Rural

Agricultural Residues for Future Energy Option in Sudan: An Analysis

Published on: 13th July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7814982303

Like many tropical countries, Sudan has ample biomass resources that can be efficiently exploited in a manner that is both profitable and sustainable. Fuel-wood farming offers cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions for Sudan, with the added benefit of providing sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. This article provides an overview of biomass energy activities and highlights future plans concerning optimum technical and economical utilization of biomass energy available in Sudan. Results suggest that biomass energy technologies must be encouraged, promoted, implemented, and fully demonstrated in Sudan.
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Management outcome of intestinal obstruction done by integrated emergency surgical officers and its associated factors in selected district hospitals of South Wollo Zone, North East Ethiopia in 2019 G.C

Published on: 16th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9206124375

Background: Intestinal obstruction (IO) is defined as a partial or complete blockage of the bowel that results in the failure of intestinal contents to pass through. It is a common cause of emergency surgical problems. IO has been the leading cause of acute abdomen in several African countries. Objective: To assess surgical management outcome of intestinal obstruction by IESO professionals and its associated factors of intestinal obstruction in surgically treated patients at South Wollo zone. Method: A cross-sectional study was done on 216 patients ‘the data was collected from medical cards of the patient by using a pretested data abstraction format. Three nurses were involved in the process of data collection. The collected data was cleaned, coded and analyzed by SPSS version 23 statistical package. First descriptive statics was done for categorical and analyzed using frequencies and percentage. Multivariable logistic regression models was used to determine the association factors on the management outcome of intestinal obstruction when p - value < 0.05 and the strength of statistical association was measured by adjusting odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance was taken at p - value < 0.05. Results: From all study participants about 177 (82%) of them had good surgical outcome. Study participants who were managed by 1-3 years of work experience of IESO {(p = 0.004, AOR (95% CI) = 7.2[1.89, 27.68]}, preoperatively diagnosed as small bowel obstruction {(p = 0.001, AOR (95% CI) = 4.5[1.91, 10.40], Surgery conducted at day time {(p = 0.03, AOR (95% CI) = 2.8[1.06, 7.16]} had shown positive association with management outcome of intestinal obstruction conducted by IESO professionals. Conclusion and recommendation: Majority patients with intestinal obstruction had good surgical outcome done by IESO professionals. Year of experience of IESO Workers, preoperative diagnosis and time of surgery of the respondents had shown positive association for the occurrence of chronic liver disease whereas. In this study we can conclude that surgeries of intestinal obstruction conducted by IESO professionals are as good as intestinal obstruction surgeries conducted by physicians so there is a need to train more IESO professionals to deliver decentralized surgical service for rural areas.
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Vegetables associated with reduced risk of cancer

Published on: 19th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8558604918

The present study aimed to investigate and identify the association between the intake of allium vegetables and colorectal cancer (CRC) in population. A hospital‐based matched case‐control study was conducted between June 2009 and November 2011 in three hospitals. Eight hundred thirty three consecutively recruited cases of CRC were frequency matched to 833 controls by age (within 2.5 years of difference), sex, and residence area (rural/urban). Demographic and dietary information were collected via face‐to‐face interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression.
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Alone in the face of adversity

Published on: 3rd March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9031333886

From my desk I could be watching the wind blow or the horses running. Practicing Medicine in a rural setting has these advantages: from time to time you can take the time to admire the beauty that surrounds you in the form of an obligatory pause within a marathon working day, and rest helps refresh your mind of prejudices to continue with the inescapable task that awaits us after a few minutes, the only ones allowed to order our thoughts.
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Is community based case detection of glaucoma relevant? Intraocular Pressure level and vertical Cup Disc ratio of participants at a screening programme in a rural setting in Nigeria

Published on: 12th November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929242578

