Pulmonary

Is there an ideal blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass to prevent postoperative cerebral injury? – What does the recent evidence say?

Published on: 21st November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7943236620

Post cardiac surgery stroke is a devastating complication with an incidence as high as 50%1. The association between intra-operative mean arterial blood pressure (MAP- better called linear blood pressure) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the development of postoperative stroke-as diagnosed by neuroimaging- and of cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is controversial. This is due to differences in the study populations, stroke assessment tools, operation and conduction of MAPs, variations in neurocognitive testing and duration of follow up. As a result there is a gap in the knowledge on an ideal MAP as a preventive measure of post CPB stroke and POCD.
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Acute viral myocarditis due to Influenza H3N2 infection resembling an acute coronary syndrome: A case report

Published on: 20th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192816978

A 16-year-old man with history of two weeks-flu like symptoms with intermittent fever. He came to the emergency department with 2 hours-chest pain that radiates to the back and upper extremities. At the admission he was hemodynamically stable with normal blood pressure The ECG showed sinus rhythm and ST segment elevation of 0.5 mV in all leads (Figure 1A). The cardiac enzymes were elevated (Troponin 12.19 ng/mLland creatine kinase-MB fraction 63.25 U/L). He was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and later transferred to our medical unit to continue with study protocol. The transthoracic echocardiogram (Figure 1B) reported normal left ventricular systolic function with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 68%, global longitudinal strain -18%, TAPSE 30 mm, and normal systolic pulmonary artery pressure (30 mmHg).
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Anomalies of coronary artery origin: About two cases

Published on: 13th September, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8270707766

Anomalies of coronary artery origin are congenital malformations characterized by the abnormal birth of a coronary artery from the controlateral coronary aortic sinus (birth of the left coronary artery from the right sinus or birth of the right coronary artery from the left sinus). The artery concerned has an abnormal initial path between the aorta and the pulmonary artery; this segment is most often intramural, in the aortic wall. They are rare with a prevalence (0.1% to 0.3% of the population). They pose a high risk of sudden stress death related to exercise myocardial ischemia. The most common mode of discovery is aborted sudden death, but sometimes fortuitously. The contribution of multi-round CT is described for the positive diagnosis of these anatomical variations, sometimes delicate in coronary angiography, but also for the distinction between “benign” and “malignant” forms, potentially responsible for myocardial ischemia. Treatment is usually surgical in symptomatic forms. We report the cases of two patients with coronary connection abnormalities discovered in adulthood.
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Pulse Synchronized Contractions (PSCs)

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8319360286

A key platform underpinning the traditional understanding of the cardiovascular system, with respect to the behavior of large arterial vessels, is Otto Frank’s Windkessel Hypothesis [1]. This hypothesis posits simply that the smooth muscle walls of large arteries do not undergo rhythmic contractions in synchrony with the heartbeat but, rather, behave as passive elastic tubes undergoing distension from pulsatile pressure waves. The Windkessel Hypothesis is elegant, well described for over a century, ingrained in the understanding of cardiovascular medicine and physiology, and simply wrong. Several groups have now shown that the arterial smooth muscle wall undergoes rhythmic activation in synchrony with the heartbeat in a variety of tissues, including human brachial artery; canine coronary, femoral, and carotid arteries; rabbit aorta; feline pulmonary artery and rodent aorta [2-8]. The phasing of these events is such that the upstroke of the contraction slightly precedes the upstroke of the pulse wave, suggesting nomenclature for the events as pulse synchronized contractions, or PSCs [3,6-8]. PSCs have been found to be of neurogenic origin, sensitive to the neural blocker tetrodotoxin [3,8]. Although the specific neural pathways regulating PSCs have not been elucidated, the alpha-adrenergic system is at least partially involved, as evidenced by reduction or blockade of PSCs by the alpha-adrenergic blocker phentolamine [8]. Further, PSCs have not been observed following vessel excision in in vitro studies, as an intact nervous system is not present. The pacemaker for the PSC resides in the right atrium, as suggested by two lines of evidence. First, pacing of the right atrial region to faster than spontaneous frequencies leads to a one-to-one correspondence of PSC frequency with the stimulation rate [3]. Additionally, excision of the right, but not the left, atrial appendage results in elimination of PSCs [3]. As the pacemaker region for PSCs and the heartbeat both lie in the right atrium, this may potentially allow for coordination between the heartbeat and pulse wave with PSCs [3,5,8]. Extensive evaluations also have been performed showing the PSC was not an artifact produced either by cardiac contractility or from the vessel distension from the pulse wave [3,5,6].
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Only low intensity of aerobic exercise improves respiratory compliance in pulmonary hypertensive rats

