An investigation into the pathological lesions of Cypermethrin on the testes, accessory sexual and pituitary glands of Yankasa rams was carried out. Sixteen Yankasa rams aged 18 - 30 months and weighing between 21.5 - 46.5kg were used. The 16 rams were divided equally into two groups (A and B) A served as the treatment group while B served as the control. Group (A) were given Cypermethrin (3%) at the dose rate of 3mg/kg (0.1ml/kg) body weight, topically. Group (B) rams were given distilled water at the same dose rate and route. These treatments were repeated every two weeks for a period of 12 weeks. The rams were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks and the following organs (testes, pituitary, vesicular and prostate glands), were collected and weighed, gross pathological lesions were observed and photographs were taken. The samples were kept for histopathology. Results showed that there were no gross pathological lesions found on the testes, pituitary, prostate glands and the seminal vesicles of both groups. The mean weight of the pituitary gland, the prostate glands and the seminal vesicles of the treated and control groups were statistically not significant (P>0.05). No histologic lesions were found on them. The mean testicular weights of the treated (143.81±7.71g) and the control (130.43±0.63g) were significantly different (P<0.05). There was a reduced number of spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of the treated group. It was concluded that Cypermethrin reduced spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules.
Aim and objectives: The primary aim was to measure the sperm DNA damage and to study the magnitude of sperm DNA damage. Secondary objective was to study the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on Day 5 Blastocyst expansion (graded 1-5).
Results: There is an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation with an increase in age. Increased sperm DNA fragmentation is also associated with abnormal motility and morphology in semen samples. However, there is no reduction in expansion or grade of blastocyst.
Conclusion: Sperm DNA fragmentation testing is a useful investigation in unexplained infertility. However, Sperm DNA fragmentation has no significant association with Day 5 embryo grade in ICSI cycles.
Thesis work of Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine student: Dr. Ramya Harish
Earlier in our laboratory, the role of various individual sperm impairing microorganisms on sperm parameters and female infertility has been elucidated at higher doses. As, multiple bacterial species tend to exert more pathogenic effect in comparison to single organism hence, present study was carried out to evaluate that if consortia of these sperm impairing organisms can lead to infertility in female mice at sub fertility dose. For this, impact of individual bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and consortia of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was examined on the motility, viability of mouse spermatozoa and fertility outcome. The results showed that the individual bacterial strains of E. coli, S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae could led to immobilization of spermatozoa by agglutination and P. aeruginosa led to immobilization of spermatozoa without agglutination. Also, all of them led to 100% sperm death in 45 min of incubation. In case of consortia of bacterial strains, the results showed sperm agglutination in all the cases and they were able to induce 100% sperm death at 30 min of incubation time. Further, in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate the impact of individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains on the fertility outcome in female Balb/c mice. For this, female mice were administered intravaginally with 101 cfu/20µl of individual bacterial strains or consortia of strains for 10 consecutive days or PBS. The results showed that both individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains were able to efficiently colonize the mouse vagina. Further, control group receiving phosphate buffer saline and groups receiving individual bacterial strains showed all the pregnancy related changes viz. abdominal distension, string of pearls on palpation as well as delivery of pups on completion of gestation period and delivery of pups. The histological examination of reproductive organs viz. uterus and ovary, of the female mice receiving PBS or individual bacterial strains showed the formation of corpus luteum in the ovary and the formation of decidua’s in the uterus, indicative of pregnancy. However, mice receiving consortia of bacterial strains did not show any pregnancy related changes throughout the experiment. Thus, these results indicate that the presence of consortia of sperm impairing microorganisms in vaginal milieu is efficient in provoking infertility even at subfertility doses.
Present paper communicates 42 species of angiosperms depicting characteristics of pollen grains as shape, color, exine ornamentations, and type of apertures. Pollen morphological characters are very important in plant identifications in field. Pollen surface features plays significant role in taxonomy and detection of crud drugs. Firsthand information is gathered from field and provided in this research article.
Development of genetic profiles from the biological mixtures has remained challenging, although modern-day technologies may help forensic scientists to attain a reliable genetic profile in the identification of the accused.
In the case of rape, vaginal swab exhibits usually contain epithelial cells of victims and sperm cells of accused, such samples are more challenging when there is more than one contributor. In such cases, separation of distinct cells from a mixture that includes blood cells, epithelial cells and sperm cells for their single genetic profile is important.
In the last ten decades several new techniques were developed and invented for the separation of single cell from the biological mixture that includes differential lysis, laser micro-dissection, cell sorting (FACS), sieve-based filtration, (vi) micro-fluidic devices or immunomagnetic beads cell separation of fresh samples, and the magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS).
Out of them, some techniques have been commonly applied for cell separation in forensic biology. Each technique has its own limitation. Some recent studies showed, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), laser capture microdissection (LCM), DEPArray technology and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) has proved to be effective in separation of single cell from cell mixtures.
Therefore, in this review we have evaluated these four alternative methods and their potential application in the modern-day over the others for the separation of a single cell from the mixture. In this review we also discuss the advantage of these methods and their modern–day applicability and acceptance in the forensic world.