To determine the proportion of participants with elevated intraocular pressure and abnormal vertical cup disc ratio in a glaucoma screening event in a rural community in Nigeria. Methods: 242 eyes of 121 participants at a one-day screening programme were examined. Visual acuity was accessed using Snellen literate and illiterate charts, followed by a pen torch examination of the anterior segment. The posterior segment was accessed using a direct ophthalmoscope (Welch Allyn, USA). All participants had intraocular accessed using Keeler non contact tonometer and those with significant media opacity preventing view of the posterior pole had cycloplegic examination after dilatation with 1%Tropicamide drops. Data generated was expressed as percentages and means. Results: 121 participants (242 eyes) were examined. There were 42 males and 79 females giving a M:F ratio of 1:1.86. Age range of participants was 0-90years with a peak in the 5th decade. Mean age was 32 years. 79.3% of participants had normal visual acuity of 6/4 -6/18, while 9.5% had visual acuity worse than 6/60. 83% of eyes had intraocular pressure within normal level, <21mmHg, 12.4% within 21-30mmHg and 4.6% >30mmHg. 73.1% of eyes had Vertical Cup disc ratio (VCDR) <0.5, 10.7% had 0.5-0.7 and 6.6%>0.7. 9.6% of eyes could not be accessed due to media opacities. Conclusion: 6.6% of participants had suspicious discs and 4.6% participants had intraocular pressures above 30mmHg. Opportunistic screening for glaucoma remains one of the important modes of case detection for glaucoma in the developing climes and should be encouraged as a way to address the scourge of this blinding disease.
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Role of community health fairs in providing health services, improving health of rural residents

Published on: 11th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272371549

Introduction: Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg m-2) is epidemic globally and is associated with increased risk for a wide range of physical and mental health comorbidities. This is a particular concern for rural residents who have a greater rate of obesity than urban residents, but are disadvantaged in obtaining care because of a shortage of health care professionals. Community health fairs provide an opportunity for rural residents to receive health care services and education at reduced or no cost. Therefore, this study explored the role of community health fairs for providing health services and improving the health of residents in a rural community where obesity is a serious health concern. Methods: This study involved a retrospective longitudinal analysis of data collected during community health fairs conducted in a rural western Nebraska, USA community during 2014, 2015, and 2016 (n = 83). The Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH) framework was used to target health education in this rural community. This approach involved 1. Mobilizing the community (via health fairs), 2. Collecting and organizing data (from consented attendees), 3. Selecting health priorities (obesity), 4. Developing a comprehensive intervention (nutrition and physical activity education), and 5. Evaluating the effectiveness of the framework (declines in measures of obesity over time). Analyses characterized BMI, percent body fat, visceral fat, and BP and explored differences between genders. The sample was recruited by advertising with flyers for health fairs at the College of Nursing. Most booths provided printouts of results for participants in order for them to keep and track their health information. Once potential participants arrived at the health fair site, there were asked if they would like to participate in the study via an invitation letter. They could then decline or sign the consent. Results: Percent body fat and visceral fat level differed between genders (p = < .001 and .001, respectively). Mean body fat levels (women 39.4%, men 28.8%) were unhealthy. Mean visceral fat level was unhealthy in men (16), but healthy in women (10). BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between genders. Mean BMI was 31 kg m-2; 33% of participants were overweight, 44% were obese. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 134 and 78 mg Hg, respectively. Most participants were hypertensive (systolic: men 57%, women 32%; diastolic: men 24%, women 7%) or prehypertensive (systolic: men 21%, women 39%; diastolic: men and women 36%). Conclusion: Obesity and high BP were common in this rural population, supporting the need for effective education and intervention efforts to address these health issues. Health fairs provide a manner in which to reach community persons needing referrals to local clinics, mental health providers and physicians. Education provided at such events is valuable as well and may in fact be the only health care contact they receive. Though community health fairs provide an economical way for individuals to receive screenings and health information, few men participated and few individuals attended in multiple years. The lack of repeat attendees prevented assessment of the efficacy of the education intervention. Means of enhancing participation, particularly by men and previous attendees, need to be explored. Repeatedly attending health fairs enables participants to monitor their progress, seek physical and mental health screenings and discuss any health concerns and helps researchers assess the efficacy of interventions. 
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Targeted community outreach events to deliver healthcare to diverse rural populations