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440622691

Objective: To investigate in an animal model of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) by monocrotaline whether a lower exercise intensity, which has lower potential to provoke dyspnea symptoms, could prevent the increase the right ventricle pressure and the decrease in respiratory compliance. Setting: A research laboratory. ANIMALS: twenty-one Wistar rats were randomized to the groups: Control (CO; saline solution); PH-sedentary; PH-low and PH-moderate intensity of exercise training (ET). Interventions: They received a single saline or monocrotaline subcutaneous injection (50 mg/kg). The exercise program was performed during 3-weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Rats were evaluated by their morphometric and hemodynamic changes and by the respiratory mechanic responses induced by the exercise protocols. Results: Both protocols of ET significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the increase in the right ventricular systolic pressure. However, the lower intensity was more effective to prevent the impairment in the respiratory and quasi-static compliance. Conclusion: Collectively, our results showed for the first time the benefits of ET to the respiratory system mechanics. We also demonstrated that intensity is crucial in PH, probably due to the difficulty to match VO2 capacity and O2 demand during exercise. The improvement in quasi-static compliance not only might improve the ability to breathe, and capture oxygen, but also welfare.
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The Renin-Angiotensin System: Alamandine is reduced in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440576482

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive disease without treatment that leads to death. Therefore, to control its progression to pulmonary hypertension is still a challenge. Moreover, there is no study that has investigated the Renin-Angiotensin System in patients with IPF. Objective: Verify the plasma concentrations of Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II (AngII), Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang- (1-7)] and Alamandine in patients with IPF. Methods: Ten IPF patients, with or without PH, were included, and ten controls matched by sex and age. Quantitative plasma peptide concentrations (PPC) were expressed as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile range. The Student Newman-Keuls t test was used for parametric data, Mann-Whitney for nonparametric data and, to compare proportions, the Fisher exact test was performed. The associations between clinical variables and the PPC were evaluated by Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The Alamandine plasma concentration was significantly (365%) lower in the IPF group and positively associated (r = 0.876) with pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). In addition, only in control group, the forced expiratory volume (FEV1%) was positively associated (p = 0.758) with Ang-(1-7). Conclusion: This study showed, for the first time, that there is a decrease in Alamandine participation in patients with IPF. The ACE-AngII-AT1 axis may be more active in this disease. In addition, our results suggest that Alamandine might be compensating the increase in PAP, as well as the Ang-(1-7) is improving the forced expiratory volume.
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Long-Term Impact of Coronary Artery Disease in Lung Transplantation

Published on: 26th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440605468

Background: Adoption of the Lung Allocation Score (LAS) has led to increased listing of older patients and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for lung transplantation (LTX). Older patients and those with IPF have higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), a relative contraindication for LTX. The impact of the LAS on CAD prevalence and cardiovascular morbidity in LTX recipients is unknown. Methods: Retrospective review of single institution database from January 2000 to December 2010. Patients with and without CAD were compared by age, gender, LAS, single vs double LTX, and transplant indication. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, and statistical significance determined by log-rank method. Survival analysis was performed on all patients and by 3:1 propensity matching. Differences in CAD, gender, and indication were determined by Chi-squared test. Differences in LAS and age were calculated with a two-tailed t - test. Results: In the pre-LAS era, 6.2% (9/145) recipients had CAD vs. 9.2% (17/184) in the post-LAS era (p = 0.411). Among all patients, recipients with CAD had a worse long term survival as estimated by Kaplan-Meier method (p = 0.001), although there was no statistically significant difference after propensity matching ((p = 0.14). Although more recipients in the post-LAS era had a diagnosis of IPF [15/145 vs. 71/184 patients, (p < 0.001)], there was no difference in the prevalence of CAD in the IPF cohort compared to others. There were no differences in cardiovascular deaths among recipients with CAD, with IPF, or in the post-LAS era. Patients with a pre-transplant diagnosis of CAD had an descreased risk of new onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) (p = 0.007; HR:0.133; CI:0.030-0.583). Conclusion: Adoption of the LAS was not associated with a significant change in proportion of recipients with CAD who underwent LTX at our institution, despite an increase in recipients with IPF. Recipients with CAD had a higher risk of developing new postoperative AF and worse survival than patients without CAD. Differences in survival, however, could not be attributed directly to CAD based on propensity matched analysis
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Aortic dissection causing 2 myocardial infarctions

