Recurrence

Role of physical activity in cancer survival and recurrence: A narrative review from relationship evidence to crucial research perspectives

Published on: 12th December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7964792160

Purpose: The benefits of Physical Activity (PA) considered as a major supportive care in cancer patients, on survival, and recurrence risk is largely disseminated in public communication. However, these data must be taken with caution. The main objectives were to review the evidence and limits of studies reported regarding the post-diagnosis PA role on cancer survival and recurrence risk to secondly discuss of research perspectives on PA programs. Method: The narrative review included all published or ongoing studies in English during the last 20 years related to PA, survival and recurrence risk with a systematic search on main databases. Results and discussion: The current evidences regarding the PA role on survival and recurrence risk were only based on cohort studies, mainly in breast cancer. The major methodological limits identified as the lack of PA change assessment, PA level assessed largely by self-reported methods and the significant inter- but also intra- variability make the interpretation of data very. Beyond the use of rigorous RCT, the major issue is to develop adapted and personalized interventions to progressively increase PA level overtime in cancer survivors. Conclusion: Despite the lack of causal relationship between post-diagnosis PA, survival and recurrence risk, the review underlines several interesting research perspectives. The future PA interventions, using innovative tools and integrated to the “real-life” will argued for the potential antitumoral PA role growing in literature.
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Mid-Ventricular Ballooning in Atherosclerotic and Non-Atherosclerotic Abnormalities of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

Published on: 30th December, 2016

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286428119

In a series of meanwhile 10 cases rigid straightening of the mid-portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery without lumen reduction mid-ventricular or basal ballooning was reported, or both basal and mid-ventricular ballooning in one case. In all these patients wrap-around (recurrent segment) phenomenon of the left anterior descending coronary artery was not present. The abnormalities of the left anterior descending coronary artery are due to myocardial bridging without lumen reduction of the LAD, only seen in computed tomography. When stress or in some cases happiness appears myocardial ballooning can appear, lasts 2-4 weeks and disappear with a recurrence rate of nearly 10% despite beta blocking agents.
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Recurrence of atrial fibrillation after pulmonary vein isolation, should we change the energy and technique?

Published on: 3rd April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8576354289

Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the accepted standard nowadays for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. The most widespread ablation techniques are cryoballoon (CB) and point-by-point radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Comparative studies between both techniques have shown their equivalence for the first ablation procedure, but no trial has explored the potential incremental benefit of crossing over the ablation technique after AF recurrence. Objective: To explore the potential incremental benefit of a crossover ablation strategy for AF recurrences, comparatively with repeating the same ablation energy used for the first procedure. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing a second AF ablation procedure after documented AF recurrence. Patients were excluded if all 4 PV were isolated at the beginning of the second procedure or extra-PVI ablation was used for the second procedure. Crossover group (n = 16) included patients in which two different techniques were used for the first and second procedure (CB-RF or RF-CB). Control group (n = 23) for those with same ablation procedure (RF-RF of CB-CB). Acute procedure end-point was PVI of all four pulmonary veins. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6, and 12 months with an electrocardiogram and a 24 h-holter. Arrhythmia-free survival at 1 year after the second ablation procedure was studied, comparing efficiency and safety of the two approaches (crossover vs. same energy). Success was defined as freedom from AF or atrial tachycardia lasting > 30 s off antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) Results: A cohort of 39 paroxysmal and persistent AF patients was analyzed. PVI after the second procedure was 100% in all patients in both groups. There were no baseline relevant differences between the two groups. No deaths or hospitalizations occurred during follow up (data censored at 24h moths). At 1 year, arrhythmia free-survival was significantly higher in the crossover group compared to control group [93,3% vs. 47,8%; HR 0.19 (0.06-0.66);p = 0,009]. Conclusion: Crossing the ablation technique (point-by-point radiofrequency or cryoballoon PVI) after AF recurrence significantly improved arrhythmia free-survival at one year, despite no difference in acute success (PVI isolation). Randomized controlled trials with a higher amount of patients are needed to confirm the results and widespread this approach.
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The epidemiology, evaluation, and assessment of lateral ankle sprains in athletes