Published on: 24th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628651982

Introduction: Rural populations often experience disparities in health and access to and quality of healthcare. Such disparities may differ among subpopulations. Community outreach events provide an opportunity for rural residents to receive health services and education at reduced or no cost. This project builds on our previous experience with community health fairs by providing health events that target specific underserved subpopulations (rural youth, Latinas, and men). Methods: Our first event provided free sports physicals to area students. The second provided free health screenings to men during an annual agricultural event (Bean Day). The third was a cardiovascular health event for Latinas that featured free or reduced cost health screenings and other health-related and culturally appropriate activities. Results: Thirty-five students received sports physicals, enabling them to participate in sports. Twenty-two Bean Day participants, primarily men, received health screenings; four were hypertensive, three were overweight, and 12 were obese. Over 100 women attended Latina Red Dress and received health services and education. For many in these subpopulations, events such as this provide the only healthcare they receive. During all three events, participants received education regarding any health issues of concern and referrals to local health clinics when appropriate (e.g. hypertension, high glucose levels). Conclusion: Community health events such as these provide culturally appropriate and economical means to deliver health services and education, enabling participants to identify and address any health concerns. Targeting events for underserved subpopulations helped engage them in their healthcare. These findings support the need for effective education and intervention efforts to address physical and mental health concerns in this rural area. This was our first contact with these particular populations whom we know need intervention to receive health care. Moving forward through 2020 and beyond we will have future health fairs in the same groups in order to assess if the health fairs are indeed impacting health of these children, men and minority women. 
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Blunt abdominal trauma with duodenal dissection: A case report

Published on: 28th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272396153

We describe a new case of duodenal wound with complete transection in a 22-year-old patient following a motorcycle accident. He presented to the emergency room of the rural Regional Hospital of Edéa in Cameroon with a clinical picture of acute abdomen and post-trauma hemodynamic instability. A peritoneal puncture brought back an incoagulable blood. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large hemoperitoneum mixed with food debris. A tear of the omentum and transverse mesocolon and a complete section of the third duodenum at the beginning of its free portion were observed. The surgeon performed emergency closure of both duodenal stumps and performed an isoperistaltic lateral gastrojejunal bypass. A transfer to a specialized center for a more anatomical continuity was considered, but the imminence of a humanitarian mission in the hospital prompted the surgeon to seize the opportunity of this mission for the reoperation. This surgical revision was performed on the fifth postoperative day. A resection of the distal duodenal stump and the adjacent jejunal segment including the anastomosis was performed. Continuity was restored by a mechanical duodenal-jejunal anastomosis. The patient was discharged on the 18th postoperative day. This type of lesion is difficult to manage in an emergency situation in a structure with limited technical resources. Unfortunately, surgeons treating polytraumatized civilians are encountering an increasing number of blunt duodenal wounds requiring laborious management.
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Rural adolescent health: Issues, behaviors and self-reported awareness

Published on: 22nd April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8582318282

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the health status of rural adolescents and young adults in the United States through a comprehensive review of detailed health information, behavior and health awareness. The disparity in health awareness between rural and non-rural residents compared and evaluated. Methods: Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes were combined with respondent-level data from the Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to classify individuals as rural/non-rural residents. Health characteristics and perceived health awareness was tested for statistically significant differences using ANOVA. Differences in weight perception accuracy was compared for systematic differences controlling for self-selection into rural areas using a two-stage logistic selection model. Findings: Analysis revealed that rural residents have a higher incidence of major health conditions including epilepsy, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes. Additionally, they have a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviors including drinking and drug use. Rural residents are less likely to be insured, but more likely to be overweight or obese. While rural adolescents are more likely to mis-classify their body weight, this misclassification is a result of the higher incidence of overweight rather than the residential location. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of chronic conditions combined with the income and education levels suggests the rural environment is a unique and potentially challenging context for adolescent health. Improving rural adolescent health will require innovative solutions appropriate for rural environments and changes in individual health literacy. Solutions must be multisectoral, engaging education, economic development, and other community perspectives to establish key drivers for health equity.
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Factors of the grandparent conditions to take care of a child born accidentally in environmental health through their raising sexuality adolescence behaviours toward their abusing and neglecting from teenage parents

Published on: 10th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9252207194

According to raising teenage parents though their abusing and neglecting children at a rural community with the ethnographic qualitative research method was surveyed. All children have protected on violence, abuse, neglect and exploitation from their teenage parents. To investigate and emphasize the consequences of violence ranged from immediate to the impact of their development on physical injury, learning ability, and local child care performance to long-term harm that caregivers carry into adult life is affected for raising children. Administration to the 89-households’ families and household memberships, 10 house stakeholders, 8 community leaders, 36 children, 65 caregivers, teenage parents and grandparents, and 3 mentors. Using the ethnographic qualitative research participatory with observation, natural conversation and in-depth interviews were randomized in rural Northeastern Region, Thailand. There are 52% of children being sexually, physically, or psychologically abused, neglected per day. Most of the teenagers’ education is poor learning skills, low academic learning achievements, and independent freedom of their sexual behaviors. These sexual intercourses between their groups are normal. Adding gambling habits among friends and adult groups are amputated without parents to dissuade. Either lifestyles as freely with sexually and gambling and the basic education are stopped, experiences’ living skills are poorly. Teenage women are changed to pregnant and young mothers. The teenage men must be searched for the job without a lack of worker’s skills to look for children with whom they are conflicted family relationships to take care.
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Identity-related attitude in the child development centres for protecting educational asylum of early childhoods: From rural communities to schooling cities

Published on: 13th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9252227524

The global identities of parents’ popularity in rural communities to make-decision effects of their attitudes to transfer their Early Childhood from Child Development Centres and Local Primary School for moving study into the schooling cities that looks like children’ asylum of their educational conditions, problems, administration’ school directors, teachers, and schools’ environments to protect that described. The involving CDCs’ perceptions got using the 25-item My CDC Identity Inventory (MCDCII) in five scales, three options. Teacher and Caregiver-Early Childhood interactions have assessed with the 30-item Questionnaires on Teacher Identity Interaction (QTII) in five scales on five options. The 10-item Local Identity-Related Attitude (LIRA) has been associated with a sample of 300 children’s parents, teachers, and caregivers. The determination of efficient predictive value (R2) shows that 30% of accepted the identities on cohesiveness, competitiveness, physical indoor and outdoor environmental development, satisfaction, and strong-sense identity. 74% of their CDCs can protect the educational asylum of early childhoods from rural communities. The R2 value shows 49% of the variance in children’s parents’ perceptions was because of the MCDCII have associated. Despite Thailand’s success in expanding educational access, new empirical evidence suggests that much more needs to be done to maximize the potential of its students. The performance gaps among schools have disadvantaged and poorer-performing students have concentrated in small rural village schools. The Thai pre-primary school system is dramatically lacking in qualified the CDCs’ learning environments and achievements, and teachers. It allocated small rural schools teachers with lower qualifications and teaching experience.
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Effects of food programme for enhancing obesity children healthy of their abilities and expectations to self-efficacy for preventing early childhood

Published on: 13th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9252205670

This study aims to assess parents’ perceptions of their responses to the perceived awareness programme competency abilities and expectations for enhancing parents on weight control of their pre-school children in preventing with Obesity. It has defined self-efficacy as one’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations and accomplish a task with the theoretical framework of Bandura’s Model by quasi-experimental research in 16 weeks. To promote the self-efficacy and expectations, the 10-item Questionnaire on Self-Efficacy Program, the 22-item Questionnaire on Parents’ Efficacy Interaction, and the 46-item Questionnaire on Parental Expectations assessed parents’ perceptions. A sample size consisted of 14-pre-school children whose age ranged 2-5 years old at the Child Development Demonstration Centre, Khon Kaen University was selected. Providing knowledge, teaching, demonstration, experimentation, and organized activities were organized. Parents’ perceptions of their abilities for controlling children’s weight and height with pre- and post-experimental programmes differentiated, significantly. Parents’ responses to the post performances are over than pre-experiment for the QSEP, the QPEA, and the QPE, differently. They answered and followed up on child management with parents online for 16 weeks, continuously. The obese early childhood at the CDC Demonstration Centre, Faculty of Nursing used the food programme to self-efficacy with their parents taking part and cooperating well in specifying research objectives. There are 2,958,441 children in rural areas are lacking attention, because of food and health problems in the 19,171-Child Development Centres none yet have food programmes to prevent health and hygiene problems. Although Thailand took the next leap forward for its investment in Early Childhood Development through legislation, improved quality services, and social transfer grants for families with young children since 2018.
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Observation of telepsychiatry service in a teaching hospital of eastern Nepal during COVID-19 pandemic

Published on: 14th October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9305376438

Considering the geographical complexity and adversity, online communication and consultation are viable method in Nepal. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the already starting trend of use of these technologies in medicine. In BPKIHS, telemedicine efforts were already initiated; lockdown rather warranted its maximum use. Here is an account of the observation made in telepsychiatry service provided by a consultant psychiatrist of its department of psychiatry. It is an institute-based observation noted for all the telepsychiatry consultations in 9 random duty days of the COVID-19 pandemic. Basic necessary information was noted down in a semi-structured proforma, like: socio-demographic, clinical information and advice provided. There were 104 subjects; 73 follow-up and 31 new: 60 male and 44 female cases. Clients of multi-ethnic groups were the most from urban, then semi-urban and least from rural areas. More consultations were for young age-groups and from nearby districts of Sunsari. Mood, somatic (sleep), anxiety were the top presenting complaints and 8/104 clients had suicidal symptoms. Maximum follow-up cases were improving. The most common diagnoses were: Mood (Depression and Bipolar), Anxiety, Psychosis and Substance use disorders. Most common treatment advices included: Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, Benzodiazepines and Counseling/psycho-education. Telepsychiatry is a viable method of delivering service even during the pandemic. 
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Assessment of early initiation of breastfeeding and determinants among mothers of children under 24 months in Southeast Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

Published on: 29th October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9323491709

Background: Early-initiation of breastfeeding is putting the newborns to the breast within the first hour of life. It is the first critical time they contact their mother outside of the womb. The current study aimed to assess the early initiation of breastfeeding in the study setting. Objectives: To assess the level of early initiation of breastfeeding and its associated factors among mothers who had a baby of less than the age of 24 months in Jeju Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, 2019.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study conducted involving 487 mothers from September 18 to October 09, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was employed. First, the setting stratification done in urban and rural settings. Second, ten kebeles selected from both strata. The study participants identified by systematic random sampling technique using kebele log-books registration list as a scheme. The collected data were entered into Epi Info version 7.1.5.0 and exported to SPSS version 21.0.0.0 to analyze. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression used to determine relations between independent factors and early initiation of breastfeeding. Nine variables became eligible for multivariate analysis at a p - value less than 0.05 in bivariate. The final analyses done the significance of association decided using AOR with its 95% CI, and p - value at less than 0.05. Results: A 97% response rate achieved in this study. The prevalence of early breastfeeding initiation was 74.5%. In multivariate analysis variables namely, mothers whose age category was 35 years and above (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI: (1.07, 5.11)), Pre-lacteal feeding (AOR = 0.37 95% CI (0.17, 0.79)), postpartum advice (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI (1.01, 2.95)) had a significant association. Conclusion and recommendations: The prevalence of early breastfeeding initiation was (74.5%). The finding was low compared to the world health organization recommendation. A working towards discouraging pre-lacteal feeding and strengthening postnatal advice and focusing on ways to better reach young mothers were the recommendations to bring the prevalence in the study area to the recommended level.
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Depression and anxiety during pandemic school shutdowns in post-communist Rural Romania

Published on: 17th December, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9396212084

“Class is part of the meaninglessness of reality,” says Lacan. An abundance of narratives concerning post-communist Romanian camps may be found.In a sense, Derrida’s essay on education suggests that the goal of the artist’s social comment, given that art is interchangeable with a lack of joy. The characteristic theme of educator’s model of roles camp is a self-sufficient reality, leading to depression and anxiety.But the subject is contextualized into a cultural Marxism that includes art as a whole. Popescu examines the teacher’s camp; in The Crying of Lot, however, he denies the education system’s fault.In this article, we determine the factors, leading to depression and anxiety during the current shutdown of schools in permanenting constructional underestimation of teacher´s formation. Maybe, the current situation is better in the way it was than it was. The future will tell.
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Pediatrics of disasters in the structure of professional training of pediatricians of the city children’s polyclinic to work in emergencies and terrorist acts: View from Russia

