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Characterisation of Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness (DOMS) in the hand, wrist and forearm using a finger dynamometer: A pilot study

Published on: 14th July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286354494

Background: Experimentally-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness of large muscle groups is frequently used in as an injurious model of muscle pain. We wanted to develop an experimental model of DOMS to to mimic overuse injuries from sports where repeated finger flexion activity is vital such as rock climbing. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a ‘finger trigger device’ to induce DOMS in the fingers, hands, wrists and lower arms. Methods: A convenient sample of six participants completed an experiment in which they undertook finger exercises to exhaustion after which measurements of pain, skin sensitivity to fine touch, forearm circumference and grip strength in the hand, wrist and forearm were taken from the experimental and contralateral non-exercised (control) arms. Results: Pain intensity was greater in the experimental arm at rest and on movement when compared with the control arm up to 24 hours after exercise, although the location of pain varied between participants. Pressure pain threshold was significantly lower in the experimental arm compared with the control arm immediately after exercises locations close to the medial epicondyle but not at other locations. There were no statistical significant differences between affected and non-affected limbs for mechanical detection threshold, forearm circumference or grip strength. Conclusion: Repetitive finger flexion exercises of the index finger by pulling a trigger against a resistance can induced DOMS. We are currently undertaking a more detailed characterization of sensory and motor changes following repetitive finger flexion activity using a larger sample.
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Fears of health catastrophe as Nepal reports increasing deaths from COVID-19

Published on: 1st January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873854252

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had affected both developed and developing countries too. The first case in Nepal was confirmed on 23 January 2020. It was also the first recorded case of COVID-19 in South Asia. Nepal reported its first COVID-19 death on May 16. At the end of October, the number of death stood 937 and 1126 on 9 November. In September and October, deaths doubled, and with winter setting in, fatalities may skyrocket. Among the total CP cases in Nepal nearly 50% are from the Capital Kathmandu. So, Kathmandy is the new epicenter of COVID-19 in Nepal. There are no proper community-based isolation centres and ICU beds are also still limited. Due to increasing trend of COVID-19 cases and death people have fear of psychological stress. A study shows at least one symptom of psychological distress whereas 32% suffered from two or more symptoms of psychological distress such as restlessness, fearfulness, anxiety and worry and sadness. Despite limited resources, the government’s major challenges are early diagnosis, management of confirmed cases, contact tracing, and implementing some public health measures to reduce the infection’s transmissibility.
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Postural and Kynematic effect of a new custom-made foot insole called “Prodynamic” in a cohort of patients affected by extrapiramidal disease

Published on: 23rd May, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8164054497

Background: The use of a custom-made orthotic plantar device is referenced as a true sensor-motor facilitation tool for the control of the postural orthostatic and orthodynamic position in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Aim: To outline the postural and kinematic effect of a pro-ergonomic multilayer foot insole versus a custom-made carbon-kevlar dynamic foot insole in a cohort of patients affected by extrapyramidal disease. Setting: A rehabilitation institute for the treatment of neurological and orthopaedic gait disorders. Methods: A sample of 8 patients (mean age of 82.6), of whom 4 affected by Parkinson’s disease (P) and 4 by Parkinsonism (PS) were recruited for the aim of this study. In line with our inclusion criteria (clinical-functional diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease or Parkinsonism, Webster scale ≤ 20, Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥ 18), the study design developed in 2 times: a. time T1 (or evaluation time), in which recruited patients affected by Parkinson’s disease or Parkinsonism were evaluated at the Hospital and Noble Resting House Paolo Richiedei through an accurate functional (Conley scale, Barthel Index scale, Tinetti scale and the Berg Balance Scale), postural evaluation (VPA) and walking examination (VGA, baropodometric evaluation, kinematic gait evaluation through WIVA system); to each group of patients of our study were therefore entrusted 4 foot-insoles, of which 2 synthetic and 2 carbon-kevlar custom-made foot-insoles called PRODYNAMIC; at the end of this step, patients started with our integrated rehabilitative treatment course. b. time T2 (or experimental time; 90 days from T1), a new clinical-instrumental evaluation of each patient was performed, repeating the clinical-functional and instrumental evaluation performed at the time T1 in a specular way; this assessment was performed in FW condition, with personal footwear and previously acquired foot-insoles used during the evaluation at the T1 time. Results: Most of our patients have been able to find benefit from the use of the plantar orthosis and integrated rehabilitation treatment so as to bring some modifications within personal postural attitude, recording an improvement but not uniform change within the sample. The results obtained by comparing the VPA at time T1 and at time T2 explain how patients affected by both clinical forms tend to establish incorrect postural attitudes due to stiffness and appearance of hypertonic plasticity, which become then structured and only partially modifiable. There was a general performance improvement in line with the VGA: within the P.B group, we observed with the use of the Prodynamic insole a partial or even complete normalization of the dynamic heel-contact phase, a better alignment of the COP in its excursion from the 1st to the 2nd rocker phase of the step, a notable facilitation to the inertial thrust in progress in the 3rd and 4th rocker phase, an improvement in the eccentric control of the patellofemoral alignment in the acceptance phase of the so-called load-response in stance and, finally, the acquisition of a more physiological propulsion structure of the trunk basin unit with an improvement of the clearance and fixation skills in the sequential phases of the step. This trend was evident but not uniform in the other groups considered. Analysis of the evolution of the degree of functionality in the daily life activities expressed by the Barthel index, passing from time T1 to the time T2, showed an improvement and consistent change in all groups considered within our study that we can find in a more or less way for the other clinical outcome data. An objective time-related and intra-group comparison of the raw static and dynamic baropodometric data acquired in our 4 study conditions showed different time-related trends for the two groups taken into consideration. A specific WIVA profile was found for each pathology group, highlighting different trends passing from time T1 to time T2 in particular of the gait cadence and gait speed. In particular, in the “Prodynamic” study condition the gait cadence shows in the Parkinson group a significant increase from time T1 to time T2, passing respectively from an average value of 41.9 ± 11.7 to 54.9 ± 1.1; patients of the Parkinsonism group showed a value of the average gait cadence at time T1 higher than the other study conditions at the same evaluation time, with an increase of this data from T1 to T2, passing from 43.1 ± 11.8 to 47.4 ± 4.4. If we consider the gait speed time-related trend, in the “Prodynamic” study condition at T1 the gait speed in Parkinson patients is similar to that recorded in the “shoe” study condition; in Parkinsonism the gait speed recorded at time T1 is higher than that recorded in the other study conditions; at time T2 there is a less evident increase in speed compared to that observed in patients with Parkinson’s. Conclusion: In today’s management of the profile of complexity of extrapyramidal pathology, the association of several health figures is of fundamental importance, with professional profiles and diversified skills, in such a way as to be able to guarantee a comprehensive management of the patient. From this point of view, the figure of the orthopedic technician will be able to play a new role within the rehabilitation team, which will be responsible for the best possible functional response (deriving from an optimal integration between orthotic and rehabilitation treatment) of patients with Parkinson’s disease.
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Impact of mineralformation on restoration of the soil structure in nakhchivan AR and geographical spreading legitimacy

Published on: 3rd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628623679

The silt fractions have a great impact in soil structural formation. If the soil forming rocks don’t disturb, crush and weather, the soil forming processes on them occur weakly, the organic substances cause formation of the loamy stratums without completely turning. This mostly influences the initial soil forming layers. The reproduction minerals in these soils cause initial minerals majority by occurring weakly. If these processes occur quickly then they cause a gradual increase of the reproduction minerals and reduction of the initial minerals. The heights of the zones where the geographical spreading of such stratums is situated depend on levels.
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High energy lasers and new applications

Published on: 14th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8656784701

In the beginning of 1973 in the USSR the study of possibility of LJE designing was conducted. The reflector, located in the tail of the rocket prototype, concentrated the obtained radiation in air and ensured micro-burst that the reactive thrust was created. The successful results of different models of the reflectors tests, which were at the same time the laser light receivers, had been obtained. One should note that all experiments pointed out above were conducted with the use of electric discharge CO2- lasers with power up to 10 kW, while for the injection into orbit of different highly and technologically effective equipment (global network connections, Internet, photo-monitoring of Earth surface, debris cleaning) the radiated power substantially higher is required. Thus, for example, for SC launching with the weight 1000 kg the laser with power not less than 15 MW is necessary [1,2].
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