Published on: 26th May, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9155134376

Approximately 30,000 ankle injuries occur every day in the United States. With the incidence estimated at more than 3 million a year and at a rate of 2.15/1,000 in the U.S. alone, medical specialists and other healthcare providers caring for the foot and ankle must take notice. Despite the millions of ankle injuries sustained annually, the true incidence may be underestimated, as fewer than half of individuals with ankle sprains seek medical attention from healthcare professionals. The economic burden associated with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is close to $4 billion annually. Ankle sprains account for half of all sports injuries and remains a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is critical as 40% of ankle sprains are misdiagnosed or poorly treated leading to chronic ankle pain and disability. Implementing evidence supported diagnostic and treatment strategies is the goal for ensuring safe and rapid return to play. The Lateral Ankle Sprain (LAS) is among the most common type of ankle sprains suffered during athletic activities. Up to 80% of LAS are of the inversion type, and 75% lead to recurrence and instability. Although most individuals experiencing a LAS return to activity within six weeks, many report continued pain, diminished function, and instability. The purpose of this review is to highlight the epidemiology, pathoetiology, pathoanatomy, and biomechanics of the LAS, enabling sports physicians to implement the best practice guidelines and protocols to manage this common enigma. 
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Giant cellular angiofibroma of the vulva: case report

Published on: 9th May, 2019

Cellular Angiofibroma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor without gender preference. It is usually a small (<3cm), well-circumscribed, mostly asymptomatic and typically slow growing. Surgical removal of the mass with its capsule is the preferred treatment, not only helps guarantee complete excision and prevent its recurrence but also minimize blood loss. We present the case of a 76-year-old woman with a giant vulvar mass. 
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Endovascular treatment of complex cerebral arterial saccular aneurysms with different methods of coiling: 14 years of experience review

Published on: 21st June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317654645

The Objective: to improve the treatment results for patients with cerebral arterial saccular aneurysms by optimizing of differentiated approach to the using of endovascular assisting occlusion techniques. Materials and Methods: The work is based on the comprehensive survey and treatment of 1345 patients with cerebral saccular arterial aneurysms (AA), who were treated at the SO “Scientific-Practical Center of endovascular neuroradiology of NAMS of Ukraine” from 2002 to 2016. 214 cases were selected for further clinical-instrumental dynamic observation in follow-up period. All patients were operated by endovascular approach in “before hemorrhage” period, in acute or “cold” period of the disease on for symptomatic or asymptomatic intracranial saccular AA in both vascular pools with balloon-remodeling or stent-assisting techniques using with the coiling or just detachable coils (DC) using-mono-coils occlusion technique. Depending on the initial endovascular occlusion method, the patients were divided into three groups for observation: I group (mono-coils occlusion)-82 (38.3%) patients, II group (balloon-remodeling technique using)-68 (31.8%) patients, group III (stent-assisting technique occlusion)-64 (29.9%) patients. The life quality and the level of social adaptation were evaluated before hospital discharge and at the follow-up control examinations by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and by the modified Rankine scale (mRS). AA radicalism occlusion was assessed by Modified Raymond-Roy Scale (MRRS) (Mascitelli JR, et al., 2015). AA occlusion I and II by MRRS was considered as “Effective”. Results: 9 criteria of cerebral saccular AA complexity inherent in endovascular surgery have been developed based on the technical and surgical features of endovascular methods of the cerebral AA occlusion and X-ray-anatomical characteristics of aneurysms, which complicated the “effective” reconstructive occlusion of AA cavity. The evaluation of the AA complexity criteria prognostic significance to achieve the “effective” primary occlusion, shown different results in different groups: high prognostic significance of 4 criteria was shown in group I, of 2 criteria - in group III, and no any criteria significance in group II. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the primary AA occlusion efficacy and initial good results by GOS and mRS. It was proved that endovascular occlusion of complex cerebral AA with the assisting methods using has high efficiency in all periods of the disease, unlike the method of mono-coils occlusion, which is most effective in acute and “cold” periods. There was no statistically significant difference between the number of intraoperative, postoperative and non-surgical complications (p>0.05). It was found that all methods of complex AA endovascular occlusion can effectively prevent the disease recurrence despite the differences between them in the stability of the AA cavity occlusion. Conclusions: Consideration of developed AA complexity criteria during endovascular surgery planning allows to choose the most optimal and safe individual method of primary or phased AA occlusion and helps to reduce the frequency of AA recanalization in follow-up period. The choice of the complex AA occlusion method doesn’t effect on result of primary treatment, the number of intraoperative complications and the quality of primary occlusion. However, an analysis of the long-term treatment results indicates that the assisting techniques have proven advantages according to the occlusion stability.
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Previous antibiotic treatment as a risk factor for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

