support agencies must be engaged and empowered to collectively evaluate the implications of the practice and accelerate its demise.
Gestational diabetes mellitus is becoming a very common medical disorder associated with pregnancy especially so in the Middle East and more so in Saudi Arabia, thus putting the women and fetuses at an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Screening for Gestational diabetes mellitus was recommended because of its asymptomatic nature and good proportion of patients with no classic risk factors. We recommended universal screening because of the beneficial effect of screening, diagnosis and subsequent treatment.
The most recent study done in Security Forces Hospital showed a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality with application of the new values of screening, in spite of the increase of incidence of Gestational diabetes mellitus from 14.5 % in 2005 study, to 23.9 % in the recent study in 2015.
Objectives: To highlight and determine the best screening method values of FBS and 2hrspp used to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus.
Maternal & neonatal out come and associated risks for patients who had Gestational diabetes mellitus, where scrutinized.
The study was done in the period from June 1st 2013-31 of May 2014.
Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Tertiary centre (Security Forces hospital _Riyadh_Saudi Arabia).
Patients: Out of 6849 patients who had their delivery in Security Forces Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014 (one year), 6340 patients (92.5 %) were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus, and out of these 1516 patients (23.9 %) were labeled as Gestational diabetes mellitus after exclusion of cases of IDDM and NIDDM.
Main outcome measured: The purpose of this study is to advise on using new values for diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to assess the outcome of pregnancy after new values are implemented in security forces hospital for diagnosis. The outcome included ages of mothers, parities, number of abortions, associated medical disorders, and estimated blood loss. Control methods were also reviewed, gestational age of induction of labor. Associated intrapartum complications as well as fetal outcome were also reviewed. The weight of babies, congenital abnormalities, admission to neonatal intensive care unit were also studied. The different values used , and percentages of diagnosed values of last 3 studies done in Security Forces Hospital in comparison to the most recent study with new values(2014-2015) as shown in table 11.
Results: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus increased from 14.5 % in the year 2003 - 2004 to reach 23.9 % in 2014, in the same institute (Security Forces Hospital), where the study was done using different values. In our study in Security Forces Hospital we recorded a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality on applying the new values.
A significant reduction in the number of expired babies of mothers who were diagnosed as gestational diabetes with new values with a decrease from 5.6 % in previous years studied to reach 1.5 % in 2014, reflecting the effective control and the good catch for the new values.
Conclusion: Universal screening, with whatever values to blood sugar used, is a better method screening than the selective one: Using 75 gram of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test proved to be cost effective, easily accessible, and with good pickup rate of up to 93 % of patients in Security Forces Hospital.
Recommendations: To continue using the new values that will be universally implemented, with long term follow-up of mothers and newborn.
This report provides an insight into a very unusual problem in the first trimester of pregnancy, and describes the unfolding of a series of potential blunders.
We all know that most problems in gynecologic oncology become terribly magnified when the patient is pregnant. HB had a routine ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy, and a large, extremely vascular mass occupying most of the lower anterior abdominal wall, was found (Figure 1). Because she had received methotrexate two years earlier for a persistent elevation of the hCG titer following surgery for an ectopic pregnancy, she was referred to the gynecologic-oncology service with the working diagnosis of metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). An MRI showed a vascular mass in the subcutaneous tissue invading the rectus sheath and muscle, but not attached to the uterus (Figure 2). The report stated, in no uncertain terms, that the mass was strongly indicative of a metastasis from GTD. However, the hCG level was consistent with the estimated gestational age, and a mass such as this would represent an extremely unusual way for this disease to present. She had been told that she would need the have the pregnancy terminated, followed by chemotherapy to reduce the size of the mass prior to its removal.
Objectives: To check if there is any significant difference in the immediate outcome of pregnancy with diabetes using the new values of FBS & 2hrs post prandial with 75g OGTT for 1 year (from 1st June 2013-31st May 2014) in comparison to the previous data done in the same institute with other values and with international figures.
The data in our study included fetal, maternal morbidities, intra partum and postnatal outcomes, in order to help, if possible, on deciding the best values to use for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, to know the new percentages of gestational diabetes mellitus in SFH by utilizing the new values of Blood Sugar readings.
Design: Retrospective cohort study
Setting: Security Forces Hospital-Riyadh-Saudi Arabia
Patients: Done (from 1st June 2013 – 31st May 2014), on patients who had attended Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This chosen year’s data was compared with data collected in the three previous years using different figures.
Main Outcome measured: Average age of mother, maternal aspects of parity, history of GDM, number of abortions``````````````````````````````, estimated blood loss in labor, associated medical disorder, complications of previous pregnancies, methods of control of GDM, gestational age for IOL and associated intrapartum complications. Immediate neonatal outcome in cases of GDM, comparison of birth weights of babies & any specific congenital abnormalities and delayed causes of admission to NICU in the 4 years studied were also reviewed.
Results: The percentage of diagnosed cases of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) after screening was 24 % as compared with 14.5% in previous study of 2003-2004 & with the number of screened patients amounting to 93% out of the total number of deliveries between 2013-2014 (in both years universal method of screening was used). The multidisciplinary set up of our GDM specialized clinic which was composed of dieticians, diabetic educators, endocrinologists and obstetric physicians operating together, helped to reduced the use of insulin in combination with diet to only 24% in comparison to 76% of patient using diet and exercise alone. The study showed a mean age of 33years and weight of 77kg. It was also noted that 16% of the patients diagnosed with GDM were multiparous averaging 1-5 deliveries. Almost 62% of patient didn’t give any history of GDM and no history of previous medical diseases. The majority of the patient with GDM delivered without complications during labor, with 30% having vaginal lacerations & 73% of patient had an estimated blood loss of less than 500cc. NICU admissions secondary to hyperbilirubinaemia averaged almost 17% in comparison to previous studies and only one baby expired in a GDM patient. Our study revealed a good fetal and maternal out come with less delivery complications and less incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (5.7%).
Conclusion: It is concluded that Universal Screening of Pregnant women whether with previously used glucose value or new ones for gestational diabetes mellitus is a better option, which has proven to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. The 75 OGTT test is a cost effective test and with both easy accessibility and good screening pick up number (92.5%) of the patients in Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh.
Recommendation: We recommend annual follow up for patients, both the mother and the baby after postpartum, to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.
Septic arthritis of the shoulder joint is rare and might affect around 3% of the general population . A delay in diagnosis may increase morbidity and lead to bone and cartilage destruction . Septic arthritis is an unusual complication of pregnancy and can progress to permanent arthropathy and disability .
Septic arthropathy in pregnancy requires multidisciplinary team involvement for prompt recognition and treatment to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. High index of suspicion is vital when clinical and laboratory findings suggest septic arthritis. There are multiple predisposing factors reported previously for septic arthritis of the shoulder in pregnancy such as medical conditions, pyelonephritis and trauma. We report a 37 year old lady who presented at 26 weeks gestation with acute left shoulder pain and high temperature following minor left palm trauma. She also had left mastectomy with axillary clearance ten years earlier. She underwent arthroscopic wash out of her left shoulder joint and was covered with antibiotics with rapid improvement and recovery. We reinforce the importance of early multidisciplinary involvement when septic arthritis of the shoulder in pregnancy is suspected especially in women who have had previous mastectomy and axillary clearance which could be a predisposing factor for such a rare and serious joint condition in pregnancy.
It is still not well known the prognostic cardiovascular value of 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the pregnant woman with hypertension.
Objectives: Assess to the prognostic value of ABPM parameters in predicting maternofetal event.
Methods: Retrospective and observational study which included 166 pregnant women.
Results: The authors found that the night time DBP was the best predictor of adverse events. Non-dipper profile had worse survival at follow up until delivery compared to those with a dipper profile.
Conclusions: ABPM is a tool for pregnant with HT because this is the unique method available that analyses the night blood pressure.
Epilepsy is commonly seen in women of reproductive age and it is affecting their reproductive and pregnancy outcomes in an adverse manner . It has seen that there are increased numbers of maternal deaths of pregnant women with epilepsy than those who have no any epilepsy symptoms or episodes. In many studies the common outcome observed is spontaneous miscarriage, ante partum hemorrhage or early pre term deliveries. Malformation and congenital anomalies are quite common in new born of epileptic women and also those who are on some kind of anti-epileptic medicines like valproate sodium. Death or still birth of new born babies is another complication witnessed because of epilepsy in pregnant women .
Hyperglyceridemia induced pancreatitis in pregnancy accounts for 4% of all cases of acute pancreatitis. Though rare, hypertriglyceridemia induced pancreatitis may lead to fatal maternal and fetal complications, even maternal death. Its management during pregnancy remains a challenge for many physicians. Management options are limited in pregnancy. In the refractory cases, management options and timing of delivery is debatable. Here we report a case of hyperglyceridemia induced pancreatitis and the challenges faced in the management.
Changes in contemporary obstetric and gynaecological practice in relation to ultrasound cervical screening during pregnancy, the treatment of intra-epithelial cervical neoplasia and laparoscopic surgery have resulted in an increased utilization of trans-abdominal cervico-isthmic cerclage in an attempt to reduce the incidence of mid-trimester and early preterm birth in women with repeated pregnancy loss.
Despite evidence on major interventions on the uptake and scale up of interventions meant to promote maternal health care services, little is known about adequate use of such program in urban Ghana among reproductive aged women. This study examined the determinants of women’s Satisfaction on antenatal care use in selected health facilities in the Kwabre East Municipality of Ghana. Using facility-based cross-sectional survey design, a three-stage sampling technique was conducted to sample 220 women attending postnatal care at selected public health facilities. Open-ended questionnaires were used to obtain data from respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including binary logit regression model were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS and STATA software. Logit analytical framework was computed to determine equations of variance. The association between antenatal care use and women’s satisfaction was determined and assessed using Pearson’s χ2 (2) test indicating 1% was run. Most women (92.7%) had at least four ANC visits during their entire pregnancy. The results indicate standard deviation of 7 with 81% regular ANC visits and 19% irregular. Most women (55%) received care by one caregiver, followed by women (35%) who received care by two caregivers and women (10%) who were cared for by three caregivers. The regression results showed varying utilization levels of 10%, 5% & 1% ANC satisfaction. System induced factors aimed at promoting maternal care use satisfaction are suggested.
This observational study assessed the knowledge of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at two selected hospitals in Abeokuta South, Nigeria on the causes and risk factors of maternal mortality, identified barriers to knowledge acquisition, and examined the influence of parity of respondents on their knowledge of factors causing maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is extremely high in Nigeria, it is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Descriptive research design was used in this study and qualitative data from 136 respondents selected randomly, were obtained through a self-designed questionnaire that comprised three sections. Data were analyzed and indicated that parity of the pregnant women do not have an influence on their knowledge of factors responsible for maternal mortality. Findings revealed that majority (67.6%) of the respondents had high knowledge on the causes of maternal mortality – haemorrhage, sepsis, prolonged/obstructed labour, anaemia, unsafe abortion, infection, hypertensive disorders, care rendered by unskilled medical practitioners and its risk factors - parity, poverty, place of last delivery and low attendance at antenatal clinic. Educational background, marital status, irregular antenatal visits, socio-cultural practices and occupational status were identified as barriers to knowledge acquisition. This paper concluded that pregnant women may have a high knowledge about the factors responsible for maternal mortality. This is probably due to the fact that all respondents had formal education and because they were interviewed on antenatal clinic days, which suggests that they might have heard about the causes and risk factors for maternal mortality during their visits. Authors recommended that government should employ qualified health professionals and provide medical subsidy, it is hoped that this will ensure that pregnant women get quality care throughout the period of pregnancy and delivery.
Introduction: In this retrospective study, we comment on the cause and diagnostic potential of the elevated serum total cholesterol and some non-cholesterol sterols in a population of healthy pregnant women from Prague, Czech Republic.
Methods: Based on a total of 21,000 clinical biochemistry tests of healthy pregnant women with hypercholesterolemia observed during pregnancy, a testing group of 84 women with a total cholesterol (TC) above 7.0 mmol/l was established to analyze their non-cholesterol sterols (NCS) by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. Lathosterol (Lat) and desmosterol (Des) were evaluated as markers of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, whereas campesterol (Cam) and sitosterol (Sit) were analysed as markers of intestinal absorption.
Results: In the basic population, the frequency of gestational hypercholesterolemia with the serum TC levels > 7.0mmol/l was 1 to 136.The mean values were: TC 6.8 mmol/l, LDL-C 4.6 mmol/l, and HDL-C 2.2 mmol/l. In the selected testing group of 84, the mean values were: Lat 7.8+/-1.7 μmol/l, Des 4.7+/-0.9 μmol/l, Cam 9.8+/-2.6 μmol/l, and Sit 9.6+/-3.8 μmol/l. Lat correlated with TC (r = 0.53), LDL-C (r = 0.36), and non-HDL-C (r = 0.35). No such correlations were observed for Cam or Sit.
Conclusion: Our findings prove that gestational hypercholesterolemia is caused by increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis via lathosterol. Subsequently, we demonstrate how a single cholesterol test taken in the fifth to sixth month gestation can efficiently help detect familial hypercholesterolemia, and prevent related late pregnancy circulatory complications.
Background: Previous studies highlighted the negative effect of premature progesterone elevation (PE) during IVF cycles on the cycle outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of progesterone level on hCG day (P4) in the prediction of IVF/ICSI cycles’ outcome.
Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, all fresh cycles of 256 patients who underwent IVF or ICSI cycles in 2017 at reproductive endocrinology & infertility unit/ Obg/Gyn department at King Abdulaziz Medical city, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were followed up. They were started on gonadotropin medications for ovarian hyperstimulation, followed by serial transvaginal U/S and serum estrogen levels each visit. Patients having 2 or more 18mm follicles were triggered by hCG 10,000 IU and ovum pickup was done 34-36 hrs after. Data were collected on patients’ characteristics [age, BMI infertility type], cycles’ characteristics [number of follicles and endometrium thickness on hCG day, P4 and estrogen levels], rates of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine the cut-off of P4 that corresponds with a negative pregnancy test. Logistic regression analysis was used and significance was considered at p - value of ≤0.05.
Results: Pregnancy rate in the study sample was 36.7%. The mean P4 level in cycles with negative pregnancy tests was significantly higher than the mean in cycles with positive tests (p = 0.018). After adjusting for confounders, significant negative association between P4 and pregnancy rate was evident (p < 0.03). The optimum trade-off of P4 for prediction of a negative pregnancy test was 1.5nmol/L. This cut-off level had a 59% sensitivity, 51% specificity and 68% positive predictive value and 10% & 15% absolute and relative risk reductions respectively. Cycles with mean P4 of ≥1.5nmol/L were significantly associated with primary infertility (p = 0.011), lower mean BMI (p = 0.009) higher mean estrogen level (p < 0.001), lower live birth rate (p = 0.048), higher abortion rate (p = 0.039), and higher ovarian hyperstimulation rate (p = 0.027).
Conclusion: Premature elevation of progesterone level on the hCG day in IVF/ICSI cycles may have adversely impacted the pregnancy rate and pregnancy outcome. The cutoff point of 1.5nmol/L for this P4 was not valid in predicting pregnancy outcomes.
Study design: A consecutive case series study
Purpose: To investigate whether Low Back Pain (LBP) in women with primary singleton pregnancy induces disability.
Background: LBP is reported to be increased in pregnants than in non-pregnant women. Different outcome measures have been used to search for correlations between pain and disability.
Methods: 167 pregnant women aged 30 ± 3.5 years participated. Two equal categorial age groups were constructed: Group A included women aged 23 - 29 years, and Group B women aged 30-39 years. Their weight was 76 ± 13 kg prepartum and the Body Mass index (BMI) was 28 ± 4 prepartum. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used for LBP pain intensity and Oswestry Disability Scale (ODI) for disability estimation in the last three months prepartum and in the first three months postpartum.
Results: The women weight was 67 ± 13 kg postpartum. The BMI was 24 ± 4 postpartum. There was no difference in VAS and ODI scores versus BMI, weight and height between the two age groups in both periods of observation: prepartum and postpartum. Prepartum, 81.4% of women claimed LBP that dropped to 55.5% postpartum. ODI score dropped from 19.5 ± 13.6% prepartum to 11 ± 12% postpartum. The ODI subscales that showed significant reduction postpartum were: Pain intensity (P = 0.002); working (P = 0.009); sitting (P = 0.004); standing (P = 0.003); sleeping (P = 0.008); and traveling (P = 0.006). VAS prepartum was increasing as the weight was increasing in both periods of observation (P = 0.015 and P=0.051) respectively. VAS prepartum was significantly correlated with BMI prepartum (P = 0.019) and postpartum (P = 0.028).
Discussion: Physical disability in pregnant women was low and reduced following delivery. Disability was linked with LBP intensity, weight, BMI and height, but not with age or educational level.
Objective: To evaluate whether the occurrence of maternal pathologies, mainly Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertensive Syndromes in the gestational or pre-gestational period may be related to hearing impairment in postpartum women.
Methods: Observational, prospective study including 361 puerperal women who had their deliveries at a reference University Hospital for pregnant women with clinical history of risk. Auditory evaluation was performed by Distortion Product Otoaccoustic Emissions (DPOAE) within 14 days after delivery. Measures of central tendency and absolute and relative frequencies were used to describe the sample and the chi-square test and binary logistic regression to assess the correlation among variables. Significance higher than 95% was observed and the study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee.
Results: A total of 361 postpartum women were studied and 7.5% had hearing impairment. The frequency of gestational hypertension was 13.9%, that of gestational diabetes was 8.6% and that of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus was 5.8%. The presence of hearing impairment was significantly correlated with the occurrence of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (OR: 4.5 - CI: 1.51-1.47), and maternal age greater than 29 years (OR: 3.72 - 1, 58-8.76); A correlation was also found between maternal age and the presence of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.84 - CI: 1.45-10.15).
Conclusion: In the population of postpartum women evaluated, having Diabetes Mellitus prior to pregnancy and belonging to the age group older than 29 years increases the chance of having hearing loss.
Andreas Suhartoyo Winarno*, Lukas Schloesser, Frederic Dietzel, Percy Balan, Thomas Hoehn, Monika Hampl and Tanja Natascha Fehm
Published on: 16th December, 2019
Deliveries prior to 28 weeks’ gestation (extreme preterm birth) pose a global health concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Extreme preterm birth is associated with several complications in the newborn and management in neonatal intensive care unit would incur high expenses. In parallel, advancements in in vitro fertilization will give an opportunity for women to conceive in cases of ovarian failure. At the same time, health providers also encourage patients to receive more than one embryo simultaneously during an embryo transfer. Here we report a case of a patient in coma condition of triplet pregnancy, post ovum donation with three-embryo transfer. Following stabilization, cranial computed tomography (CCT) was performed. The result showed bleeding in the brainstem and into intraventricular spaces at 25+4 gestation weeks. Furthermore, ICH during pregnancy is considered as a rare case in obstetrical field, especially involving the brainstem. This could lead to life-threatening conditions and serious disability in the future. On the fifth day of hospitalization, she suffered from pneumonia and pulmonary edema. On the eight day (26+5 gestations weeks), an emergency caesarean section was performed due to fully dilated of the cervix with breech presentation of all fetuses. Mother and the children survived with some non-life-threatening disabilities.
This is the very first case reported of intracerebral hemorrhage in the brainstem in triplet pregnancy after receiving ovum donation. Heterologous conception could be an iceberg phenomenon of gestational complications among the population. Reproductive tourism could still become greater in the future.
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