Published on: 16th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8488779776

A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of right-sided thoracic pain. The ECG showed inferior ST segment elevations. He has been treated with aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated heparin and tenecteplase, and his symptoms resolved after 30 minutes. About half an hour later, the patient developed again left-sided thoracic pain and the signs of an anterior myocardial ST-segment elevation infarction. 90 minutes after receiving the initial medications, the performed coronary angiography revealed a long dissection of a large ramus circumflexus. Furthermore, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded at about the mid-level. The left ventriculography showed a reduced ventricular function and a Stanford type A aortic dissection. Immediate patient transfer for emergency surgical intervention was arranged. However, ventricular fibrillation occurred during transport and he required endotracheal intubation and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Unfortunately, he died during further transport. In a patient with massive thoracic pain of initially uncommon localization in combination with fluctuation of ST-segment elevations, aortic dissection should be seriously taken into the differential diagnosis as well as into therapeutic management decisions (in particular antiplatelet and thrombolytic therapy).
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Clinical relevance linked to echocardiography diagnosis in Bland, White and Garland syndrome

Published on: 6th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560715071

Introduction: Bland, White and Garland syndrome is a coronary anomaly with high mortality without treatment. Its clinical presentation is varied which makes epidemiological documentation difficult. Echocardiography is a useful non-invasive tool for diagnosis. Objective: To determine the echocardiographic variables that lead to the diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome and their clinical relevance. Material: Observational, prospective and cross-sectional study in 31 patients of the “William Soler” Pediatric Cardiocenter, from 2005 to 2018. To check the association of echocardiographic variables with the diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome, an effectiveness study was carried out that included the analysis of the incidence of echocardiographic variables that lead to the diagnosis of this entity. The clinical relevance was estimated according to the minimum importance limit. The statistical validation of the research results adopted a significance level of less than 5% (p < 0.05). Results: The variables that facilitate the echocardiographic diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome were the echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous connection and the reversed flow in the anomalous left coronary artery. These echocardiographic measures have clinical relevance according to the quantification of risk estimators (incidence) the echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous connection, RR 39.00 and the reversed flow in the anomalous coronary artery, RR 26.31. LIM´s calculation value amounted to 6.31 and coincided with the risk estimators (incidence). Conclusion: The echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary arterial trunk and the detection of the local intracoronary reversed flow instituted as factors to be considered for the effective diagnosis of the disease. The documentation of the diagnostic aspects of the syndrome through echocardiography contains high statistical value and clinical relevance.
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Recurrence of atrial fibrillation after pulmonary vein isolation, should we change the energy and technique?

Published on: 3rd April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8576354289

Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the accepted standard nowadays for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. The most widespread ablation techniques are cryoballoon (CB) and point-by-point radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Comparative studies between both techniques have shown their equivalence for the first ablation procedure, but no trial has explored the potential incremental benefit of crossing over the ablation technique after AF recurrence. Objective: To explore the potential incremental benefit of a crossover ablation strategy for AF recurrences, comparatively with repeating the same ablation energy used for the first procedure. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing a second AF ablation procedure after documented AF recurrence. Patients were excluded if all 4 PV were isolated at the beginning of the second procedure or extra-PVI ablation was used for the second procedure. Crossover group (n = 16) included patients in which two different techniques were used for the first and second procedure (CB-RF or RF-CB). Control group (n = 23) for those with same ablation procedure (RF-RF of CB-CB). Acute procedure end-point was PVI of all four pulmonary veins. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6, and 12 months with an electrocardiogram and a 24 h-holter. Arrhythmia-free survival at 1 year after the second ablation procedure was studied, comparing efficiency and safety of the two approaches (crossover vs. same energy). Success was defined as freedom from AF or atrial tachycardia lasting > 30 s off antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) Results: A cohort of 39 paroxysmal and persistent AF patients was analyzed. PVI after the second procedure was 100% in all patients in both groups. There were no baseline relevant differences between the two groups. No deaths or hospitalizations occurred during follow up (data censored at 24h moths). At 1 year, arrhythmia free-survival was significantly higher in the crossover group compared to control group [93,3% vs. 47,8%; HR 0.19 (0.06-0.66);p = 0,009]. Conclusion: Crossing the ablation technique (point-by-point radiofrequency or cryoballoon PVI) after AF recurrence significantly improved arrhythmia free-survival at one year, despite no difference in acute success (PVI isolation). Randomized controlled trials with a higher amount of patients are needed to confirm the results and widespread this approach.
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Clinical profile and surgical outcomes of children presenting with teratology of Fallot