Published on: 3rd December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8444356881

The incidence of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is extremely high. RVVC is likely to have a greater impact on patients. The aim of the study was to explore the risk factors of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) in the tropical coastal area. In this case-control study, a questionnaire survey was conducted in patients with VVC in the Sanya area from July 2014 to December 2016. The data included demographic characteristics, host factors, and behavioural characteristics. According to the maximum number of symptomatic episodes per year, the participants were classified into a non-recurrent VVC (NRVVC; < 4 episodes/year, including the current one) group or a RVVC group (≥ 4 episodes/year, including the current one). Crude odds ratios were calculated for potential risk factors and were adjusted using logistic regression. All vaginal secretions of patients with RVVC were cultured. Of the 728 cases of VVC, 69.0% (502/728) were NRVVC, and 31.0% (226/728) were RVVC. Previous antibiotic treatment (adjusted OR: 4.41, p < 0.01), repeat abortion (p < 0.05), and vaginal lavage (adjusted OR: 1.62, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with RVVC. A total of 230 yeasts isolates were obtained from 226 patients. C. albicans were the predominant Candida species (194 strains) in all patients of VVC. Our results demonstrate that in the tropical coastal area, a significant association was found between previous antibiotic treatment and incident RVVC. Host factors may be the most important factors in the occurrence of RVVC.
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Triple negative breast cancer: Early stages management and evolution, a two years experience at the department of breast cancer of CHSF

Published on: 30th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8625623678

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and is a major public health problem. It is divided into several subtypes, including triple negatives. The general objective of our study is to establish the profile and the management of patients with triple negative breast cancer over a period of 2 years, operated in our department. During our study period, triple-negative breast cancers accounted for 10% of our population. The most affected age group ranges from 50 to 60. The majority of patients in our sample are pauciparous. In the group of patients who received hormone therapy, it was mainly HRT for 4 to 6 years. 96.77% of patients consulted a health worker within 3 months of the discovery of the signs. Adenopathies are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. 93.54% of the cases have an invasive ductal carcinoma. Triple negative cancers are essentially poorly differentiated. Triple-negative cancer has a high rate of cell renewal. In our study, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is mostly indicated for triple-negative breast cancers ≥ 30 mm at diagnosis and a delayed lumpectomy is then performed in 23.52% of the patients. For tumors of < 30 mm size, a lumpectomy is performed immediately in 76.47% of the patients, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Mastectomy was performed in 45.16% of patients; it was mainly indicated in front of a large tumor size associated with a small breast volume, then multifocal breast tumors. Breast reconstruction was performed in 21.42%. Radiation therapy is indicated in the majority of patients, postoperatively. In our population, 11 patients were proposed to have an oncogenetic survey; it was mainly indicated based on the Manchester criteria in front of a young age and a family history of cancer. There are two BRCA 1 mutations, one BRCA 2 mutation, and one case of absence of mutation. The therapeutic intake in case of a mutation is directed towards a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy and adnexectomy, proposed at the age of 40. Two patients had presented triple negative recurrences of their already treated breast cancer; first case PDL1 positive PD-L1 ≥ 1% treated with immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy (atezolizumab/abraxane) while the second and second PDL1 negative treated with chemotherapy alone. Despite their low frequency, triple negative breast cancers represent a subgroup marked by pejorative characteristics, a reserved prognosis, with limited treatment options.
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Prostatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: 2-case report with literature review

Published on: 29th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7991649051

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is rarely seen in the prostate. Most of prostatic tumors are benign. However, local aggressively invading the adjacent organs and recurrence are frequent. Rarely, the malignant transformation and metastasis occurs, especially in elderly patient. The definitive diagnosis in a small biopsy is challenging. The correct diagnosis preoperatively will help to avoid unnecessary radical prostatectomy. Interval follow up is recommended. Here we reported two cases of prostatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with literature review.
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Localized intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma: A case report

Published on: 5th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272363213

Introduction: Desmoplastic Malignant Mesothelioma (DMM) is a rare histological subtype of sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma arising most frequently in the pleura or peritoneum and less frequently in the lung parenchyma. Patient concerns: A 52-year-old female with no apparent asbestos exposure was referred for consultation in our center after 1 month of cough and no concomitant symptoms of chest. Diagnosis: Chest computed Tomography (CT) revealed a localized mass measuring 4.5 x 3.9 cm in the right lung middle lobe with inhomogeneous enhancement following injection of contrast, and without pleural lesions, considered a primary intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma. Interventions: Surgical intervention was performed. Outcomes: Following complete tumor resection, the patient declined to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The final diagnosis of intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. In addition, no local tumor recurrence was observed within 10 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Even elderly female patients with localized pulmonary masses without significant pleural lesions should not excluded the possibility of malignant mesothelioma in the lungs.
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4-year recurrence risk factors after tension-free vaginal tape-obturator as a treatment of stress urinary incontinence

Published on: 4th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875587752

Objectives: Tension-free vaginal tapes are the gold standard of the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI); however, long-term recurrence of SUI after this surgery has been a matter of problem. Here, we attempted to determine the incidence of its recurrence and to identify the risk factors of 4-year-recurrence of SUI after this surgery. Methods: Of all patients undergoing this surgery (n = 341, 2015-2019), 71 patients were met the study inclusion criteria. Of 71, SUI recurred in 8 patients, with the recurrence rate being 11.3%. The following three were identified to be independent risk factors: older age, history of delivery of macrosomic baby (>4 kg), and the presence of mixed urinary incontinence. The frequency of recurrence in cases with mixed incontinence amounted for 19.5%. Recurrence was 22 and 50% for women with macrosomic delivery once and more than twice, respectively. Conclusion: Advanced age, macrosomic delivery and mixed urinary incontinence have shown to be independent risk factors of recurrence of SUI after tension-free vaginal tape-obturator at 4 years. Key message: Stress urinary incontinence can recur so investigate possible risk factors is a priority. Our paper relates recurrence with: advanced age, fetal macrosomia and mixed incontinence.
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Experience with trans radial uterine artery embolisation for uterine fibroids in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia

Published on: 1st December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8812313094

Trans-radial uterine artery embolization (UAE) is acknowledged as a non- invasive, cost-effective and safe procedure for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids. However, it is associated with the recurrence of symptoms like abnormal uterine bleeding and pressure symptom in some patients. This is a comparative study of our data with other international data, in the context of percentage reduction in fibroid size, accompanying controlling factors, short and long term follow up data analysis of the first two years was done. Careful pre-procedural counseling of future possibility of fibroid recurrence and means of management should be stressed. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study at the Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The study was done from 1st November 2017-31st October 2019, on symptomatic patients diagnosed with fibroids, who refused surgical treatment. The outcomes included: fibroid site, size and anatomical position, patients’ symptoms, general condition, and early and delayed complications. These data were compared with those from other international studies. Results: The study involved 23 patients (mean age: 39 years). The average percentage reduction in fibroid volume was 49%. There were no major complications and no recurrence of symptoms during the covered period. Data analysis revealed a poor correlation between the overall percentage reduction of fibroid size with fibroid number, age of patients’, and body mass indices. Conclusion: Despite poor correlation, we provided preliminary data of the first two years out of the total five-year projected period of the study where it showed effectiveness and relative safety of radial - UAE for fibroid.
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Anemia due to a rare anomaly - Case Report

Published on: 14th July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317600166

Anemia due to gastrointestinal blood loss can occur due to many conditions and rarely to bowel structural anomalies. We report a 12 years old girl with anemia due to small bowel duplication cyst, posing diagnostic challenge intra operatively. Surgery offered cure without recurrence of bleeding. Common symptoms can be due to a rare surgical condition in practice.
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Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) in Peripheral Blood: A Novel and Simple Prognostic Predictor of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

Published on: 30th March, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355938332

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and almost accounts for 20% of these deaths, however, the cure rate is less than 10% [1]. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of all cases of lung cancer [1], but fewer than 15% of individuals diagnosed with NSCLC can survive for more than 5 years, which poses a great threat to the patient’s life and health [2]. Recently, the incidence of lung cancer keeps dynamically growing, but more than 75% of patients at diagnosis has appeared local development or metastasis, missing the best period of surgery. Moreover, despite surgical treatment is the optimal choice for early-stage NSCLC patients, 30%-40% of patients with NSCLC develop tumor recurrence in a short time. Therefore, improving the prognosis of patients with lung cancer and predicting the long-term survival of patients is of particular importance [3]. At present, tumor and node metastasis (TNM) staging system, clinicopathological characteristics, visceral pleural invasion and marginal status are used to predict the disease progression and overall survival of NSCLC patients. There is no index which is stable, effective, reliable and less harmful to assess prognosis, predict recurrence risk and overall survival.
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Laparoscopic anterior transgastric cystogastrostomy for the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts

Published on: 6th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272371062

Introduction: Pancreatic pseudocysts (PPs) are mostly delayed complications of acute or chronic pancreatitis and trauma. Pancreatic pseudocysts are usually managed by supportive medical treatment without surgical procedure. All the surgical interventions (percutaneous, endoscopic or surgical approaches) are based on the location, size, symptoms, complications of the pancreatic pseudocyst and medical condition of the patients. Recently, laparoscopic cystogastrostomy has become most appropriate approach especially for retrogastric pancreatic pseudocysts. In this study, we would like to report results of laparoscopic anterior transgastric cystogastrostomy by using linear articulated endo GIA stapler (Covidien medium thick purple) and versa-lifter (versa lifter®, laparoscopic retractor, manufactured by protomedlabs, France) in 14 pancreatic pseudocysts patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with pancreatic pseudocysts treated by laparoscopic anterior transgastric cystogastrostomy from September 2010 to October 2014. All of the patients were controlled for the recurrence of pancreatic pseudocysts in February 2017. Results: 14 patients with pancreatic pseudocysts were managed by laparoscopic anterior transgastric cysto-gastrostomy. Conversion was performed in only one patient (7%). There were no symptoms and signs of recurrence of pancreatic pseudocyst during on average 43.6 months follow up time. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy by using articulated linear endo-GIA stapler and versa-lifter is a safe and effective method for management of appropriate retro-gastric pancreatic pseudocysts.
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Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with molecular targeted therapy for a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma with intrahepatic metastasis and main portal vein tumor thrombus: A case report and literature review

Published on: 2nd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8616348339

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high morbidity, high recurrence, and high mortality rates. In China, the morbidity of HCC is fifth among all malignant tumors and HCC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Most HCC patients also have liver cirrhosis. Surgery is the sole curative method for HCC; however, many patients are diagnosed with HCC during its advanced stages so radical resection can no longer be performed. Therefore, the proportion of patients who undergo radical hepatectomy is less than 30%. Patients with mildly advanced HCC cannot undergo hepatectomy and thus transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and/or biological targeted therapy are alternative options. However, data on the effects of TACE therapy or biological targeted therapy are limited. Therefore, an investigation of multimodal and individualized treatments is critical to ensure the best treatment. In June 2018, we treated an advanced HCC patient with multiple metastases and right portal vein tumor thrombus. The patient exhibited partial remission after undergoing treatment with TACE and crizotinib capsules for 1 month. The case and a literature review are reported here.
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Giant hepatic cystadenoma mimicking a hydatid cyst: A challenging preoperative diagnosis