Published on: 16th February, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9427642090

Introduction: Modern pediatrics of disasters is built on 5 basic principles: integrity, structure, causality, dynamism, and hierarchy.Material and methods: Methodological approaches were used: systemic, complex, integration, functional, dynamic, process, normative, quantitative, administrative, and situational, and methods: historical, analytical, and comparison. Techniques were used: grouping, absolute and relative values, detailing, and generalization.Results: The algorithms of actions of the doctor of the children’s clinic in the event of a fire, the receipt of a call about the laying of explosives and the threat of explosion were considered, the scope of the provision of first qualified aid to the pediatric nursing team was clarified. The issues of the organization of the first qualified and specialized medical care, taking into account the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children and adolescents, as well as medical tactics for small-medium, and large disasters in rural areas and cities are discussed.Conclusion: Pediatrics of disasters is an independent section of organizational and medical work in emergencies and terrorist acts, providing specialized medical care for at least 25% of victims, who are children and adolescents. The training of doctors of a specialized children’s polyclinic is regulated by regulatory documents of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Komi, Orders of the Ministry of Health of the region, a municipal formation, and a medical institution in the field of civil defense and emergency situations. In case of minor emergencies and disasters within the city boundaries with the occurrence of a single or a small number of group losses, medical support repeats that in road traffic accidents, with the exception of the organization and conduct of medical triage. In rural areas, it is required to attract additional medical and nursing teams (emergency medical aid teams), created on the basis of medical institutions of the victim and neighboring areas. At the same time, a forced maneuver by the forces and means of territorial health care is necessary for the medical evacuation of a significant part of the affected children to specialized institutions (departments) located in cities. The provision of psychological and psychiatric assistance to children and adolescents in emergencies is carried out on the basis of its basic modules (departments and offices of psychological and psychiatric assistance, and advisory mobile team of psychological and psychiatric assistance, anonymous psychological and psychiatric assistance by telephone).
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Strongyloides stercoralis and glomerular diseases: A case report

Published on: 3rd November, 2022

Strongyloidiasis is an intestinal parasitic infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. It is endemic in rural tropical and subtropical areas with a prevalence of 100 million people worldwide [1]. In Spain, we find endemic areas at several points on the Mediterranean coast [2].
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Assessment of indigenous methods of shea butter processing among rural women in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Published on: 4th November, 2022

Indigenous food processing and preservation methods are on the verge of collapse, yet they proved promising and sustainable. The study assessed the indigenous methods of shea butter processing among rural women in the Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, examined the shea butter processing techniques used and identified the information sources of shea butter processors in the study area. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents. Descriptive (such as frequency count, percentage, charts and tables) and inferential statistics (such as Pearson correlation and chi-square) were used to analyze the data. Findings showed the mean age of respondents was 45.61 ± 11.82, with mean years of experience of 20.39 ± 12.96, the majority (85%) were married and the major sources of information on indigenous shea butter processing came from family members and friends. At p ≤ 0.01 there was a significant association between respondents’ usage of indigenous methods and their marital status (ᵡ2 = 84.24; p ≤ 0.01), membership in cooperative society (ᵡ2 = 40.43; p ≤ 0.01), and community membership (ᵡ2 = 53.21; p ≤ 0.01). However, there was a significant relationship between respondents’ usage of indigenous methods and household size (b = 0.290; p ≤ 0.05), quantity produced (b = 0.616; p ≤ 0.10) and annual income (b = -0.765; p ≤ 0.05). It was concluded that indigenous methods of processing shea butter are widespread among respondents; knowledge is acquired through family and friends. Among others, the study recommends that extension agents be posted to rural areas to educate rural women and build on their indigenous knowledge of processing shea butter to introduce high-quality butter.
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