In vitro fertilization is one of the most common and effective procedure for thousands of couples worldwide who want to have a child and are unable to do so for various reasons. Diverse studies show that couples who conceive naturally after one year of trying had newborns with an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with couples who conceived before completing one year of trying. Children from assisted reproduction (AR), have a 30% increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with children from infertile fathers. Regarding the conflicting results the present study aimed to record the frequency of genetic, congenital anomalies in children and adolescents who had examined in the last decade to the Clinical Genetics Clinic of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens whose mothers had undergone assisted reproduction. The research process was conducted at the "Aghia Sofia" Children's Hospital based in Athens. However, the cases that were studied came from all over Greece. Initially, the researcher recorded the cases that came to the clinic of Clinical Genetics and whose conception occurred after technical assisted reproduction. After telephone communication and the consent of the parents, a live appointment was scheduled. In this meeting-interview all the provisions of the investigation and the protocol were asked and some elements of the medical history of the cases were confirmed. The total sample included 230 children and adolescents. The resulting data were recorded on a printed form/questionnaire. Then, they were registered electronically in the program SPSS 25.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) with a specific unit code for each case/patient, followed by the processing and statistical analysis of the data as well as the recording of the results. The gender of the participants was male for 118 participants (51.3%) and 112 females (48.7%). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of maternal, paternal (at the time of delivery) age was equal to 36.38 (5.94) and 39.94 (6.58) respectively. The observed abdormalities were 35.53% psychomotor retardation, 23.68% facial abnormalities, 23.68% spinal cord abnormalities, 21.05% morphological abnormalities, 20.61% short stature, 19.74% developmental disorders, 19.30% heart disease, 16.67% neurological diseases, 14.47% genetic syndromes, 11.40% genital abnormalities, 8.33% limb abnormalities, 7.46% dermatological abnormalities, 6.14% eye abnormalities, 6.14% hypothyroidism, 5.70% endocrine disorders, 5.26%otolaryngology abnormalities, 2.63% disease of kidney, intestine, 2.19% vascular malformations. Regarding the karyotype chromosome analysis by G-banding technique, from the 230 children in: 24 (10.43%) a pathological result was found, in 158 children (68.70%) it was found normal (46, XX or 46, XY by case) without other findings, while in 48 children (20.87%) the test was not performed for various reasons. Regarding the results of molecular analysis (DNA) from the 230 children, in 50 (21.74%) a pathological finding was found, in 56 children (24.35%) no abnormalities were found and in 124 children (53.91%) no molecular analysis was performed for various reasons. In conclusion, the sample of this descriptive study is characterized as uniform in terms of the method of assisted reproduction since 96.24% had followed the classic IVF. Full-term pregnancy was associated with the appearance of malignancy and head morphological abnormalities (64.6%), normal pregnancy was associated with genetic syndromes (18.2%) and facial abnormalities (11.1%). It is recommended the screening oocyte and sperm donors in order to help protect the safety and health of donors, recipients, and future offspring. The present study confirms the association of the presence of congenital anomalies after in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, the absolute risk of developing severe dysplasias after an IVF procedure is limited.
Evaluation of semen characteristics is an important and prior for semen preservation. The aim of this study was to collection and evaluation of indigenous buck semen in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The semen was collected from bucks through artificial vagina method. The colour, odour, volume, viscosity, mass activity, consistency, concentration and individual sperm motility were analysed and recorded after collection from pre-selected four bucks. The colour and odour of all buck (B) semen were creamy white to milky white and fishy smell, respectively. In this study, we found that the average volume of B-1, B-2, B-3 and B-4 were 0.74, 0.98, 0.42 and 0.60 ml, respectively. The average grading of viscosity of B-1, B-2, B-3 and B-4 were 3.2, 3.8, 2.6 and 3.0, respectively. The average grading of mass activity of B-1, B-2, B-3 and B-4 were 3.6, 3.2, 2.4 and 3.4, respectively. The consistency of B-1, B-2, B-3 and B-4 were 4.2, 4.8, 2.8 and 4.0, respectively. The concentration of B-1, B-2, B-3 and B-4 were 1.58, 1.94, 0.62 and 1.54 ×109 per ml of semen volume. The average percentage of individual sperm motility of B-1, B-2, B-3 and B-4 were 81, 71, 66 and 80%, respectively. Viscosity, mass activity, consistency, concentration and individual sperm motility were significantly (p < 0.05) correlate with each other. It may be concluded that the data about semen of the bucks are in acceptable level for preservation. Further study will be designed for the evaluation of viability and motility of sperm before and after freezing as liquid semen.
A large systematic review and meta-regression analysis found that sperm counts all over the world appeared to be declining rather than stabilizing. The decline in male sperm counts does not necessarily translate to a decline in male fertility. The cause of declining sperm counts remains unknown; however, several potential causative factors have been identified: 1. Chronic diseases: diabetes mellitus, hypertension; hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia and skin Diseases & metabolic syndrome. 2. Environmental factors: bisphenol a; phthalates; heavy metals and heat. 3. Lifestyle: obesity, diet, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, stress, reduced sleep & sedentary life. Addressing these causes is required to stop or decrease male fertility decline. Action to improve semen quality such as prevention & treatment of chronic disease, decreasing unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, poor diet, or lack of physical activity & eliminating toxic environmental chemicals.
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