Published on: 24th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8979497397

Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic tumor of the liver. It has a high recurrence rate and malignant transformation risk in middle-aged women. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of clinical, biological and radiological specificity. The confirmation of the diagnosis is made by the histopathological examination. Complete surgical resection is preferred because of the high risk of malignant transformation and recurrence.
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Cytology and DNA Analysis of Ameloblastoma - A Case Report

Published on: 23rd January, 2017

Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumour that may have aggressive biological behavior with local recurrence and metastasis after the surgical resection. We report a case of cytology of recurrent ameloblastoma. The first tumour was diagnosed in the left mandible in 57-yers-old woman thirteen years ago. The patient was operated on, the tumour was enucleated, pathohistological diagnosis of ameloblastoma was put and DNA analysis by flow cytometry of the tumour was performed. DNA analysis showed that the tumour was diploid but proliferative. Two years after the operation, a new tumour appeared on the scar. Fine needle aspiration cytology with ultrasound guidance of the tumour was performed; cytological diagnosis of recurrent ameloblastoma was put and confirmed by pathohistology. Until now the patient is well without any new recurrent ameloblastoma.
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Leiomyosarcoma of Maxillary Sinus – A Rare Clinical Entity

Published on: 17th July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7795968675

Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant smooth-muscle tumor that has a predilection for the gastrointestinal and female genital tract and is a rare entity in the paranasal sinuses. It is locally fast-spreading and highly aggressive, and the prognosis is poor. We report a rare case of leiomyosarcoma of the maxilla in a patient who sought treatment for maxillary swelling, nasal obstruction with no epistaxis, orbital involvement or cervical lymph node metastasis. The patient underwent total maxillectomy followed by radiotherapy. At present after 5 years of follow up, he is symptom free with no recurrence.
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Autologous grafts in radiotherapy received breast cancer patients

Published on: 9th February, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347013999

German surgeon, Vincenz Czerny, transplanted a patient’s own lipoma located in the hip to it’s breast after gland excision due to mastitis in 1895. Dr. Vincenza reported that for at least a year he didnt observe any problem on the operated breast [1]. Injection of adipose tissue to the breast has been used in breast cancer patients during breast reconstruction and lumpectomy. And in cases of revision autologous tissues are used for reconstruction. In clinical practice, many breast cancer patients apply to the clinics mostly after radiotherapy for reconstruction. Rigotti et al used purified autologous lipoaspirates in breast cancer patients with late term complications of radiation therapy and observed increase in neovascularization and wound healing [2]. Panettiere and colleagues compared aesthetic and functional features of fat grafts in radiotherapy received breast cancer patients and control group. In the fat graft group, all clinical symptoms and aesthetic scores were significantly higher than the control group [3]. In plastic surgery especially after the surgical treatment of breast cancer, prosthetic techniques, various autologous flaps or combinations of both are performed for breast reconstruction. Particularly breast reconstructions following adjuvant radiotherapy have less success rates due to adverse effects of radiotherapy [4-10]. There are reports showing reduced complications rates with use of fat grafts before and after breast reconstruction with prosthesis in patients received radiotherapy after lumpectomy or mastectomy. With that, in patients receiving radiotherapy after fat grafting, local complications such as fat necrosis, infection can be seen more [3,11]. It was reported that adipocytes may had paracrine and endocrine interactions with tumor cells and stromal elements [12]. The fat grafts used in breast cancer were thought to cause local recurrence, distant metastasis or development of new cancers; there was no relationship in the clinical series. There is aromatase activity in the adipose tissue. Thus, fat tissue is the main source of post-menopausal estrogen hormone. Tumor cells and surrounding tissue were found to be higher in aromatase activity. Therefore, when fat tissue is injected subcutaneous or under the gland rather than into the parenchyma local recurrence risk is low [2]. When fat tissue is injected to breast, a good physical examination and mammography should be performed. After fat injection, sometimes calcifications are formed as a result of undergoing necrosis and they interfere with malignancy. Therefore before and after the procedure, mammography must be taken for comparison and existing and or newly developed calcifications should be determined.
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