Published on: 14th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667862731

Background: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a very common cyanotic congenital heart disease presenting early at birth with various degrees of cyanosis. If left uncorrected surgically, can lead to death. Objectives: This study is aimed at determining pattern and surgical outcome of children with teratology of Fallot in a budding health facility in India over a year period. Result: A total of 51 children were diagnosed of TOF over the period, of which 66.7% were males with mean age of 48.14 ± 45.36 months. The surgical outcome showed only 3.9% mortality. The death was among children >1 to 5 years. The mean number of days in intensive care unit (ICU) was 5.8 ± 11.2 days. 82.4% of the patients were off-pump post-operatively, compared to 17.6% with re-pump. Among those who had re-pump, 77.8% were males and among those without re-pump, 64.3% were likewise males (χ2 = 0.6, p = 0.41). About 92.2% (47/51) of patients had pulmonary regurgitation post-op, ranging from mild to moderate regurgitation. 51.1% of the regurgitations were mild while 25.5% and 23.4% were moderate and severe regurgitations respectively. Post-operative VSD was detected in 51% (26/51) of the patients. The post-op right ventricular pressure (RVOT) was significantly lower than that of pre-op pressure, 10.8 ± 1.5 mmHg vs. 31.7 ± 4.5 mmHg (pair t test = 8.7, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Timely surgical repair is crucial in alleviating several morbidity and mortality associated with teratology of fallot. Pulmonary regurgitation is a very common sequel after surgery and can result in death.
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Open heart surgery in Nigerian children the need for international and regional collaboration: The Bayelsa and Enugu experience

Published on: 9th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124692893

Background: Children with congenital heart diseases (CHD) often require palliative or definitive surgical heart interventions to restore cardiopulmonary function. Lack of early cardiac intervention contributes to large numbers of potentially preventable deaths and sufferings among children with such conditions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to highlight our experience and the importance of international and regional collaboration for open heart surgery in children with CHD and capacity building of local cardiac teams in Bayelsa and Enugu States. Methodology: In November 2016, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed by the managements of FMC, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, UNTH, Enugu and an Italian-based NGO- Pobic Open Heart International for collaboration in the area of free open heart surgery for children with CHDs and training of local cardiac teams from both institutions either in Nigeria or in Italy. Patients for the program were recruited from Bayelsa and Enugu States with referrals from all over the country with combined screening and selection done in UNTH. Selected patients were operated on and funded free of charge by the Italian NGO. Hands on training of the local cardiac teams and cardiac intervention was done twice yearly in Nigeria. Result: From inception of the program in November, 2016 to May, 2019 a total of 47 children (21 Males, 26 Females; age range 6 months to 14 years) with various types of congenital heart defects had free open heart surgery from the program with 41 surgeries done in UNTH & 6 in Italy (complex pathologies). Also, home cardiac teams from UNTH and FMC, Yenagoa gained from on-site capacity training & retraining from the Italian cardiac team both in Nigeria and in Italy. The Success rate was 95.7% (44) and Case Fatality rate was 4.3% (2). Conclusion: There is a great efficacy in early cardiac intervention. This is with respect to a high success rate and minimal Case Fatality seen in this study. This was achieved through Regional and international collaboration.
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Postural Stability Induced by Supervised Physical Training may improve also Oxygen Cost of Exercise and Walking Capacity in Post-Menopause, Obese Women

Published on: 9th January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7281040222

We utilized the training impulses method to numerically quantify the volume of physical exercise to be prescribed to postmenopausal obese women in such a way of obtain the best possible improvement of their health-related quality of life. Nine women (57±4 years, 89±2 kg, 157±9 cm) carried out 3-months of exercise training (3 session/week each lasting 80 min) under the supervision of skilled operators which indirectly calculated the volume of physical exercise by assessing heart rate values while patient exercised and making sure that the workload corresponded to 50-60% of their maximum oxygen uptake. Before and after training anthropometric, functional and biomechanical variables were assessed. After training patients shoved statistically signifi cant (P<0.05) reduction in body mass (-2%) and body mass index (-4%), waist circumference (-4%), total (-6%) and LDL (-26%) serum cholesterol and glycaemia (-8%), diastolic arterial blood pressure (-14%), and oxygen cost (-14%) at the maximum workload during incremental cardiopulmonary test, the sway area from unipedal stance (right leg) of 20 s on a pressure platform (-49%), while increased both free fat body mass percentage (+3%) and space covered during the six minute walk test (+11%). It was concluded that, when an exercise protocol is carried out by postmenopausal obese women and the volume of exercise is instrumentally controlled by experienced operators, it could result in an effective benefi t on the quality of life of these patients since they ameliorate some critical anthropometric and functional parameters.
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Nebulization as complementary therapy for dogs with respiratory tract infections

Published on: 4th October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8299739396

Respiratory tract infections in dogs pose a significant problem and often require prolonged treatment. The effectiveness of pharmacological therapy can be improved through the administration of nebulized compounds to liquidize mucus and promote its evacuation from the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nebulized 0.9% NaCl in dogs with respiratory tract infections. Respiratory functions were assessed based on the results of arterial blood gas analyses, and the patients’ clinical status was determined by evaluating the severity of symptoms on a point grading scale. Inhalation of nebulized 0.9% NaCl significantly accelerated improvement in the patents’ clinical status (normalization of body temperature, decreased cough frequency, decrease/elimination of nasal and ocular discharge, improved appetite) and improved pulmonary gas exchange by reducing partial pressure and total content of carbon dioxide and increasing partial pressure and total content of oxygen in blood.
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The Risk-Adjusted Impact of Intraoperative Hemofiltration on Real-World Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

Published on: 27th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597137

Objectives: The role of perioperative hemofiltration (HF) in adult patients with impaired renal function undergoing cardiac surgery is controversial. There are suggestions that it may be beneficial for high risk patients undergoing prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. However, long term outcomes in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients have not been investigated. Methods: To address this we retrospectively followed 7620 patients who underwent CABG between April 2001 and March 2006. Logistic regression was used to risk adjust in-hospital outcomes. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to risk adjust Kaplan-Meier freedom from death curves. Outcomes were adjusted for American Heart Association and American College of College of Cardiology recommended variables. Results: 113 patients had intraoperative HF, 38 had postoperative HF and control group of 7006 that had no HF. After adjusting for differences in case-mix, patients with preoperative kidney disease who received postoperative HF proportionately had significantly higher rates of hospital deaths as compared with intraoperative HF patients. In addition, 5-year follow-up risk-adjusted freedom from death indicated significant differences between intraoperative HF group and postoperative HF patients. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that after adjusting for differences in case mixes, the use of intraoperative hemofiltration may offer superior short term clinical outcomes and longer-term survival benefits for patients with preoperative kidney disease.
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Cardiac Manifestations on Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome

Published on: 23rd March, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317653903

Antiphospholipid syndrome may present in various ways from cutaneous manifestation, obstetric complications, neurological manifestation, and cardiac manifestation to renal involvement. There are many cardiac complication of anti-phospholipid syndrome, among them are valvular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, myocardial infarction, intracardiac thrombi, and ventricular dysfunction [1]. The most common cardiac manifestation is valvular abnormalities ranging from 11.6-32% [2-5].
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Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Brainstem in triple pregnancy after in vitro fertilization by receiving Ovum Donation: A case report and review

Published on: 16th December, 2019

Deliveries prior to 28 weeks’ gestation (extreme preterm birth) pose a global health concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Extreme preterm birth is associated with several complications in the newborn and management in neonatal intensive care unit would incur high expenses. In parallel, advancements in in vitro fertilization will give an opportunity for women to conceive in cases of ovarian failure. At the same time, health providers also encourage patients to receive more than one embryo simultaneously during an embryo transfer. Here we report a case of a patient in coma condition of triplet pregnancy, post ovum donation with three-embryo transfer. Following stabilization, cranial computed tomography (CCT) was performed. The result showed bleeding in the brainstem and into intraventricular spaces at 25+4 gestation weeks. Furthermore, ICH during pregnancy is considered as a rare case in obstetrical field, especially involving the brainstem. This could lead to life-threatening conditions and serious disability in the future. On the fifth day of hospitalization, she suffered from pneumonia and pulmonary edema. On the eight day (26+5 gestations weeks), an emergency caesarean section was performed due to fully dilated of the cervix with breech presentation of all fetuses. Mother and the children survived with some non-life-threatening disabilities. This is the very first case reported of intracerebral hemorrhage in the brainstem in triplet pregnancy after receiving ovum donation. Heterologous conception could be an iceberg phenomenon of gestational complications among the population. Reproductive tourism could still become greater in the future. 
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HRCT imaging features of systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease

Published on: 27th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026724831

Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate radiographic features of systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease. Patients and methods: 116 patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) from 2010 to 2019 comprised our retrospective study. All patients were subject to high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). ILD patterns were classified into 7 patterns as IIPs and analyzed with pathology. We chose two staging method and two semi-quantitative score methods to evaluate the HRCT performance and analyzed with pulmonary function tests. Results: Ground-glass opacities were the most common presentation on HRCT, followed by interlobular septal thickening, reticular opacities, intralobular interstitial thickening; honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and nodules can also be observed. The most common pattern of SSc-ILD was nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), secondly was UIP. There was no difference in ILD pattern between HRCT and pathology, and revealed a high congruence. The four HRCT evaluating methods presented in this study all had significant relationships with PETs. Conclusion: The most common pattern of SSc-ILD was nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The ILD patterns of HRCT coincide very well with histology, and will replace pathology as the gold standard for diagnosis and evaluation of SSc-ILD.
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Assessing the Neurocognitive function effects of ketamine in Cardiac Surgical patients

Published on: 23rd October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929258453

Background: Despite remarkable progress in surgical, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and anesthetic tecniques, neurocognitive damage still remains an important cause of postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery. The aetiology of neurocognitive damage is likely to be multifocal; including macro and microemboli, cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation and nonpulsatile flow. N-methyl-D-asparticAcid (NMDA) receptors play an important role during neurocognitive damage. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist to the phencyclidine site of NMDA receptor for glutamate and directly suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether ketamine has neuroprotective effects during open-heart surgery through the use of neurocognitive tests. Methods: We considered all patients aged between 58-76 years who were referred to a single cardiothoracic surgical team for elective, primary coronary revascularization. Patients were excluded from the study for the following reasons: a history of neurological, psychiatric, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, hematologic and clotting systems disorder and repeat procedures. Undergoing CPB were randomized 2 groups: Group1 (ketamine)(n=25) or Group2 (propofol)(n= Patients 25) In the propofol group, anesthesia was induced with 3mg/kg propofol, 1µg/kg remifentanyl, 0.1mg/kg vecuronium. Remifentanyl 0.5-1μg/kg/min was infused intravenously throughout the whole procedure. In the ketamine group, anesthesia was induced with 1-2mg/kg propofol, 1-2mg ketamin, 0.1mg/kg vecuronium. Ketamin 1mg/kg/hour was infused intravenously. Pressors, inotropic agents and antiarrhythmics were used as needed. The Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE) was administered the day before surgery and three days later. The change in scores for MMSE was calculated for each patient and all the group. The results were compared statistically with paired simple t-test. Results: The mean age, CBP duration, lowest temperature was not statistically significant (Table1). Peroperative and postoperative blood pressures and pulse rates showed differences between groups. There were no preoperative differences between the groups on any of the mean MMSE score (Table2). The ECG monitoring revealed that most patients remained in sinus rhythm, with no difference between groups. Conclusions: We could not demonstrate that intraoperatively administered ketamine resulted in greater neuroprotective effects compared with propofol. Ketamine in combination with propofol during cardiac surgery is associated with a stable hemodynamic profile. Propofol may reduce the delivery of microemboli to the cerebral circulation by decreasing the cerebral blood flow. Propofol has a direct neuroprotective effect in vitro, although Roach et al. could not demonstrate a protective effect of propofol during open-heart surgery. Propofol enhances the antiinflammatory response to surgery by several mechanisms. This might have masked a neuroprotective effect of ketamine because propofol was administered in both groups in our study.
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Localized intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma: A case report

Published on: 5th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272363213

Introduction: Desmoplastic Malignant Mesothelioma (DMM) is a rare histological subtype of sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma arising most frequently in the pleura or peritoneum and less frequently in the lung parenchyma. Patient concerns: A 52-year-old female with no apparent asbestos exposure was referred for consultation in our center after 1 month of cough and no concomitant symptoms of chest. Diagnosis: Chest computed Tomography (CT) revealed a localized mass measuring 4.5 x 3.9 cm in the right lung middle lobe with inhomogeneous enhancement following injection of contrast, and without pleural lesions, considered a primary intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma. Interventions: Surgical intervention was performed. Outcomes: Following complete tumor resection, the patient declined to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The final diagnosis of intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. In addition, no local tumor recurrence was observed within 10 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Even elderly female patients with localized pulmonary masses without significant pleural lesions should not excluded the possibility of malignant mesothelioma in the lungs.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat